PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

 

A List and 
Photo Gallery 
of 

Butterflies 
of
Eastern
NORTH 
AMERICA


including those during 
 Focus On Nature Tours 
 in North Carolina, 
 on the Delmarva Peninsula,  
 and elsewhere in the East




With LINKS to LISTS of:  MOTHS  and  DRAGONFLIES & DAMSELFLIES


This List of eastern North American Butterflies compiled by Armas Hill

(with some input by the staff from the Howell Woods Environmental Learning Center
 in Four Oaks, North Carolina)


Photo at upper right: a MOURNING CLOAK
(left) & EASTERN COMMA (right)
Photo below: a RED-SPOTTED PURPLE 
(upper photograph by Doris Potter; lower photo by Marie Gardner)

Codes:

Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the Peterson Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies, by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul (1998 edition)

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America, by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman

Numbers noted as (W:xx) refer to pages in "Caterpillars of Eastern North America"", by David Wagner, 2005. 


DE:   occurs in Delaware
FL:   occurs in Florida
MA:  occurs in Massachusetts
MD:  occurs in Maryland 
ME:  occurs in Maine

NC:  occurs in North Carolina
NH:  occurs in New Hampshire
NJ:   occurs in New Jersey
PA:  occurs in Pennsylvania
VA:  occurs in Virginia 

The seasonal occurrence in the list given is that for southern Pennsylvania. To the north or south, there may be some variation. 
  

(i/E): species introduced from Europe

Species classified as GLOBALLY THREATENED:
(t1):  critically endangered
(t2):  endangered
(t3):  vulnerable
(nt):  a near-threatened species globally

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website

A truly superb book about the butterflies of eastern North America is "Butterflies of the East Coast, an Observer's Guide" by Rick Cech & Guy Tudor, 2005. Books and photographs don't come much better.
This book is a source for some of the information included in this list.



In a way, of course, butterflies can be almost anywhere,
but places such as this, 
Mildred's butterfly garden in Cape May Point, New Jersey,
can be very good for seeing them.
(photo by Rise Hill).
  

Links to Butterfly Groupings in this List:

SWALLOWTAILS     Whites & Sulphurs 

GOSSAMER-WINGS    Harvester, Coppers    Hairstreaks, Elfins    Blues, Azures    METALMARKS

BRUSHFOOTS    Snout    Fritillaries    Crescents & Checkerspots    Question Mark, Commas

Tortoiseshells & Mourning Cloak   a mis-named Admiral & the Ladies    Buckeyes, Peacock

Admiral, Viceroy    Purplewings, Daggerwing, Leafwings    Emperors, Monarch, Queen

Satyrs & Wood-nymphs    Pearly-eyes, Brown, Arctics    SKIPPERS    Grass Skippers


Other Links:


Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North America
(including. North Carolina, and Delaware, Maryland, & Virginia)
 

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours Elsewhere     FONT Past Tour Highlights

Birds during FONT Tours in North Carolina     Hummingbirds of the Americas

A List & Photo Gallery of North American Birds, in 6 parts

Other Lists & Photo Galleries in this Website:

Eastern North America Moths     Eastern North America Dragonflies & Damselflies  

Eastern North America Wildflowers & Other Plants  (with host plants for butterflies & moths)

Eastern North America Mammals (Land & Sea) noting those during FONT Tours

Eastern North America Amphibians & Reptiles    Eastern North America Marine Life

Other Lists of Butterflies, elsewhere in the world

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus with Photos in the FONT Website

Directory of Photos in this Website 

HERE'S A LINK TO CHAD KREMP'S WEBSITE RELATING TO PLANTS THAT ATTRACT BUTTERFLIES:

http://www.kremp.com/butterfly-flower-gardening-articles.htm



An Eastern Tailed-Blue
(photo by Marie Gardner)


SOME COMMENTARY REGARDING BUTTERFLY IDENTIFICATION:

"Get a guidebook, take a few years, and you'll still make mistakes. Butterfly identification has an initial, deceptive simplicity. 
Individuals in a species vary naturally, an eyespot slightly larger, a color brighter.
Males and females of a species can be strikingly dissimilar.
So can genetic morphs or forms within a gender.
In a single species, butterflies that live in a range of habitats can vary in appearance and produce different populations or geographical races, each better adapted to its environment.
Species can also produce generations of distinct morphs in the same place at different times of the year.

One Tiger Swallowtail is black. On the same flower, another Tiger Swallowtail is yellow.
Another species produces red butterflies in the wet season and blue in the dry. A species darkens in response to air pollution.
A species gains an eyespot. A species loses one."

The above commentary taken from the book, "An Obsession with Butterflies", by Sharman Apt Russell (a wonderful read).  


REGARDING A STUDY RELEASED IN AUGUST 2012 RELATING CHANGES IN BUTTERFLY POPULATIONS IN MASSACHUSETTS:

The Harvard study, conducted over 2 decades, found that populations of warm-climate-adapted butterfly species grew by as much as a thousand fold, while those of cold-climate-adapted species that have long been native to Massachusetts declined substantially, by as much as 90 per cent.

Data was collected during the 2 decades by the Massachusetts Butterfly Club, an amateur naturalist group that tracks butterfly sightings and numbers.

17 of 21 northern butterfly species in Massachusetts were found to be declining, including the Atlantis Fritillary and the Acadian Hairstreak.
12 southern butterfly species, which were rare or unseen in Massachusetts in the 1980s & 1990s, were found to have increased tremendously, especially in warmer parts of the state. Such species include the Zabulon Skipper and the Giant Swallowtail.

For most of the species in the study, climate change seems to be a stronger cause than habitat change.                 


Butterflies:

       
SWALLOWTAILS

  1. Zebra Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:25) (W:82)  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  apr-aug
    Eurytides marcellus 

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    mainly Common Pawpaw, Asimina triloba, which occurs in rich bottomland woods north to the upper Chesapeake Bay.
    Further south, pineland/savanna pawpaws are used: Asimina reticulata, Asimina tetramera incarna   

    Adult food: milkweed, ironweed, blueberry, blackberry

    A good place to see the Zebra Swallowtail in northeastern North America, as we have during FONT tours, is the Elk Neck State Park in Maryland.   



    Zebra Swallowtail
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  2. Pipevine Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:27) (W:77)  DE  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-oct
    Battus philenor

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Pipevines (in the Aristolochia genus), including Dutchman's Pipe, A. macrophylla, or durior, Virginia Snakeoot, A. serpentaria.

    Adult food: thistle, teasel, milkweed, ironweed 

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Pipevine Swallowtail.






    Pipevine Swallowtails photographed during a FONT tour
    (photos by Doris Potter)

  3. Polydamas Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:37) (WL76)  FL
    Battus polydamas  

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Marsh's Dutchman's Pipe, Aristolochia pentandra, Virginia Snakeroot, Aristolochia serpentaria 



    Polydamas Swallowtail

  4. Eastern Tiger Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:7) (K:21) (W:79)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Papilio glaucus

    Dark female Eastern Tiger Swallowtails mimic the toxic Pipevine Swallowtail.

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    especially Tuliptree, Liriodendron tulipifera, wild cherries (in the Prunus genus), ash (in the Fraxinus genus), Water Ash, Ptelea trifoliata. Also, in the Deep South: Sweet Bay, Magnolia virginiana  

    Adult food: thistle, teasel, Joe-pye weed, dogbane

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, there were 10 Eastern Tiger Swallowtails. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Eastern Tiger Swallowtails. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 108 Black Swallowtails.   



    Above: an Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
    photographed in North Carolina in May 2015
    (photo by Amanda Hendricks)

    Below: in one picture, the two forms of the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
    The male has only the yellow form. 
    The female can be either the yellow or the black form (as shown here).
    (above photo by Howard Eskin)





    Below: the yellow form of the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail.  




    Below, two photos of dark female Eastern Tiger Swallowtails.
    The butterfly in the lowest photograph is "intermediate".   
    (both photos below, and the one immediately above by Marie Gardner) 







  5. Canadian Tiger Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:7) (K:21)  MA  ME  NH  PA
    Papilio canadensis

    The single-brooded northern populations of Tiger Swallowtails in eastern North America were recognized in 1991 as a separate species, the Canadian Tiger Swallowtail.

    And still more recently, in 2002, a large single-brooded spring population centered in the Appalachians, with reduced hindwing blue clouding, was said to be a sibling species, the Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail (the next species in this list).

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    birch (in the Betula genus), aspen (in the Populus genus), and black cherry (in the Prunus genus).

    An interesting note:
    the Tuliptree, a common host for the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (above), is toxic to the Canadian Tiger Swallowtail.   



    Canadian Tiger Swallowtails, puddling. 
    Photo taken in Quebec, Canada on the Gaspe Peninsula.
    (photo by Howard Eskin) 

  6. Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail  ______  MD  PA
    Papilio appalachiensis 
     

    Adults feed at woodland flowers and at puddles.   

  7. Spicebush Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:27) (W:81)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Papilio troilus

    Although palatable, the Spicebush Swallowtail is one of several butterflies of eastern North America (such as the dark form of the female Eastern Tiger Swallowtail and the Red-spotted Purple form of the White Admiral) that mimic, for their protection, the toxic Pipevine Swallowtail (earlier in this list).   

    Host plants for caterpillars: primarily, as the name of the butterfly would imply, Spicebush, Lindera benzoin. Also Sassafras, Sassifras albidum, but the larvae do better on Spicebush.   

    Adult food:
    thistle, milkweed, Joe-pye weed 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there was 1 Spicebush Swallowtail.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 46 Spicebush Swallowtails.  

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 26 Spicebush Swallowtails.



    Above & below: Spicebush Swallowtail
    (photos by Howard Eskin)





  8. Black Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:5) (K:29) (W:80)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-oct
    Papilio polyxenes

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    in the Parsley/Carrot family, Apiaceae, such as Queen Anne's Lace, Daucus carota.
    On the Delmarva Peninsula, seems to prefer Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare.
    Also cultivated plants: carrots, celery, caraway, dill, parsley.
    The caterpillars feed on leaves or flowers.   

    Adult food: milkweed, thistle, Joe-pye weed 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 5 Black Swallowtails.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 35 Black Swallowtails.   

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count , on July 11, there were 5 Black Swallowtails.






    Above: Black Swallowtail butterflies
    Below: the caterpillar of the Black Swallowtail   
    (upper photos by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Armas Hill)



    There is a similarity in color and pattern of the Black Swallowtail caterpillar with that of the poisonous Monarch and Queen. 
    This Batesian mimicry may given the Black Swallowtail caterpillar some protection from predators that have experienced either or both of the other two species.
          
  9. Giant Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:6) (K:39) (W:78)  DE(rare)  FL  MA(has been rare)  MD(rare)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  Papilio cresphontes

    A name for the caterpillar of Papilio cresphontes is Orange Dog.

    The Giant Swallowtail was one of 12 southern butterfly species whose population was found to have increased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012.  
    There were numerous reports in 2011 & 2012 throughout the state, and it may have bred. Earlier, in 2009 & 2010, there were a few sightings. Between the years 2000 & 2008, there were none. 

    Historically, there was an incursion of the Giant Swallowtail in the northeast US in the late 19th Century, in the 1870s & 1880s, as chronicled by various entomologists.
    In 1874, it was in Rye, New York, where it persisted for several years.
    In the 1870s, it was said to be "common" in the area of Berlin, Connecticut.
    In the 1880s, it persisted at some upstate New York locations, and as far north as Montreal in Canada. There were a few specimens taken in Massachusetts in the 1880s, and one shortly after 1900. 
    In the early 20th Century, it was still reported regularly in Connecticut. But by the 1930s the Giant Swallowtail had become rare throughout the northeastern US, and remained so during the rest of the century.
    The 1995-99 butterfly atlas project in Connecticut found none. The 2007 Rhode Island checklist classified the Giant Swallowtail as "historical", but there were sightings there, singly, in 1983, 1984, 1985, and then again in September 2010.

    Giant Swallowtails in Vermont (where now occurring in the hundreds) are said to feed upon the Northern Prickly-ash, Zanthoxylem americanum.
    Other food plants for the species are the Garden Rue, Ruta graveolens (an introduced herb, occurring north to Canada), and the Common Hoptree, Ptelea trifoliata.
    All of these plants are in the Rue, or Citrus Family, RUTACEAE.     

    Host plants for caterpillars: Rue (in Rutaceae), including Common Rue, Ruta graveolus, also Wild Lime, Zanthoxylum fagara, Hercules Club, Zanthoxylum clavaherculis, and Torchwood, Amyris elemifera, Water Ash, Ptelea trifoliata.
    And, in the southern part of the species' range, cultivated citrus (in the Citrus genus).     

    Adult food: milkweed, goldenrod, and plants in the Rutaceae family as noted above. 

    Notable: in southern NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 12, Aug 21. Ocean Co Aug 30
    in upstate NY: 2012: Crown Point May 20
    in upstate NY: 2013: Lake Placid Aug 18, Paradox Lake Aug (date not known) 
    in upstate NY: 2014: Keene Aug 10, Onchiota Aug 10, Potsdam Aug 11, Glenville Aug 12, Lake Placid Aug 12
    in northern NJ: 2015: at Duke Farms Jul 25



    Giant Swallowtail
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  10. Schaus' Swallowtail  (t2)  ______  (PE:6) (K:41)  FL(south) 
    Papilio aristodemus ponceanus

    Another name for Papilio aristodemus is Dusky Swallowtail.

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    primarily Torchwood, Amyris elemifera, Wild Lime, Zanthoxylum fagara.    

  11. Palamedes Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:37)  DE(very rare)  FL  MD(very rare)  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Papilio palamedes

    Host plant for the caterpillars:
    Red Bay, Persea borbonia

    Adult food: milkweed, pickerelweed


    WHITES & SULPHURS

  12. Florida White  ______  (PE:7) (K:53)  FL 
    Appias drusilla

    Another name for Appias drusilla is Tropical White. 

  13. Checkered White  (ph)  ______  (PE:7) (K:49) (W:85)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ(rare)  PA  VA
    Pontia protodice

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    almost any crucifer, especially Shepherd's Purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Virginia Peppergrass, Lepidium virginicum. Also cultivated mustards.

    Adult food: white clover, milkweed

    The Checkered White is classified as threatened in New Jersey.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 13 Checkered Whites. 



    A Checkered White photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  14. Great Southern White  ______  (PE:8) (K:53) (W:86)  FL  MD(rare, stray)
    Ascia monuste

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Inland: Virginia Peppergrass, Lepidium virginicum, and numerous other capers and crucifers.
    Along the Florida coast: Saltwort, Batis maritima, Coastal Searocket, Cakile lanceolata.   

    Adult food: goldenrod, boneset

  15. Cabbage White  (i/E) (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:47) (W:84)  DE  MA  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  mar-nov
    Pieris rapae

    Another name for Pieris rapae is Cabbage Butterfly. 

    The Cabbage White is the most abundant and widespread butterfly in the United States. It was introduced from Europe, perhaps as pupae on a cabbage crate, the Small White (as it is known in England) first appeared in Quebec in 1861. Since then it has spread to almost all of North America, except the Far North and the Deep South. 

    The Cabbage White is remarkably adaptive and resilient. It occurs in places that most butterflies find inhospitable. Often it is the only butterfly around.

    As it is a competitor for cruciferous crops such as Brussels sprouts, it was fought relentlessly with DDT in England. But it became resistant even as its predatory beetles were being knocked out, leading to a net increase in larvae on the poisoned sprouts. 

    While Pieris rapae is considered a pest in cabbage fields and broccoli patches in the United States, its eggs and larvae are easy to remove by hand in the garden.

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    crucifers, native and cultivated. But the Cabbage White does poorly on peppergrass and Shepherd's Purse, favored (as noted above) by the Checkered White.  

    Adult food:
    thistle, clover, mint.

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 94 Cabbage Whites.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 239 Cabbage Whites.  

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 489 Cabbage Whites. 






    Above & below: Cabbage Whites
    Below a bit more yellow than white
    (photos by Marie Gardner)




  16. Mustard White  ______  (PE:8) (K:47)  MA(rare)  ME  NH  NJ
    Pieris napi 
    (or Pieris oleracea)

    Host plants for caterpillars: various mustards including those in the genera Arabis and Cardamine, and Barbarea orthoceras 

    The Mustard White is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  17. West Virginia White  ______  (PE:8) (K:47)  MA  MD(rare)  NC(west)  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Pieris virginiensis

    Host plant for caterpillars:
    mainly Crinkleroot, Cardamine, or Dentaria, diphylla, and Cut-leaved Toothwort, Cardamine concatenata, or laciniata. 

    Adult food: violet, spring beauty

  18. Falcate Orangetip ______ (PE:8) (K:57) (W:87)  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Anthocharis midea

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various mustards in the family Brassicaceae, including: Hairy Bittercress, Cardamine hirsuta, Small-flowered Bittercress, Cardamine parviflora, Smooth Rockcress, Arabis laevigata, Lyre-leaved Rockcress, Arabis lyrata, Purple Rockcress, Arabis divaricarpa, Shale Barrens Rockcress, Arabis serotina.

    Adult food: violet, spring beauty, toothwort, mustard

  19. Olympia Marble  ______  (PE:8) (K:57)  MD(rare)  VA(local)
    Euchloe olympia

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    the small rockcresses, in the Arabis genus, just noted for the Falcate Orangetip: Lyre-leaved, Purple, Smooth, Shale Barrens.  

    Adult food: bluet, rockcress, violet

  20. Orange Sulphur  (ph)  ______ (PE:9) (K:61)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  mar-nov
    Colias eurytheme

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various legumes in the family Fabaceae, favoring Alfalfa, Medicago sativa. Also White Clover, Trifolium repens, White Sweet Clover, Melilotus alba.  

    Adult food: clover, thistle, mint, aster

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 80 Orange Sulphurs.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 721 Orange Sulphurs. 



    Orange Sulphur
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  21. Clouded Sulphur  (ph)  ______  (PE:9) (K:61) (W:88)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  mar-nov
    Colias philodice 

    Like its close relative, the Orange Sulphur (above), the Clouded Sulphur was formerly a regional butterfly of northern and eastern North America (versus southern and western North America for the Orange Sulphur).
    The Clouded Sulphur originally was common along the East Coast of the US, "rising in swarms from muddy roads, or dancing in the hundreds over clover fields".
    But with the advent of forage plant cultivation across the country, including many legumes that both species savor, the ranges of the two sulphurs have effectively merged, creating at times a complex of hybridization.
    Overall, the Clouded Sulphur has lost ground steadily since the Orange Sulphur's arrival, probably in large part due to genetic competition.
    (from the book: "Butterflies of the East Coast, an Observer's Guide'' by Rick Cech and Guy Tudor)      

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various legumes in the family Fabaceae, especially white Clover, Trifolium repens. Also Red Clover, Trifolium pretense, Alfalfa, Medicago sativa. And many others. 

    Adult food: clover, goldenrod, ironweed.

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 54 Clouded Sulphurs.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 29 Clouded Sulphurs.



    Above: Clouded Sulphur on Goldenrod
    (photo by Howard Eskin
    )

    The photo below may appear to be that of a Pink-edged Sulphur.
    But that species does not occur in Delaware where this photo was taken.
    In Maryland, the Pink-edged Sulphur has only been found once in the far-western part of the state.
    Generally, the Pink-edged Sulphur is to the north of Delaware and Maryland.
    The butterfly below is a Clouded Sulphur, showing its own "pink edges".
    (photo by Marie Gardner)    




  22. Pink-edged Sulphur  ______  (PE:9) (P:63)  MD(very rare)  ME  NH
    Colias interior

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various heaths in the family Ericaceae, including Lowbush Blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium, and Highbush Blueberry, Vaccinium corymboisum, Velvet-leaf Huckleberry, Vaccinium myrtilloides  

    Adult food: red clover, heal-all

  23. Southern Dogface  (ph)  ______  (PE:10) (K:69) (W:90)  DE(rare)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NH  NJ  VA
    Colias cesonia 
    (or Zerene cesonia 

    Host plants for caterpillars: small-leaved peas, including Feay's Prairieclover, Dalea feayi, Summer Farewell, Dalea pinnata, Indigobush, Amorpha fruticosa 

    Adult food: goldenrod, boneset



    Southern Dogface
    (photo by Doris Potter)
     
  24. Black-bordered Orange  (ph)  ______  (PE:11) (K:69) (W:90)  DE(local, rare)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Eurema nicippe 
    (or Abaeis nicippe)

    Another name for Eurema, or Abaeis nicippe is Sleepy Orange.

    Adult food:
    wild senna, clover, aster, ironweed

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Aug 23

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 23-24

  25. Cloudless Sulphur  (ph)  ______ (PE:10) (K:75) (W:89)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  mar-oct
    Phoebis sennae

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various sennas, including Partridge Pea, Chamaecrista fasciculata, Sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia, Maryland Senna, Senna marilandica 

    Adult food: sennas, partridge peas

    Early date:  NJ, 2012: May 26  2012 was a "come-back year" for the Cloudless Sulphur in NJ. In 2011, it was virtually a no-show.

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 21-24



    Cloudless Sulphur

  26. Statira Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:77)  FL  
    Phoebis statira 
    (or Aphrissa statira

  27. Orange-barred Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:75) (W:90)  FL  NJ(rare)
    Phoebis philea

  28. Large Orange Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:75)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NJ(rare)
    Phoebis agarithe

    Adult food:
    butterflybush, trumpet creeper 

  29. Dina Yellow  _______  (PE:11) (K:73)  FL
    Eurema dina 
    (or Pyrisitia dina)

  30. Little Yellow  (ph)  ______  (PE:11) (K:71) (W:90)  DE  FL  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Eurema lisa 
    (or Pyrisitia lisa

    Another name for Eurema, or Pyrisitia lisa is Little Sulphur. 

    Host plants for caterpillars: Wild Sensitive plant, Chamaecrista nictitans, Partridge Pea, Chamaecrista fasiculata. 

    Adult food: sennas, partridge pea, goldenrod

    Early date: NJ, 2012: May 6

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Atlantic Co Aug 21, Cape May Co Aug 11
    in NJ: 2105: Somerset County - the 1st for that county in the 21st century July 24
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Little Yellow.  



    A Little Yellow with a Clouded Sulphur 
    photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  31. Mimosa Yellow  ______  (PE:11) (K:71)  FL
    Eurema nise 
    (or Pyrisitia nise)

  32. Barred Yellow  ______  (PE:11) (K:71)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  VA
    Eurema daira

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    small, weedy peas, especially Pencil Flowers, Stylosanthes hamata, joint vetches, Aeschynmene.  

    Adult food: alfalfa

  33. Dainty Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:71)  FL
    Nathalis iole


    GOSSAMER-WINGS


    HARVESTER, COPPERS

  34. Harvester  ______  (PE:12) (K:81) (W:92)  DE(rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Feniseca tarquinius

    Caterpillars
    feed on wooly aphids (in several genera). 

    Adults feed at puddles mainly near alders, Alnus, aphid honeydew, but also beach, ash, hawthorn.

    Notable: in NJ: 2012:  Camden Co Aug 20 (3rd site for the species in NJ in 2012), Gloucester Co Aug 12-21, with egg-laying, caterpillars, chrysalids, multiple adults. 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 2 Harvesters. 

  35. American Copper  (ph)  ______  (PE:12) (K:81) (W:93)  DE(rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-oct
    Lycaena phlaeas

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    buckwheats (or docks), including Sheep-Sorrel, Rumex acetosella, and Curled Dock, Rumex crispus.   

    Adult food: white clover, butterflyweed 

    Notable:
    in DE: 2011: Cape Henlopen Apr 18

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 5 American Coppers.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 72 American Coppers. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there was 1 American Copper.



    The population of the "American Copper" in eastern North America
    is thought to have been introduced from Europe, where it is known
    as the Small Copper.
    This butterfly was photographed in Europe, in Sweden, 
    during a FONT tour in September 2007.
    (photo by James Scheib)   

  36. Bronze Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:89) (W:95)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NH  NJ(very rare)   PA
    Lycaena hyllus

    Overall, the Bronze Copper is widespread but exists in small and isolated populations. Natural habitats for it include wet or moist places such as marshes and bogs.  

    Host plants for caterpillars include: Curly Dock, Rumex crispus, Water Dock, Rumex orbiculaus, and Knotweeds, Polygonum spp.

    Adult food:
    dogbane, boneset, knotweed

    The Bronze Copper is classified as endangered in New Jersey. 

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Salem Co Sep 9

  37. Bog Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:85) (W:95)  MD(very rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Lycaena epixanthe

    The Bog Copper is almost entirely confined to acidic bogs with cranberries. It is highly colonial and its annual abundance varies. There is a disjunct population in western Maryland and West Virginia. 

    Host plants for caterpillars: in the southern part of the Bog Copper's range: Large Cranberry, Vaccinium microcarpa, further north: Small Cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos.  

    Adult food: cranberry flowers

  38. Dorcas Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:85)  ME
    Lycaena dorcas claytoni

  39. Atala  ______  (PE:12) (W:96)   FL
    Eumaeus atala 


    HAIRSTREAKS

  40. Great Purple Hairstreak  ______  (PE:12) (W:97)  DE(rare)  FL  MD(rare)  NC  NJ  VA
    Atlides balesus

    The Great Purple Hairstreak is not purple above, but, as often noted, it is blue.  

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    oaks, and American Mistletoe, Phoradendron leucarpum.

    Adult food: buttonbush, sweet pepperbush

  41. Coral Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (W:95)  DE(local, rare)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-jul
    Satyrium titus

    Host plants for caterpillars: 
    in the Rose family, Rosaceae, including: Wild Cherry, Prunus serotina, Chokeberry, Prunus virginiana, American Plum, Prunus americana, Common Plum, Prunus domestica, Chickasaw Plum, Prunus angustifolia.

    Adult food: butterflyweed, New Jersey tea, dogbane

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there was 1 Coral Hairstreak.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 21 Coral Hairstreaks.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 6 Coral Hairstreaks. 

  42. Oak Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (W:95) 
    Satyrium favonius

    SUBSPECIES:
    Satyrium favonius ontario  Northern Oak Hairstreak  ______  MA  MD
    (rare)  NC  PA  VA
    Satyrium favonius favonius 
    Southern Oak Hairstreak  ______  FL

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    oaks, including, in the northern part of the butterfly's range, the Northern Oak Hairstreak (from New York to Georgia away from the coast): White Oak, Quercus alba, Post Oak, Quercus stellata, Laurel Oak, Quercus laurifolia.
    In the southern part of the butterfly's range, the Southern Oak Hairstreak (in Florida and Georgia): Live Oak, Quercus virginiana, Blackjack Oak, Quercus marilandica.
    In between, the there is an overlap of host plants used.      

    Adult food of the Northern Oak Hairsteak: dogbane, NJ tea, milkweed 

  43. Acadian Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14)  MA  MD(rare,stray)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Satyrium acadica

    The Acadian Hairstreak is one of 17 northern butterfly species whose population was found to have decreased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012. 

    Host plants for caterpillars: various willows including: Black Willow, Salix nigra, Silky Willow, Salix sericea, Sandbar Willow, Salix exigua, Pussy Willow, Salix discolor, Slender Willow, Salix petiolaris, Beaked Willow, Salix bebbiana.
    Caterpillars eat the leaves.

    Adult food: burdock

  44. Edwards' Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (W:95)  MA  MD(very rare)  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-jul
    Satyrium edwardsii

    The Edwards' Hairstreak occurs in colonies from southern Maine to northern Georgia. It is more rare in the southern part of its range.

    Host plants for caterpillars
    : scrub oaks, mainly the Scrub or Bear Oak, Quercus ilicifolia, Blackjack Oak, Quercus marilandica
    To the south, where the Scrub or Bear Oak is rare or absent, host plants are: Black Oak, Quercus velutina, Scarlet Oak, Quercus coccinea.
    In North Carolina, Turkey Oak, Quercus laevis, is a host plant for Satyrium edwardsii.     

    Adult food: NJ tea, milkweed, goldenrod

  45. Banded Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:98)  DE(local)  FL  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-jul
    Satyrium calanus

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    many oaks, also hickories, walnuts. Oaks include: White Oak, Quercus alba, Chestnut Oak, Quercus prinus, Bluejack Oak, Quercus incana, Turkey Oak, Quercus laevis. Also Bitternut Hickory, Carya cordiformis.
    The caterpillars eat catkins, then leaves.   

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, NJ tea

    Notable: in northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 122 Banded Hairstreaks, a large number.

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Banded Hairstreaks.
    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 42 Banded Hairstreaks. 

  46. Hickory Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:95)  MA  MD(extirpated)  NC  NJ  PA  VA(west)  jun-jul
    Satyrium caryaevorum

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    hickories including Shagbark Hickory, Carya ovata, Bitternut Hickory, Carva cordiformis. Also Black Ash, Fraxinus nigra.

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, sumac, bee balm

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 5 Hickory Hairstreaks. 

  47. King's Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95)  DE(south)  FL(north)  MD(very rare)  NC
    Satryium kingi

    Host plant for caterpillars:
    Sweetleaf, Symplocos tinctoria. 

    Adult food: milkweed, catbriar leaves (for perching)

    The King's Hairstreak is classified as endangered in Delaware and Maryland.  

  48. Striped Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:99)  DE(rare)  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-jul
    Satyrium liparops

    There are numerous host plants for caterpillars, mainly roses, Rosaceae, cherries and plums, Prunus, hawthorn, Crataegus, and heaths, Ericaceae. Also American Hornbeam, Carpinus caroliniana.  

    Adult food: dogbane, NJ tea, viburnum

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 6 Striped Hairstreaks.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Striped Hairstreaks.

  49. Brown Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105)  DE(south)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-may
    Callophrys angustinus 
    (or Deciduphagus angustinus)

    Host plants for caterpillars: many heaths, Ericaceae, including blueberries, Vaccinium, huckleberries, Gaylussacia, Bog Labrador Tea, Rhododendron groenlanicum, Bearberry, Arctostaphylos uvaursi, Leatherleaf, Chamaedaphne calyculata. Also Sheep Laurel, Kalmia angustifolia. The caterpillars eat flowers and fruits.

    Adult food: laurel leaves, huckleberry, blueberry

  50. Hoary Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105) (W:95)  MA  MD(very rare)  ME  NJ
    Callophrys polios 
    (or Deciduphagus polios)

    The Hoary Elfin can be locally common, but usually it is rare. It is seemingly extirpated from Long Island, New York, and it is declining in the Appalachians. 
    Otherwise, its range is west across Canada to Alaska, and south in the Rocky Mountains.   

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    primarily Bearberry, Arctostaphylos uvaursi. Also at times: Trailing Arbutus, Epigaea repens.

    Adult food: lowbush blueberry

  51. Frosted Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105)  DE(south, very rare)  MA  MD(very rare)  NC  NH(very rare)  NJ(rare)  PA  VA  may-jun
    Callophrys irus 
    (or Deciduphagus irus)

    Host plants for caterpillars: mainly Wild Lupine, Lupinus perennis, and Wild Indigo, Baptisia tinctoria. Also: Blue False Indigo, Baptisia australis, Rattlebox, Crotalaria sagittalis. 

    Adult food: lupine, wild indigo 

    The Frosted Elfin is classified as endangered in Delaware, Maryland, and New Hampshire, and as threatened in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York  It has been extirpated in northern Delaware. 

    During the two decades prior to 2012, the Frosted Elfin, was classified as a species of special concern in Massachusetts, and it received formal protection. During that time, the population of that southerly species in the state increased. It is thought that increase may also have been due to climate change, a warming trend.   

  52. Henry's Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105) (W:100)  DE(south)  MA  MD  ME(coastal)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Callophrys henrici 
    (or Deciduphagus henrici)

    Host plants for caterpillars: varied, including: Redbud, Cercis canadensis, hollies, especially Ilex opaca and Ilex vomitoria. Also: blueberries and huckleberries, Vaccinium, Black Bukthorn, Rhamnus frangula.   

    Adult food: phlox, redbud. Goes to puddles. 

  53. Eastern Pine Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:107) (W:101)  DE(south)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-jun
    Callophrys niphon 
    (or Incisalia niphon)

    Host plants for caterpillars: various "hard" pines including Scrub Pine, Pinus virginiana, Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana, Loblolly Pine, Pinus taedo, Sand Pine, Pinus clausa.
    Also the "soft" White Pine, Pinus alba. 

    Adult food: pussytoes, lupine, wild plum 

  54. Bog Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:107)  MA(rare)  ME  NH
    Callophrys lanoraieenis 
    (or Incisalia lanoraieenis)

    The Bog Elfin is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  55. Juniper Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:111) (W:102)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-aug
    Callophrys gryneus 
    (or Mitoura gryneus)
    Callophrys gryneus gryneus  ______ 
    the most widespread subspecies, the one in much of eastern North America
    The well-differentiated "Sweadner's Juniper Hairstreak" occurs in northern Florida.
    Seemingly, two other subspecies also dwell in Florida.  

    Until rather recently, in the 1980s, the eastern race of the Juniper Hairstreak was said to be a separate species, the Olive Hairstreak. But, due to evidence of interbreeding in contact zones, it was lumped in with the western races to form a large, highly variable "megaspecies".    

    Host plants for caterpillars
    in eastern North America : Eastern Redcedar, Juniperus virginiana, Southern Redcedar, Juniperus silicicola. 

    Adult food: eastern red cedar (at treetops), mountain mint, pussytoes 

    Notable: in northern NJ: 2015: at Duke Farms Jul 25

  56. Hessel's Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:111)  DE(south)  MA  MD(extirpated)  NC(east)  NH  NJ  VA(east)  
    Callophrys hesseli 
    (or Mitoura hesseli

    In its range, from southern Maine to northwestern Florida, the Hessel's Hairstreak is extremely local. 
    It is classified as endangered in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, and New York.

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Atlantic White Cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides  

    Adult food: sweet pepperbush, blueberry. Goes to wet sand.

  57. White M Hairstreak  (ph)  ______  (PE:15) (K:93) (W:95)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  apr-oct
    Parrhasius m-album

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    mostly oaks especially White Oak, Quercus alba. In the southern US: Live Oak, Quercus virginiana.

    Adult food: boneset, viburnum, goldenrod 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there was 1 White M Hairstreak. 



    White M Hairstreak
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  58. Gray Hairstreak ______ (PE:15) (K:93) (W:103)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-oct
    Strymon melinus

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    primarily mallows and legumes, but also many others.

    Adult food: white clover, trefoils, milkweed, mint

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 2 Gray Hairstreaks. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 30 Gray Hairstreaks.  

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there was 1 Gray Hairstreak.

  59. Martial Scrub-Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:121)   FL
    Strymon martialis

  60. Bartram's Scrub-Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:121)   FL
    Strymon acis

    Another name for Strymon acis is Caribbean Scrub-Hairstreak.

  61. Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak  (ph)  ______  (PE:14) (K:121)  FL
    Strymon istapa 



    A Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  62. Fulvous Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:103)  FL
    Electrostrymon angelica

  63. Red-banded Hairstreak ______ (PE:13) (K:103)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA   may-oct
    Calycopis cecrops

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    sumacs including Winged Sumac, Rhus copallina, and Wax Myrtle, Myrica cerifera. 
    Also Brazilian Pepper, Schinus terebinthifolius, and oaks.

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, sumac, leaf tips

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Red-banded Hairstreak. 

  64. Gray Ministreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:119)   FL 
    Ministrymon azia 
    (or Tmolus azia)

    Another name for Ministrymon azia is Azia Hairstreak.

  65. Silver-banded Hairstreak  (ph)  ______  (P:13) (K:117)  FL
    Chlorostrymon simaethis 

    Another name for Shlorostrymon simaethis has been St. Christopher's Hairstreak. 



    Silver-banded Hairstreak

    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen)

  66. Early Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:115)  MA(rare)  MD(very rare)  ME  NC  NH  PA  VA(west)
    Erora laeta

    The Early Hairstreak is rare and local, in northern New England and south through the Appalachian Mountains.

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    American Beech, Fagus grandiflora, and probably Beaked Hazel, Corylus cornuta.

    Adult food: spring beauty, fleabane. Goes to puddles.  


    BLUES, AZURES

  67. Eastern Pygmy Blue  _______  (PE:15) (K:127)  FL
    Brephidium isophthalma  

  68. Cassius Blue  (ph)  ______  (PE:16) (K:127)   FL
    Leptotes cassius



    Above & below: A Cassius Blue
    photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photos by Marie Gardner)



  69. Ceraunus Blue  ______  (PE:15) (K:129)   FL
    Hemiargus ceraunus

  70. Miami Blue  ______  (PE:15) (K:129)   FL
    Hemiargus thomasi 
    (or Cyclargus thomasi

  71. Acacia Blue  ______  (K:129)   FL 
    Hemiargus ammon 
    (or Cyclargus ammon 

    Another name for Hemiargus ammon is Nickerbean Blue.

  72. Eastern Tailed-Blue  (ph)  ______ (PE:16) (K:125) (W:104)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-oct
    Everes comyntas

    Adult food: clovers, trefoils, legumes 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 145 Eastern Tailed-Blues.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 626 Eastern Tailed-Blues.   

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 18 Eastern Tailed-Blues. 



    Above & below: an Eastern Tailed-Blue
    In the upper photo, notice the tails.
    (photos by Marie Gardner)




  73. Spring Azure  (ph)  ______ (PE:16) (K:131) (W:105)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  mar-aug
    Celastrina ladon

    A breakdown pertaining to "splits" in this species complex follows.    



    Spring Azures photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Doris Potter)


    A BREAKDOWN OF THE "SPRING AZURE SPECIES":


    Spring Azure  ______  DE  NJ  PA  mar-aug  
    Celastrina ladon

    Another name for Celastrina ladon is Edwards' Azure. It occurs in deciduous woods from central New England to northern Florida. 
    In this form, the pale "violaceae" morph predominates, but "lucia" and "marginata" sometimes occur in the northern part of the range.

    Adult food: apple, spicebush. Goes to puddles. 



    The pale "violaceae" morph of the Spring Azure
    (photo by Rise Hill)


    Northern Azure  ______  NJ  MD
    (rare)
    Celastrina lucia

    The Northern Azure, Celastrina lucia, is not systematically described. It occurs south to about New Jersey.

    Adult Northern Azures perch on black cherry, and go to puddles.  


    Cherry Gall Azure  ______  NJ  MD  PA  
    Celastrina sp. 

    The Cherry Gall Azure is a confusing segregate. It is not yet systemically described.
    It has long been combined with the form that follows next, the Atlantic, or Holly Azure.

    The Cherry Gall Azure occurs mainly in southern New England and New York, including Long Island, and west into central Pennsylvania. It is not in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.  

    Adult food:
    flowering olive, leaf tips. Goes to puddles. 


    Atlantic Azure  ______  DE  MD  NJ 
    Celastrina idella

    Other names for Celastrina idella are Holly Azure and Pine Barren Azure. It is a distinctive segregate, occurring in coastal plain woodlands and pine barrens, often near acidic bogs or cedar swamps.

    About 95 per cent of the Atlantic Azures surveyed are of the "violaceae" morph. 

    Adult food: highbush blueberry. Goes to puddles. 


    Summer Azure ______ (K:131)  DE  MA  MD  NC  NJ
    Celastrina (ladon) neglecta

    The Summer Azure has been considered part of the Spring Azure.

    Adult food:
    small-bracted dogwood blossoms, dogbane. Goes to puddles.

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count there were 20 Summer Azures.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count there were 27 Summer Azures.  

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 10 Summer Azures.

  74. Appalachian Azure  ______  (PE:16) (K:131)  DE(north, very rare)  MD(rare)  NC(west)  NJ  PA  VA(west)   apr-jul
    Celestrina neglectamajor

    Another name for Celestrina neglectamajor is Appalachian Blue. 

    Adult food:
    viburnum, blackberry, leaf tips. Goes to puddles.  

  75. Dusky Azure  ______  (PE:16) (K:131)  MD(extirpated)  NC(west)  PA  VA(west)
    Celastrina nigra
    (or Celastrina ebenina)

    Adult food: violet, geranium. Goes to damp soil. 

  76. Silvery Blue  ______  (PE:16) (K:125) (W:106)  MD  MA  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Glaucopsyche lygdamus

    Adult food:
    redbud, cinquefoil, composites

  77. "Crowberry"  Northern Blue  ______  (K:135)  ME
    Lycaeides idas empetri

  78. "Karner"  Melissa Blue  ______  (K:135)  NH(rare)
    Lycaeides melissa samuelis

    Lycaeides melissa samuelis
    is a US federally endangered species. In the East, small populations exist in New Hampshire and New York. Elsewhere, there are small populations in: Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin.    


    METALMARKS

  79. Northern Metalmark  ______  (PE:17) (K:143) (W:107)  MD  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Calephelis borealis

    Adult food:
    yarrow, goldenrod, fleabane

  80. Little Metalmark  ______  (PE:17) (K:143)  MD(very rare)  NC(east)  VA(southeast)
    Calephelis virginiensis

    Adult food:
    thistle, goldenrod


    BRUSHFOOTS


    SNOUT

  81. American Snout  ______  (PE:18) (K:223) (W:109)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  may-aug
    Libytheana carinenta

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various hackberries including: American Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis, Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata.
    In the southern part of the range of the American Snout in the eastern US, a host plant is Dwarf Hackberry, Celtis tenuifolia.

    Adult food: dogbane, aster. Goes to puddles.

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 American Snouts. 

  82. Zebra Longwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:155) (W:112)  FL  MD(very rare)  NC
    Heliconius charitonius

    Adult food: lantana, zinnias 



    A Zebra Longwing
    (photo by Rob Van Brussel)

  83. Julia  (or Julia Heliconian)  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:157) (W:111)   FL
    Dryas iulia



    A Julia Heliconian
    (photo by Rob Van Brussel) 


    FRITILLARIES

  84. Gulf Fritillary  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:157) (W:110)  DE(rare,stray)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ
    Agraulis vanillae

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Marypops, Passiflora incarnata, Corkystem Passionflower, Passiflora suberosa, other passionvines (native and cultivated) 

    Adult food: composites



    Above & below: Gulf Fritillary butterflies
    The lower photo was the first documenting photograph of the species
    in Kent County, Delaware, in August 2012.  
    (both photos by Howard Eskin) 




  85. Variegated Fritillary  (ph)  ______ (PE:20) (K:157) (W:122)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-oct
    Euptoieta claudia

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    widely variable, including violets and pansies, Viola, cultivated flax, Linum, and passionflowers, Passiflora. The larvae eat seed pods, leaves, flowers.  

    Adult food: red clover, milkweed, thistle

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 36 Variegated Fritillaries. 






    Two photographs of the Variegated Fritillary
    (upper photo by Doris Potter, during a FONT tour:
     lower photo by Marie Gardner)

  86. Diana Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:159) (W:125)  MD(rare,stray)  NC(west)  VA(west)
    Speyeria diana

    Adult food: milkweed, thistle, ironweed

  87. Regal Fritillary  (t3) (ph)  ______  (PE:20) (K:159) (W:125)  DE(extirpated)  MD(extirpated)  NJ  PA(local)  VA(local)  jun-sep
    Speyeria idalia

    The Regal Fritillary is a species of tall-grass prairies and occurs in remnants of that habitat. Its geographic range has been from eastern Montana east across the United States to Maine.
    However, it is now very rare or at best locally common in that range, and now rare or absent from the former range east of the Appalachians.
    It has been recorded in southern Ontario and Manitoba, but seems not to have permanent colonies in Canada.

    The sudden and poorly understood decline of the Regal Fritillary in the eastern United States has been startling. The butterfly was locally common until the 1970s. It simply vanished by about 1988. Presently, only a handful of known colonies remain in the East, now in Pennsylvania and Virginia. The Virginia colony was found only in 1997.

    In Pennsylvania, the Regal Fritillary colony is on the grounds of the Fort Indiantown Gap military facility in the south-central part of the state. That colony is the largest population of the species remaining east of Indiana. That population in Pennsylvania is about 1,000 adults, and it has been secure since monitoring began in 1998.

    The Virginia population, referred to above, is on the grounds of another military facility, the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    Host plants for caterpillars: in Pennsylvania, Arrow-leaved Violet, Viola sagittata. At other places, Birdsfoot Violet, Viola pedata.  

    Adult food: milkweed, thistle, ironweed



    Above & below, the Regal Fritillary at Indiantown Gap in Pennsylvania in July 2015.
    In the two photographs below, the butterfly is feeding on nectar from milkweed. 
    (photos by Rise Hill)







    In the photo below, Armas Hill
    (waving), on a sunny morning in July 2015, among 
    a group of people at Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania, to see the rare Regal Fritillary.   




  88. Great Spangled Fritillary  (ph)  _____ (PE:20) (K:159) (W:123)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(mostly west)  jun-sep
    Speyeria cybele

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    many species of violets (Viola) 

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, Joe-pye weed 

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Salem Co Aug 17
    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 270 Great Spangled Fritillaries, a large number.   

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Great Spangled Fritillaries.  
    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 142 Great Spangled Fritillaries. 



    Great Spangled Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  89. Aphrodite Fritillary  (ph)  ______  (PE:20) (K:167) (W:125)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)  jun-sep
    Speyeria aphrodite
    Speyeria aphrocite alcestis  ______ 
    subspecies in the Great Lakes area, and reaching western Pennsylvania, with little or no submarginal band
    Speyeria aphrodite aphrodite  ______ 
    the principal subspecies in the eastern US
    Speyeria aphrodite callasaja  ______ 
    subspecies in the southern Appalachians, lacking the species' usually distinctive black forewing spot 

    The Aphrodite Fritillary is quite variable geographically. Up to 9 subspecies have been described. Some of them are noted above.
    Some of the subspecies of Speyeria aphrodite are weakly differentiated.  

    The name "Aphrodite" is that of the Greek goddess, in mythology, of beauty, fertility, and love. The name is appropriate as far as beauty is concerned, but as to fertility something seems to be lacking as the Aphrodite Fritillary is seldom the most common of the "orange-dappled" Speyeria fritillaries at most eastern North American sites where more than one species occurs.  

    Host plants for caterpillars: violets, including the Northern Downy Violet, Viola fimbriatula, Lance-leaved Violet, Viola lanceolata, Primrose-leaved Violet, Viola primulifolia, Common Blue Violet, Viola sororia.   

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, dogbane, butterflyweed 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there was 1 Aphrodite Fritillary. 



    An Aphrodite Fritillary on Pasture Thistle in Pennsylvania in June 2015
    (photo by Rise Hill) 


  90. Atlantis Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:167) (W:125)  MA  MD(very rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Speyeria atlantis

    The Atlantic Fritillary is one of 17 northern butterfly species whose population was found to have decreased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012. 
    It was found to have declined by more than 80 per cent. 
    The species has not (yet) had formal protection in the state.  

    There is an isolated population of the Atlantis Fritillary in the West Virginia highlands. 

    Host plants for caterpillars: various violets including Northern Blue Violet, Viola septentrionalis.

    Adult food: spirea, dogbane, milkweed  

  91. Meadow Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:169) (W:125)  DE(north, very rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)  apr-oct
    Boloria bellona

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various violets including Northern White Violet, Viola pallens, Common Blue Violet, Viola sororia.

    Adult food: dogbane, spearmint, Queen Anne's Lace 

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24,there were 2 Meadow Fritillaries.  
    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 24 Meadow Fritillaries.

  92. Silver-bordered Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:171) (W:125)  DE(extirpated)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NH  NJ(rare)  PA
    Boloria selene

    There has been a decline of the population of the Silver-bordered Fritillary in parts of eastern North America, possibly due to changes in land use.  
    The single-brooded subspecies in Maryland, B. s. marilandica, now appears to be extinct.    

    The more-widespread subspecies of the Silver-bordered Fritillary still in the eastern United States is Boloria selene myrina.
    Two darker subspecies occur in Canada: B. s. terranova and B. s. atrocostalis.
    A larger subspecies, B. s. nebraskensis, is further west in the United States.

    In Eurasia, where the Silver-bordered Fritillary also occurs, it is called the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary. The nominate subspecies occurs in Eurasia.          

    The Silver-bordered Fritillary, Boloria selene myrina, is classified as threatened in New Jersey.

    Host plants for caterpillars: various wetland violets, including Lance-leaved Violet, Viola lanceolata.  

  93. Bog Fritillary  (ph)  ______  (PE:18) (K:171)  ME
    Boloria eunomia 
    (some say in its own genus as Proclossiana eunomia

    The Bog Fritillary is a boreal remnant of the glacial past. Having a circumpolar distribution, it is widespread but yet extremely local with isolated populations. In the eastern US, it is known to occur at only a few bogs in northern and western Maine.

    Various subspecies of the Bog Fritillary have been described. It is Boloria eunomia dawsoni that is in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
    Other subspecies in North America are the more-northerly Boloria eunomia tridaris and the more westerly Boloria eunomia caelestis.
    The nominate, Boloria eunomia eunomia, occurs in Eurasia, and it is that subspecies in the photograph below.

    Host plants for caterpillars include willows, Salix, bistorts, Polygonum, and violets, Viola.
    Also in Maine and nearby Canada: host plants are cranberries including Small Cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos, and Creeping Snowberry, Gaultheria hispidula.       



    Bog Fritillary,
    This is the Eurasian nominate subspecies photographed in Estonia.
    The subspecies in eastern North America is generally darker
    and more richly colored.  

  94. Purplish Fritillary  _______  (K:175)  NH
    Boloria montinus 
    (or Chariclea montina  


    CRESCENTS

  95. Pearl Crescent  (ph)  ______ (PE:22) (K:177) (W:126)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  mar-nov
    Phyciodes tharos

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    many species of asters including Panicled Aster, Aster lanceolatum, Calico Aster, Aster lateriflorus, Heath Aster, Aster pilosus, Bushy Aster, Aster dumosus.

    Adult food: butterflyweed, milkweed  

    The Pearl Crescent is in nearly all respects a generalist.  

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 150 Pearl Crescents.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 694 Pearl Crescents.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 230 Pearl Crescents. 



    Pearl Crescent
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  96. Northern Crescent  ______  (PE:22) (K:177)  ME  NH  NJ  PA(northwest)
    Phyciodes selenis 
    (or cocyta)

    Adult food: clover, fleabane, dogbane

  97. Tawny Crescent  ______  (PE:22) (K:177)  MD(extirpated)  NC(far-west)  NJ
    Phyciodes batesii

    Adult food: milkweed, thistle, dogbane

    The Tawny Crescent seems to be extirpated in some eastern states such as Pennsylvania & New York, such that now there is an isolated population in southwestern North Carolina & adjacent Georgia.

    In North Carolina, Phyciodes batesii is common at a few sites in Clay County. The occurrence of the butterfly in the mountains is not known north of Buncombe County, North Carolina.

  98. Phaon Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:181) (W:125)  FL  NC(east)
    Phyciodes phaon
     

  99. Cuban Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:183)   FL
    Phyciodes frisia 
    (or Anthanassa frisia)

  100. "Seminole"  Texan Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:183)  FL
    Phyciodes texana seminole 
    (or Anthanassa texana seminole)

  101. Gorgone Checkerspot  ______  (PE:19) (K:185)
    Chlosyne gorgone

  102. Silvery Checkerspot  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:185) (W:127)  MD  MA  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-jul
    Chlosyne nycteis 

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various composites, including sunflowers, Wingstem, Verbesina or Actinomeris alternifolia, rosinweeds, Silphium, and asters. 

    Adult food:
    sunflower, dogbane, fleabane, clover



    Silvery Checkerspot
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  103. Harris' Checkerspot  ______  (PE:19) (K:185) (W:125)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA(north)
    Chlosyne barrisii

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Flat-topped Aster, Aster umbellatus. 

    Adult food: daisy fleabane, hawkweed, composites

  104. Baltimore Checkerspot  ______  (PE:22) (K:195) (W:128)  DE(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)  may-jul
    Euphydryas phaeton

    The Baltimore Checkerspot is named not so much as it is to be found in the city of Baltimore, but rather because it has the heraldic colors of George Calvert, who was the first Baron of Baltimore in the early 1600s.
    Today, and since 1989, Maryland (where of course Baltimore is located) has the Baltimore Checkerspot as its state insect.    

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    the young caterpillars feed mainly on Turtlehead, Chelone glabra, in lowlands, and on gerardias in uplands, for example Smooth Fox Foxglove, Aureolaria, or Gerardia flava.
    Later, the caterpillars may shift to plantains, Plantago, ash, Fraxinus, and others.   

    Adult food: milkweed, daisy, dogbane  

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 24 Baltimore Checkerspots.  


    QUESTION MARK, COMMAS

  105. Question Mark  (ph)  ______  (PE:22) (K:197) (W:114)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Polygonia interrogationis

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil. 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there was 1 Question Mark.     
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Question Mark.  

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 5 Question Marks. 



    Question Mark
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  106. Eastern Comma  (ph)  ______  (PE:22) (K:197) (W:113)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Polygonia comma

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.  

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 8 Eastern Commas. 
    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 4 Eastern Commas.





    Eastern Comma
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  107. Satyr Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:197)  ME
    Polygonia satyrus

  108. Green Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:199)  MA  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ
    Polygonia faunus

  109. Hoary Comma  ______  (PE:23) (K:199)  ME
    Polygonia gracilis

  110. Gray Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:199) (W:121)  DE(rare)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  jul-oct
    Polygonia progne

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 2 Gray Commas.


    TORTOISESHELLS and MOURNING CLOAK

  111. Compton Tortoiseshell  ______  (PE:23) (K:201) (W:121)  MA  MD(very rare as a breeder)  ME  NH  PA  mar-jul
    Nymphalis vau-album 
    (or Roddia vau-album)

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    In Eurasia, where Nymphalis vau-album also occurs, it is called the False Comma.  

  112. Mourning Cloak  (ph)  ______  (PE:23) (K:203) (W:115)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-jul
    Nymphalis antiopa

    In Europe, where the Mourning Cloak also occurs, it is called the Camberwell Beauty.

    Adult food:
    rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 5 Mourning Cloaks.
    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 2 Mourning Cloaks.



    Mourning Cloak
    (left) & Eastern Comma (right)
    (photo by Doris Potter)


  113. Milbert's Tortoiseshell  ______  (PE:23) (K:201) (W:116)  DE(rare, north)  MA  MD(rare,stray)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Nymphalis milberti 
    (or Aglais milberti)

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, ironweed


    a mis-named ADMIRAL and the LADIES  (in the genus VANESSA) 

  114. Red Admiral  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:203) (W:117)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-oct
    Vanessa atalania

    The name Red Admiral is a latter-day contraction of its older name  "Red Admirable". It is not closely related to the true admirals (in the genus Limenitis), but is instead a lady (in the genus Vanessa).

    The northward movement of the Red Admiral in the spring and early summer is well known, both in North America and in Europe (different populations).
    Along the East Coast of the US, massive spring flights have occurred about once a decade recently: in 1981, 1990, 2001, and then again in 2012. Such peaks tend to be followed by precipitous population crashes.

    Host plants for caterpillars: mostly nettles, such as Stinging Nettle, Urtica doica, Wood Nettle, Laportea canadensis, and Pellitory, Parietaria pennsylvanica, and False Nettle, Boehmeria cylindrica - the last of these especially in the southern portion of the butterfly's range where the other plants are less available.

    Adult food: tree sap, rotting fruit, Joe-pye weed  

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 49 Red Admirals. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 24 Red Admirals.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there where 37 Red Admirals. 



    A Red Admiral & a Yellow Jacket (a wasp, not a bee)
    (photo by Marie Gardner)



    Red Admiral on Thistle
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
     
  115. American Lady  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:205) (W:119)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  mar-oct
    Vanessa virginiensis  

    Old names for the American Lady were Hunter's Butterfly, and the Painted Beauty. 

    The pink flush at the base of the ventral forewing of the American Lady rivals the brightest pinks in the animal kingdom. It is more intense than the color of any flamingo. (see the third photo below) 

    Host plants for caterpillars: Pearly Everlasting, Anaphalis margaritacea, Sweet Everlasting and cudweeds (in the Gnaphalium genus), pussytoes (in the Antennaria genus)     

    Adult food: milkweed, dogbane, clover

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 6 American Ladies.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 114 American Ladies. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 4 American Ladies.



    Above & below: the American Lady
    (photo above by Howard Eskin; 
     the first two photos below by Marie Gardner)











    The American Lady, Vanessa virginiensis, and the Painted Lady, Vanessa cardui, (below) are similar.

    The hindwing of the ventral surface of the American Lady (above) has a lovely, complex cobweb pattern,
    and two large eyespots near the outer margins, compared to a series of smaller "eyes" in the Painted Lady (below).    

  116. Painted Lady  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:205) (W:118)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Vanessa cardui

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    many, over 100 in 10 families of plants. Mainly thistles, mallows, goosefoots, also sunflowers, legumes 

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, aster

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 29-Sep 1, with 800 counted Aug 31 & 600 counted Sep 1  



    Above & below: the Painted Lady
    (upper photo by Doris Potter during a FONT tour;
     lower photo in North Carolina in 2015 by Amanda Hendricks)  





    BUCKEYES, PEACOCK

  117. Common (or Northern) Buckeye  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:207) (W:120)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-oct
    Junonia coenia

    Host plants for caterpillars:
      variety of plantains (in the Plantaginaceae family), also vervains (in Verbenaceae), and plants in the Schrophulariaceae family   

    Adult food:
    aster, goldenrod, Queen Anne's Lace 

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 7 Common Buckeyes. 



    Common Buckeye on Goldenrod
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  118. Tropical Buckeye  (ph)  ______  (PE:23) (K:207)   FL(south)
    Junonia genovera zonalis



    Tropical Buckeye
    This butterfly photographed in Belize.
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  119. Mangrove Buckeye  (ph)  ______  (PE:23) (K:207)   FL(south)
    Junonia evarete



    Mangrove Buckeye
    This butterfly photographed in the Dominican REpublic.
    (photo by Lisa Johnson) 

  120. White Peacock  (ph)  ______  (PE:24) (K:209) (W:121)  FL  NC(east)
    Anartia jatrophae

    Host plant for caterpillars:
    Fogfruit, or Creeping Charlie, Phyla or Lippa nodiflora



    White Peacock


    ADMIRAL, VICEROY, MALACHITE

  121. White Admiral  ______  (PE:24) (K:211)  MD(rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA  jun-aug
    Limenitis arthemis arthemis

    Caterpillars
    of Limenitis arthemis feed mostly at night.

    Host plants for caterpillars: varied, and similar to those of the Red-spotted Purple (below).

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. At times, goes to damp soil. 

  122. Red-spotted Purple  (ph) ______ (PE:24) (K:211) (W:121)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  apr-oct
    Limenitis arthemis astyanax 


    The Red-spotted Purple is conspecific with the more-northerly White Admiral.

    The marginal orange spots makes the Red-spotted Purple a good mimic of the distasteful Pipevine Swallowtail.    

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Wild Cherry, Prunus serotina, aspens, poplars, cottonwoods (in the Populus genus), birches (in the Betula genus), willows (in the Salix genus), hawthorn (in the Crataegus genus), serviceberry (in the Amelanchier genus), basswood (in the Tilia genus), Deerberry, Vaccinium stamineum.    

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. At times, goes to damp soil. 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 2 Red-spotted Purples.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 3 Red-spotted Purples.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 9 Red-spotted Purples.






    Red-spotted Purples
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Rise Hill)

  123. Viceroy  (ph)  ______ (PE:24) (K:211) (W:130)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-oct
    Limenitis archippus

    The Viceroy is a mimic of the widespread and conspicuous (but distasteful) Monarch. The Viceroy is recognized with its postmedian black line on the hindwing and a SINGLE row of white spots in the black marginal band.

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    mainly small willows (in the Salix genus), also poplars, aspens, cottonwoods (in Populus genus) 

    Adult food:
    flowers, rotting fruit. At times, goes to damp soil. 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there was 1 Viceroy.   
    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 2 Viceroys.



    Above & below: the Viceroy
    (upper photo by Doris Potter; lower photo by Marie Gardner)




  124. Malachite  (ph)  ______  (PE:26) (K:209) (W:129)   FL(south)
    Siproeta stelenes

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    mainly Green Shrimp Plant, Blechum pyramidatum, also others in the family Acanthaceae  



    Malachites
    (photo below by Rob Van Brussel)





    PURPLEWINGS, DAGGERWING, LEAFWINGS

  125. Dingy Purplewing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:215)   FL(south)
    Eunica montima



    Dingy Purplewing

  126. Florida Purplewing  (ph)   ______  (PE:25) (K:215)   FL(south) 
    Eunica tatila

    Eunica tatila
    has also been called Large Purplewing.



    Florida Purplewing

  127. Ruddy Daggerwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:219) (W:129)   FL(central & south)
    Marpesia petreus 

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Strangler Fig, Ficus aurea, Shortleaf Fig, Ficus curifolia 



    Ruddy Daggerwing

  128. Florida Leafwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:221)   FL(south)
    Anaea (troglodyta) floridalis

    Host plant for caterpillars:
    Narrow-leaved Croton, Croton linearis, in the Spurge family, Euphorbiaceae 



    Florida Leafwing

  129. Goatweed Leafwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:221) (W:129)   FL(north)
    Anaea andria 

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    various crotons, occurring in dry, sandy habitats, including Silver Crotin, Croton argyranthemus 



    Goatweed Leafwing
    (photo by Doris Potter)


    EMPERORS, MONARCH, QUEEN, SOLDIER

  130. Hackberry Emperor  (ph)  ______  (PE:26) (K:223)  DE(rare)  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  jun-sep
    Asterocampa celtis
    Asterocampa celtis celtis  ______ 
    subspecies in the northern part of the species' range
    Asterocampa celtis reinthali  ______ 
    subspecies in Florida and the Deep South. It was formerly part of the western subspecies, A. c. alicia.
    Some say that Asterocampa celtis reinthali should be a separate species.
    A. c. reinthali is distinctly larger than A. c. celtis.

    Throughout its range, the Hackberry Emperor shows considerable regional variation. This is perhaps due to the varied and disparate ecological niches that the species occupies.
    Some local forms have been considered full species.

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    American Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis, Dwarf Hackberry, Celtis tenuifolia, Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata.

    Adult food:
    rotting fruit, tree sap. At times, goes to damp soil.



    A Hackberry Emperor along the side of a road, in May 2015,
    near the Delaware River in northeastern Pennsylvania
    (photo by Rise Hill)   

  131. Tawny Emperor  ______  (PE:26) (K:223) (W:131)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Asterocampa clyton

    Host plants for caterpillars:
    Sugarberry, Celtis laevigata, American Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis, Dwarf Hackberry, Celtis tenuifolia  

    Adult food:
    rotting fruit, tree sap. At times, goes to damp soil.

  132. Monarch  (ph)  ______ (PE:27) (K:227) (W:138)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-oct
    Danaus plexippus

    Adult food: milkweeds, goldenrod 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 10 Monarchs.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 71 Monarchs. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 4 Monarchs. 



    Above: The Monarch, stage #1: the Caterpillar
    (this & the following photo by Doris Potter)



    Above: The Monarch, stage #2: the Chyrsalid



    Above: The Monarch, stage #3: the Butterfly
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

    The Monarch is one of the few butterflies to migrate long distances. It undertakes seasonal flights that rival those of many birds.
    Monarchs mate on the ground. Then the male carries his partner aloft.
    The metamorphosis from egg to butterfly (as in the 3 photos above) takes about a month.
    The last generation of butterflies born each summer become fall migrants to mostly the pine-clad mountains of central Mexico. with some in western north America to coastal California.
    With no older generations to guide them, Monarchs migrate by a genetically inherited navigation system, traveling in fronts of hundreds of thousands of individuals. They can cover up to 180 miles a day, flying, gliding, and soaring on updrafts of air. 
    Reaching their destination, the butterflies spend the winter clustered in groves of trees.



    In Mexico, where Monarchs winter, not only are the pine trees covered with them,
    so is the ground below where the butterflies and pine needles fall.
    This photograph was taken during a FONT tour in the mountains of central Mexico.
    (photo by Alan Brady)
       
  133. Queen  (ph)  ______  (PE:27) (K:229) (W:137)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ(rare)  PA(rare)  VA  jul-aug
    Danaus gilippus

    Adult food: milkweeds, goldenrod

    The Queen is a rare stray along the Atlantic coastal plain as far north as Massachusetts.






    Two Photos above of the Queen
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

  134. Soldier  (ph)  ______  (PE:27) (K:229)  FL
    Danaus eresimus



    SATYRS & WOOD-NYMPHS

  135. Georgia Satyr  ______  (PE:28) (K:233) (W:136)  FL  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Neonympha areolata

  136. Mitchell's Satyr  (t1)  ______  (PE:28) (K:233)  MD(extirpated)  NC(local)  NJ(very rare)  VA(local)
    Neonympha mitchellii

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    The Mitchell's Satyr is classified as endangered in New Jersey. 

    SUBSPECIES:
    Neonympha mitchellii francisci  Saint Francis' Satyr  ______  NC(local)  VA(local)

    Neonymoha mitchellii francisci occurs in sand hills in North Carolina in Hoke and Cumberland counties. Also a population has been found in Virginia.

  137. Carolina Satyr ______ (PE:28) (K:231) (W:136)  FL  MD(rare)  NC  NJ  VA
    Hermeuptychia sosybius

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  138. Gemmed Satyr ______ (PE:28) (K:235) (W:136)  FL(north)  MD(extirpated)  NC  VA
    Cyllopsis gemma

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  139. Little Wood-Satyr  (ph)  ______  (PE:27) (K:231) (W:132)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-jul
    Megisto cymela cymela
    Megisto cymela viola 
    "Viola's Little Wood-Satyr"  ______  (PE:27)  (K:231)  FL
    (north) 

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 74 Little Wood-Satyrs.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 94 Little Wood-Satyrs.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there was 1 Little Wood-Satyr. 



    Little Wood-Satyr 
    Megisto cymela cymela
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  140. Common Ringlet  ______  (PE:28) (K:241) (W:134)  MA  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Coenonympha tullia

  141. Common Wood-Nymph  (ph)  ______  (PE:28) (K:237) (W:135)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-oct
    Cercyonis pegala

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap, flowers. Goes to damp soil.

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 143 Common Wood-Nymphs. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 19 Common Wood-Nymphs.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 3 Common Wood-Nymphs. 



    Common Wood-Nymph
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


    PEARLY-EYES, BROWNS, ARCTICS

  142. Northern Pearly-eye  ______  (PE:27) (K:239) (W:133)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)  jun-sep
    Enodia anthedon 

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 10 Northern Pearly-eyes. 

  143. Southern Pearly-eye ______ (PE:27) (K:239)  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Enodia portlandia

  144. Creole Pearly Eye ______ (PE:27) (K:239)  NC  VA(south)
    Enodia creola

  145. Eyed Brown  ______  (PE:27) (K:239)  DE(extirpated)  MA  ME  NH  NJ  PA  apr-sep
    Satyrodes eurydice

  146. Appalachian Brown  ______  (PE:27) (K:239) (W:136)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  jun-sep
    Satyrodes appalachia

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 49 Appalachian Browns. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 6 Appalachian Browns.

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 9 Appalachian Browns. 

  147. Melissa Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:251)  NH
    Oeneis melissa

  148. Polixenes Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:251)  ME
    Oeneis polixenes

  149. Jutta Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:253)  ME
    Oeneis jutta


    SKIPPERS

  150. Mangrove Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267) (W:67)  FL
    Phocides pigmalion

  151. Hammock Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267) (W:67)  FL
    Polygonus leo

  152. Long-tailed Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:30) (K:269) (W:60)  DE(north)  FL  MA(rare)  ND(rare)  NC  NJ  VA 
    Urbanus proteus

    The caterpillar of Urbanus proteus is called the Bean Leaf Roller.

    Adult food: butterfly bush, composites

    The Long-tailed Skipper is a flashy mostly neotropical species. It can be very common in the southeastern US, especially in the late summer. Further north, it is an irregular emigrant, but its late-season appearances are local and unpredictable.

    In the northeastern US, the Long-tailed Skipper occurred with some regularity from the late 1800s to the mid 1900s. 
    Then, it virtually disappeared in that region for about 40 years. 
    It returned north in numbers during the 1990s. 
    The long period of absence is unexplained. Some say that the increased cultivation of soybeans in the southeastern US may have caused the resurgence.   

    In 2012, mostly in Sep, Long-tailed Skippers were found in 9 counties in New Jersey: Atlantic, Bergen, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Morris, Ocean, Somerset.   

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Aug 29 



    Above & below: Long-tailed Skipper
    (these photos taken in Cape May, New Jersey by Rise Hill)





  153. Dorantes Longtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:text) (K:269)   FL  MD(very rare)
    Urbanus dorantes

    Adult food: lantana

  154. Zestos Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267)   FL
    Epargyreus zestos

  155. Silver-spotted Skipper  (ph) ______  (P:30) (K:257) (W:59)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-sep
    Epargyreus clarus

    Adult food: ironweed, Joe-pye weed, milkweed

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 57 Silver-spotted Skippers. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 59 Silver-spotted Skippers.  

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 33 Silver-spotted Skippers. 



    Above & below: Silver-spotted Skippers
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Howard Eskin)




  156. Golden-banded Skipper  ______  (PE:31) (K:257)  DE(extirpated)  MD(extirpated)  NC(west)  NJ  VA(west)
    Autochton cellus

    Adult food: dogbane, honeysuckle, wild hydrangea, buttonbush

  157. Hoary Edge  ______  (PE:31) (K:259) (W:61)  DE(rare)  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  may-jul
    Achalarus lyciades

    Adult food: clover, milkweed, dogbane

  158. Southern Cloudywing  ______  (PE:31) (K:261)  DE(south)  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  jun-jul
    Thorybes bathyllus

    The common names given to cloudywings in eastern North America just don't seem right. 
    The Southern Cloudywing could more aptly be called the Eastern Cloudywing.
    The Confused Cloudywing (below) might better be the Southern, or the Southeastern Cloudywing.
    And the Northern Cloudywing (also below) might better be called the Common Cloudywing, as it is the most widespread species in the genus ranging further north into Canada and further south into Mexico than either the other two cloudywings just mentioned. It is also far more common and widespread than any other member of the Thorybes genus.    

    Adult food: dogbane, clover, milkweed

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Southern Cloudywing. 

  159. Confused Cloudywing  ______  (PE:31) (K:261)  DE(extirpated)  FL(north)  MD(extirpated)  NC  NJ  VA
    Thorybes confusis

    Adult food: milkweed, clover, thistle

  160. Northern Cloudywing  (ph)  _____  (PE:31) (K:261) (W:62)  DE(south)  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-jul
    Thorybes pylades

    Adult food: dogbane, Joe-pye weed, clover

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Northern Cloudywings.  



    Northern Cloudywing
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  161. Florida Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287) (W:67)   FL
    Ephyriades brunneus

  162. Dreamy Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285) (W:63)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-jul
    Erynnis icelus

    Adult food: redbud, hawkweed, clover. Goes to damp soil.

  163. Sleepy Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285)  DE(rare)  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-jun
    Erynnis brizo

    Adult food: blueberry, blackberry. Goes to damp soil.

  164. Juvenal's Duskywing ______ (PE:32) (K:281) (W:64)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-jun
    Erynnis juvenalis

    Adult food: violet, cinquefoil. Goes to damp soil. 

  165. Horace's Duskywing ______ (PE:32) (K:281)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  apr-aug
    Erynnis horatius

    Adult food: buttonbush, dogbane, goldenrod 

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 2 Horace's Duskywings.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 5 Horace's Duskywings. 

  166. Zarucco Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:281)  DE(rare)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ  VA
    Erynnis zarucco

    Adult food: boneset, camphorweed

  167. Funereal Duskywing  (ph)  ______  (PE:32) (K:281)  NJ(vagrant)
    Erynnis funeralis

    A Funereal Duskywing was found in northern New Jersey at the White Bridge Wilderness Area on September 12, 2014. Feeding on goldenrod, the butterfly was photographed and its identification confirmed.
    Not only was this the first ever, for the species, for New Jersey, it was also the first in the northeast US.
    The normal range for the Funereal Duskywing is from the southwest US south to Argentina. The species has previously been found out-of-range as far north as Illinois.
    The New Jersey Funereal Duskywing in September 2014 was only seen one day.  

    Notable (actually very notable): in NJ 2014 (referred to in above paragraph)



    A Funereal Duskywing photographed 
    during a FONT tour in Costa Rica
    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd)
          

  168. Wild Indigo Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Erynnis baptistae

    Adult food: blackberry, clover, dogbane

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 10 Wild Indigo Duskywings.  
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 61 Wild Indigo Duskywings. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 13 Wild Indigo Duskywings. 

  169. Persius Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285)   MA(very rare)  MD(rare,stray)  NJ
    Erynnis persius

    Adult food: lupine, wild indigo

    The Persius Duskywing is classified as endangered in Massachusetts.

  170. Columbine Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis lucilius

  171. Mottled Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  MD(extirpated)  NC  NJ  VA
    Erynnis martialis

    Adult food: New Jersey tea, dogbane. Goes to damp soil. 

  172. "Appalachian" Grizzled Skipper  ______  (PE:33) (K:291)  MD(extirpated)  NJ(very rare)  VA
    Pyrgus centaureae wyandot

    Adult food: cinquefoil, strawberry, violet

    The "Appalachian" Grizzled Skipper is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

  173. Common Checkered Skipper  ______ (PE:33) (K:289) (W:65)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  jul-oct
    Pyrgus communis

    Adult food: clover, aster, fleabane 

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Ocean Co Aug 20
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Common Checkered Skippers. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 5 Common Checkered Skippers.

  174. Tropical Checkered Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:33) (K:289)   FL
    Pyrgus oileus

  175. Hayhurst's Scallopwing ______ (PE:31) (K:297)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Staphyllus hayhurstii

    Adult food: burdock, knotweed, clover

  176. Common Sootywing ______ (PE:33) (K:299) (W:66)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-sep
    Pholisora catullus

    Adult food: white sweet clover, mint, oxalis

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there was 1 Common Sootywing. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 3 Common Sootywings. 


    GRASS-SKIPPERS  (Subfamily HESPERINAE)

  177. Arctic Skipper  ______  (PE:33) (K:301)  MA  ME  NH  NJ
    Carterocephalus palaemon

  178. Swarthy Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:311)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  mar-oct
    Nastra iherminier

    Adult food: clover, mint, New Jersey tea 

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Swarthy Skipper.   

  179. Neamathia Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:311)   FL
    Nastra neamathia

  180. Three-spotted Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:34) (K:309)  FL
    Cymaenes tripunctus



    Three-spotted Skipper
    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen)

  181. Eufala Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:39) (K:353)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ  VA
    Lerodea eufala

    Adult food: aster, goatweed



    Above & below: Eufala Skipper
    Above, the butterfly; below, the caterpillar
    (these three photos courtesy of Michiel Koomen) 



    Below, again the butterfly of the Eufala Skipper   




  182. Clouded Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:309)  DE(south)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Lerema accius

    Adult food: ironweed, buttonbush, verbena

  183. European Skipper  (i/E)  ______  (PE:35) (K:305) (W:69)  DE(north, rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)  jun-aug
    Thymelicus lineola

    The European Skipper is native to Eurasia, where it is called the Essex Skipper. It was introduced into Ontario, Canada in the early 20th Century.    

    Adult food: fleabane, clover, hawkweed

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 2 European Skippers. 

  184. Southern Skipperling  ______  (PE:34) (K:305)  FL  NC
    Copaeodes minimus

  185. Least Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:305) (W:68)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-oct
    Ancyloxypha numitor

    Adult food: clover, oxalis, dogbane

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 24 Least Skippers. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 12 Least Skippers. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there was 1 Least Skipper. 

  186. Cobweb Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:317)  DE(south)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Hesperia metea

    Adult food: moss phlox, violet, clover

  187. Indian Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:319) (W:73)  DE(north, rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)  may-jun
    Hesperia sassacus

    Adult food: hawkweed, phlox, blackberry

  188. Meske's Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:319)  FL  NC
    Hesperia meskei

  189. Dotted Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:313)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ
    Hesperia attalus

    The Dotted Skipper is found in very restricted areas, and is considered threatened throughout its range.
    In eastern North America, it is classified as threatened in Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Virginia.

    Adult food: thistle, knotweed, blazing star 
    Host plants for Hesperia attalus include: Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum and Fall Witchgrass, Leptoloma cognatum.
    Natural habitats include: short grass prairies, woodland meadows, pine barrens, and dry sandy places.

  190. Common Branded Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:313)  ME
    Hesperia comma

  191. Leonard's Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:317)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  aug-sep
    Hesperia leonardus 

    Adult food: blazing star, ironweed, thistle

  192. Fiery Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:35) (K:303) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  may-aug
    Hylephila phyleus

    Adult food: tickseed sunflower, thistle, knapweed

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Jun 30



    Fiery Skipper
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  193. Sachem  (ph)  ______  (PE:37) (K:303) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Atalopedes campestris

    Adult food: Joe-pye weed, thistle, aster

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Sachem.



    Sachem  (photo by Howard Eskin)

  194. Whirlabout ______ (PE:35) (K:303)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ
    Polites vibex

    Adult food: fleabane, milkweed, dogbane

  195. Peck's Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:35) (K:323) (W:70)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-jul
    Polites peckius

    Adult food: ironweed, milkweed, thistle

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there was 1 Peck's Skipper.   
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Peck's Skipper. 



    Peck's Skipper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  196. Long Dash  ______  (PE:35) (K:323)  MA  MD  ME  NH  PA  VA(west)
    Polites mystic

    Adult food: milkweed, dogbane, hawkweed

  197. Crossline Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:325)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(coastal)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Polites origenes

    Adult food: milkweed, clover, dogbane

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Crossline Skippers.

  198. Tawny-edged Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:325) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  may-nov
    Polites termistocles

    Adult food: ironweed, dogbane, milkweed

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 3 Tawny-edged Skippers.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there was 1 Tawny-edged Skipper.

  199. Baracoa Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:325)   FL
    Polites baracoa

  200. Little Glassywing  ______  (PE:36) (K:327) (W:73)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-aug
    Pompeius verna

    Adult food: ironweed, mint, thistle 

    In northern NJ; in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 139 Little Glassywings. 
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 11 Little Glassywings. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 2 Little Glassywings.

  201. Northern Broken-Dash  ______  (PE:36) (K:327) (W:73)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  apr-sep
    Wallengrenia egeremei

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, New Jersey tea

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 133 Northern Broken-Dashes.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Northern Broken-Dashes. 

  202. Southern Broken-Dash  ______  (PE:36) (K:327)  DE(south)  FL  MD  NC  VA
    Wallengrenia otho

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, dogbane

  203. Arogos Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  FL(north)  NC(local)  NJ(very rare)
    Atrytone arogos

    The Arogos Skipper, Atrytone arogos arogos is classified as endangered in New Jersey and New York.

  204. Delaware Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:36) (K:337) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-aug
    Anatrytone logan

    Adult food: milkweed, buttonbush, mint

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 6 Delaware Skippers.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 5 Delaware Skippers. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there was 1 Delaware Skipper.  



    Delaware Skipper
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  205. Byssus Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  FL  NC(east)
    Problema byssus

  206. Rare Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  DE(rare)  MD(rare)  NC
    Problema bulenta 

    Adult food: buttonbush

    The Rare Skipper is classified as endangered in Delaware.

    In southern NJ: In 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count. on June 24, there was 1 Rare Skipper. 

  207. Hobomok Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:331) (W:71)  DE(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)  may-jul
    Poanes hobomok

    Adult food: blackberry, milkweed

  208. Zabulon Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:36) (K:331)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  may-sep
    Poanes zabulon

    The Zabulon Skipper is one of 12 southern butterfly species whose population was found to have increased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012.
    Historically rare there, it was found in the study to have increased by 18 fold in 19 years. 

    The habitat for the Zabulon Skipper varies: mainly brushy, second-growth near woods. Clearings, roadsides. Adapts to suburbs, parks, gardens. 

    Host plants for caterpillars: numerous grasses, especially lovegrass, Eragrostis, Purpletop, Tridens flava.  

    Adult food: buttonbush, blackberry, ironweed

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there was 1 Zabulon Skipper.
    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 2 Zabulon Skippers. 



    Above & below: Zabulon Skippers,
    above: males, below: a female 
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin, 
     lower photo by Marie Gardner)





  209. Broad-winged Skipper  _____  (PE:37) (K:337)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA(east)
    Poanes viator

    Adult food: buttonbush

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 588 Broad-winged Skippers.   

  210. Yehl Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:333)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Poanes yehl

  211. Mulberry Wing  ______  (PE:text) (K:331)  DE(north)  MA  MD  NH  NJ  PA
    Poanes massasoit massasoit
    Poanes massasoit chermocki 
    Chermock's Mulberry Wing  ______  DE
    (south,rare)  MD(rare)

    Adult food: swamp milkweed, buttonbush

    Poanes massasoit chermocki
    is classified as endangered in Delaware.

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 6 Mulberry Wings.

  212. Aaron's Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:333)  DE  FL  MD  NC(east)  NJ  VA(east)
    Poanes aaroni

    The Aaron's Skipper is an inhabitant of the salt marsh.

    Adult food: buttonbush

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 421 Aaron's Skippers. 

  213. Black Dash  (ph)  ______  (PE:37) (K:325) (W:73)  DE(north)  MA  MD  NH  NJ  PA  jun-aug
    Euphyes conspicua

    Euphyes conspicua
    was called the Pontiac Skipper.

    Adult food: swamp milkweed, ironweed

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 17 Black Dashes.  



    A Black Dash on Swamp Milkweed
    (photo by Jonathan Klizas)

  214. Dukes' Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Euphyes dukesi

  215. Dion Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  DE(rare)  FL(north)  MA(rare)  MD  NC(east)  NJ  VA(east)
    Euphytes dion

    Adult food: buttonbush

    The Dion Skipper is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  216. Berry's Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  FL  NC(east)
    Euphyes berryi

  217. Palmetto Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)   FL
    Euphyes arpa
     
  218. Palatka Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:333)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC(east)
    Euphyes pilatka

    Adult food: pickerelweed

  219. Two-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:333)  MA  MD(extirpated)  ME  NC(east)  NH  NJ  PA  jun-jul
    Euphyes himacula

    Adult food: ironweed, milkweed, spirea

  220. Dun Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:327) (W:74)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  jun-oct
    Euphyes vestris

    Adult food: milkweed, mint, dogbane

    In northern NJ: in 2015, during the Great Swamp Area Butterfly Count, on July 5, there were 32 Dun Skippers.
    In southern NJ, in 2105, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 3 Dun Skippers. 

    In PA: in 2015, during the Hawk Mountain Butterfly Count, on July 11, there were 4 Dun Skippers. 

  221. Dusted Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:339) (W:75)  DE(south)  FL  MA  MD(rare)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Atrytonopsis hianna 

    Adult food: clover, blackberry, low grassblades

  222. Common Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343) (W:75)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Amblyscirtes vialis

    Adult food: blackberry, phlox, cinquefoil

  223. Pepper-and-Salt Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Amblyscirtes hegon

    Adult food: fleabane, viburnum. Goes to damp soil.

  224. Dusky Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Amblyscirtes alternata

  225. Bell's Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:345)
    Amblyscirtes belli

  226. Reversed Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:345)  NC
    Amblyscirtes reversa

  227. Carolina Roadside-Skipper ______ (PE:38) (K:345)  NC
    Amblyscirtes carolina

  228. Lace-winged Roadside-Skipper ______ (PE:38) (K:345)  FL(north)  NC  VA(southeast)
    Amblyscirtes aesculapius

  229. Twin-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:353)  FL  MA  MD(rare,stray)  NC(east)
    Oligoria maculata

    Adult food: Hercules club

  230. Monk  ______  (PE:text)   FL
    Asbolis capucinus

  231. Brazilian Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:357) (W:75)  DE(rare,stray)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD(rare,stray)  NC(east)  NJ
    Calpodes ethlius

    Adult food: butterflybush

  232. Ocola Skipper ______ (PE:39) (K:355) (W:75)  DE(south)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Panoquina ocola

    Adult food: ironweed, milkweed, buttonbush

    The Ocola Skipper does long-distance, mass emigrations in the late summer. It is one of very few grass skippers to do so. Such seasonal movements are often not obvious, with some stray individuals nectaring north of range in a garden or park.

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Aug 9

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 31, Sep 4, Sep 15

  233. Obscure Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:355)   FL
    Panoquina panoquinoides

  234. Salt Marsh Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:355)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Panoquina panoquin

    Adult food: buttonbush, fleabane

    In southern NJ: in 2015, during the Cumberland County Butterfly Count, on June 24, there were 63 Salt Marsh Skippers.   

  235. Yucca Giant-Skipper ______ (PE:39) (K:359)  FL  NC
    Megathymus yuccae

  236. Cofaqui Giant-Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:359)  FL  
    Megathymus cofaqui



    Some selected reference books regarding Butterflies & Caterpillars:

    "Butterflies of the East Coast, an Observer's Guide", by Rick Cech & Guy Tudor, 2005 

    "A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler, illustrated by Vichai Malikul, 1998 

    "Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufmann (with 2,200 images & 70 photographs)

    "Butterflies through Binoculars", by Jeffrey Glassberg, 1993

    "Caterpillars of Eastern North America", by Donald L. Wagner, 2005 




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