PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

 

A List and Photo Gallery 
of 

Butterflies 
of
Eastern
NORTH 
AMERICA


(including those during 
 Focus On Nature Tours 
 in North Carolina in May-June
 and elsewhere in the East)




With LINKS to LISTS of:  MOTHS  and  DRAGONFLIES & DAMSELFLIES


List compiled by Armas Hill

(with some input by the staff from the Howell Woods Environmental Learning Center
 in Four Oaks, North Carolina)

Photo at upper right: a MOURNING CLOAK
(left) & EASTERN COMMA (right)
Photo below: a RED-SPOTTED PURPLE 
(upper photograph by Doris Potter; lower photo by Marie Gardner)

Codes:

Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the Peterson Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies, by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul (1998 edition)

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America, by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman

Numbers noted as (W:xx) refer to pages in "Caterpillars of Eastern North America"", by David Wagner, 2005. 


DE:   occurs in Delaware
FL:   occurs in Florida
MA:  occurs in Massachusetts
MD:  occurs in Maryland 
ME:  occurs in Maine

NC:  occurs in North Carolina
NH:  occurs in New Hampshire
NJ:   occurs in New Jersey
PA:  occurs in Pennsylvania
VA:  occurs in Virginia
  

(i/E): species introduced from Europe

Species classified as GLOBALLY THREATENED:
(t1):  critically endangered
(t2):  endangered
(t3):  vulnerable
(nt):  a near-threatened species globally

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website

A truly superb book about the butterflies of eastern North America is "Butterflies of the East Coast, an Observer's Guide" by Rick Cech & Guy Tudor, 2005. Books and photographs don't come much better.



In a way, of course, butterflies can be almost anywhere,
but places such as this, 
Mildred's butterfly garden in Cape May Point, New Jersey,
can be very good for seeing them.
(photo by Rise Hill).
  

Links to Butterfly Groupings in this List:

Swallowtails     Whites & Sulphurs     Gossamer-wings

Brushfoots     Satyrs & Wood-nymphs     Skippers


Other Links:


Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North America
(including. North Carolina, and Delaware, Maryland, & Virginia)
 

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours Elsewhere     FONT Past Tour Highlights

Birds during FONT Tours in North Carolina     Hummingbirds of the Americas

A List & Photo Gallery of North American Birds, in 6 parts

Other Lists & Photo Galleries in this Website:

Eastern North America Moths     Eastern North America Dragonflies & Damselflies  

Eastern North America Wildflowers & Other Plants  (with host plants for butterflies & moths)

Eastern North America Mammals (Land & Sea) noting those during FONT Tours

Eastern North America Amphibians & Reptiles    Eastern North America Marine Life

Other Lists of Butterflies, elsewhere in the world

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus with Photos in the FONT Website

Directory of Photos in this Website 

HERE'S A LINK TO CHAD KREMP'S WEBSITE RELATING TO PLANTS THAT ATTRACT BUTTERFLIES:

http://www.kremp.com/butterfly-flower-gardening-articles.htm



An Eastern Tailed-Blue
(photo by Marie Gardner)


SOME COMMENTARY REGARDING BUTTERFLY IDENTIFICATION:

"Get a guidebook, take a few years, and you'll still make mistakes. Butterfly identification has an initial, deceptive simplicity. 
Individuals in a species vary naturally, an eyespot slightly larger, a color brighter.
Males and females of a species can be strikingly dissimilar.
So can genetic morphs or forms within a gender.
In a single species, butterflies that live in a range of habitats can vary in appearance and produce different populations or geographical races, each better adapted to its environment.
Species can also produce generations of distinct morphs in the same place at different times of the year.

One Tiger Swallowtail is black. On the same flower, another Tiger Swallowtail is yellow.
Another species produces red butterflies in the wet season and blue in the dry. A species darkens in response to air pollution.
A species gains an eyespot. A species loses one."

The above commentary taken from the book, "An Obsession with Butterflies", by Sharman Apt Russell (a wonderful read).  


REGARDING A STUDY RELEASED IN AUGUST 2012 RELATING CHANGES IN BUTTERFLY POPULATIONS IN MASSACHUSETTS:

The Harvard study, conducted over 2 decades, found that populations of warm-climate-adapted butterfly species grew by as much as a thousand fold, while those of cold-climate-adapted species that have long been native to Massachusetts declined substantially, by as much as 90 per cent.

Data was collected during the 2 decades by the Massachusetts Butterfly Club, an amateur naturalist group that tracks butterfly sightings and numbers.

17 of 21 northern butterfly species in Massachusetts were found to be declining, including the Atlantis Fritillary and the Acadian Hairstreak.
12 southern butterfly species, which were rare or unseen in Massachusetts in the 1980s & 1990s, were found to have increased tremendously, especially in warmer parts of the state. Such species include the Zabulon Skipper and the Giant Swallowtail.

For most of the species in the study, climate change seems to be a stronger cause than habitat change.                 


Butterflies:

       
SWALLOWTAILS

  1. Zebra Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:25) (W:82)  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Eurytides marcellus 

    Adult food: milkweed, ironweed, blueberry, blackberry



    Zebra Swallowtail
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  2. Pipevine Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:27) (W:77)  DE  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Battus philenor

    Adult food: thistle, teasel, milkweed, ironweed 






    Pipevine Swallowtails photographed during a FONT tour
    (photos by Doris Potter)

  3. Polydamas Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:5) (K:37) (WL76)  FL
    Battus polydamas   

  4. Eastern Tiger Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:21) (W:79)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Papilio glaucus

    Dark female Eastern Tiger Swallowtails mimic the toxic Pipevine Swallowtail.

    Adult food: thistle, teasel, Joe-pye weed, dogbane



    Above: in one picture, the two forms of the Eastern Tailed Swallowtail
    The male has only the yellow form. 
    The female can be either the yellow or the black form (as shown here).
    (above photo by Howard Eskin)

    Below: the yellow form of the Eastern Tailed Swallowtail.  




    Below, two photos of dark female Eastern Tiger Swallowtails.
    The butterfly in the lowest photograph is "intermediate".   
    (both photos below, and the one immediately above by Marie Gardner) 







  5. Canadian Tiger Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:7) (K:21)  MA  ME  NH  PA
    Papilio canadensis

    The single-brooded northern populations of Tiger Swallowtails in eastern North America were recognized in 1991 as a separate species, the Canadian Tiger Swallowtail.

    And still more recently, in 2002, a large single-brooded spring population centered in the Appalachians, with reduced hindwing blue clouding, was said to be a sibling species, the Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail.



    Canadian Tiger Swallowtails, puddling. 
    Photo taken in Quebec, Canada on the Gaspe Peninsula.
    (photo by Howard Eskin) 

  6. Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail  ______  MD  PA
    Papilio appalachiensis 
     

    Adults feed at woodland flowers and at puddles.   

  7. Spicebush Swallowtail  ______ (PE:5) (K:27) (W:81)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Papilio troilus

    Although palatable, the Spicebush Swallowtail is one of several butterflies of eastern North America (such as the dark form of the female Eastern Tiger Swallowtail and the Red-spotted Purple form of the White Admiral) that mimic, for their protection, the toxic Pipevine Swallowtail.   

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, Joe-pye weed

  8. Black Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:5) (K:29) (W:80)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Papilio polyxenes

    Adult food: milkweed, thistle, Joe-pye weed 






    Above: Black Swallowtail butterflies
    Below: the caterpillar of the Black Swallowtail   
    (upper photos by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Armas Hill)



    There is a similarity in color and pattern of the Black Swallowtail caterpillar with that of the poisonous Monarch and Queen. 
    This Batesian mimicry may given the Black Swallowtail caterpillar some protection from predators that have experienced either or both of the other two species.
          
  9. Giant Swallowtail  (ph)  ______  (PE:6) (K:39) (W:78)  DE(rare)  FL  MA(has been rare)  MD(rare)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA  (the caterpillar is called Orange Dog)
    Papilio cresphontes

    Adult food: milkweed, goldenrod

    The Giant Swallowtail was one of 12 southern butterfly species whose population was found to have increased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012.  
    There were numerous reports in 2011 & 2012 throughout the state, and it may have bred. Earlier, in 2009 & 2010, there were a few sightings. Between the years 2000 & 2008, there were none. 

    Historically, there was an incursion of the Giant Swallowtail in the northeast US in the late 19th Century, in the 1870s & 1880s, as chronicled by various entomologists.
    In 1874, it was in Rye, New York, where it persisted for several years.
    In the 1870s, it was said to be "common" in the area of Berlin, Connecticut.
    In the 1880s, it persisted at some upstate New York locations, and as far north as Montreal in Canada. There were a few specimens taken in Massachusetts in the 1880s, and one shortly after 1900. 
    In the early 20th Century, it was still reported regularly in Connecticut. But by the 1930s the Giant Swallowtail had become rare throughout the northeastern US, and remained so during the rest of the century.
    The 1995-99 butterfly atlas project in Connecticut found none. The 2007 Rhode Island checklist classified the Giant Swallowtail as "historical", but there were sightings there, singly, in 1983, 1984, 1985, and then again in September 2010.

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 12, Aug 21. Ocean Co Aug 30  



    Giant Swallowtail
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  10. Schaus' Swallowtail  (t2)  ______  (PE:6) (K:41)  FL  (also called Dusky Swallowtail
    Papilio aristodemus ponceanus

  11. Palamedes Swallowtail  (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:37)  DE(very rare)  FL  MD(very rare)  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Papilio palamedes

    Adult food: milkweed, pickerelweed


    WHITES & SULPHURS

  12. Florida White  ______  (PE:7) (K:53)  FL  (also called Tropical White)
    Appias drusilla

  13. Checkered White  (ph)  ______  (PE:7) (K:49) (W:85)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ(rare)  PA  VA
    Pontia protodice

    Adult food: white clover, milkweed

    The Checkered White is classified as threatened in New Jersey.



    A Checkered White photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  14. Great Southern White  ______  (PE:8) (K:53) (W:86)  FL  MD(rare, stray)
    Ascia monuste

    Adult food: goldenrod, boneset

  15. Cabbage White (or Cabbage Butterfly) (i/E) (ph)  ______ (PE:7) (K:47) (W:84)  DE  MA  FL  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Pieris rapae

    The Cabbage White is the most abundant and widespread butterfly in the United States. It was introduced from Europe, perhaps as pupae on a cabbage crate, the Small White (as it is known in England) first appeared in Quebec in 1861. Since then it has spread to almost all of North America, except the Far North and the Deep South. 

    The Cabbage White is remarkably adaptive and resilient. It occurs in places that most butterflies find inhospitable. Often it is the only butterfly around.

    As it is a competitor for cruciferous crops such as Brussels sprouts, it was fought relentlessly with DDT in England. But it became resistant even as its predatory beetles were being knocked out, leading to a net increase in larvae on the poisoned sprouts. 

    While Pieris rapae is considered a pest in cabbage fields and broccoli patches in the United States, its eggs and larvae are easy to remove by hand in the garden.

    Adults food: thistle, clover, mint






    Above & below: Cabbage Whites
    Below a bit more yellow than white
    (photos by Marie Gardner)




  16. Mustard White  ______  (PE:8) (K:47)  MA(rare)  ME  NH  NJ
    Pieris napi (or oleracea)

    The Mustard White is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  17. West Virginia White  ______  (PE:8) (K:47)  MA  MD(rare)  NC(west)  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Pieris virginiensis

    Adult food: violet, spring beauty

  18. Falcate Orangetip ______ (PE:8) (K:57) (W:87)  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Anthocharis midea

    Adult food: violet, spring beauty, toothwort, mustard

  19. Olympia Marble  ______  (PE:8) (K:57)  MD(rare)  VA(local)
    Euchloe olympia

    Adult food: bluet, rockcress, violet

  20. Orange Sulphur  (ph)  ______ (PE:9) (K:61)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Colias eurytheme

    Adult food: clover, thistle, mint, aster



    Orange Sulphur
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  21. Clouded Sulphur  ______  (PE:9) (K:61) (W:88)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Colias philodice

    Adult food: clover, goldenrod, ironweed

  22. Pink-edged Sulphur  ______  (PE:9) (P:63)  MD(very rare)  ME  NH
    Colias interior

    Adult food: red clover, heal-all

  23. Southern Dogface  (ph)  ______  (PE:10) (K:69) (W:90)  DE(rare)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NH  NJ  VA
    Colias
    (or Zerene) cesonia  

    Adult food: goldenrod, boneset



    Southern Dogface
    (photo by Doris Potter)
     
  24. Black-bordered Orange (or Sleepy Orange) (ph) ______ (PE:11) (K:69) (W:90)  DE(local, rare)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Eurema
    (or Abaeis) nicippe

    Adult food: wild senna, clover, aster, ironweed

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Aug 23

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 23-24

  25. Cloudless Sulphur  (ph)  ______ (PE:10) (K:75) (W:89)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Phoebis sennae

    Adult food: sennas, partridge peas

    Early date:  NJ, 2012: May 26  2012 was a "come-back year" for the Cloudless Sulphur in NJ. In 2011, it was virtually a no-show.

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 21-24



    Cloudless Sulphur

  26. Statira Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:77)  FL  
    Phoebis
    (or Aphrissa) statira 

  27. Orange-barred Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:75) (W:90)  FL  NJ
    Phoebis philea

  28. Large Orange Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:75)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NJ
    Phoebis agarithe

    Adult food: butterflybush, trumpet creeper 

  29. Dina Yellow  _______  (PE:11) (K:73)  FL
    Eurema
    (or Pyrisitia) dina

  30. Little Yellow (or Little Sulphur) (ph)  ______  (PE:11) (K:71) (W:90)  DE  FL  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Eurema
    (or Pyrisitia) lisa

    Adult food: sennas, partridge pea, goldenrod

    Early date: NJ, 2012: May 6

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Atlantic Co Aug 21, Cape May Co Aug 11



    A Little Yellow with a Clouded Sulphur 
    photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  31. Mimosa Yellow  ______  (PE:11) (K:71)  FL
    Eurema
    (or Pyrisitia) nise

  32. Barred Yellow  ______  (PE:11) (K:71)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  VA
    Eurema daira

    Adult food: alfalfa

  33. Dainty Sulphur  ______  (PE:10) (K:71)  FL
    Nathalis iole


    GOSSAMER-WINGS

  34. Harvester  ______  (PE:12) (K:81) (W:92)  DE(rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Feniseca tarquinius

    Adults feed at puddles near alders, aphid honeydew

    Notable: in NJ: 2012:  Camden Co Aug 20 (3rd site for the species in NJ in 2012), Gloucester Co Aug 12-21, with egg-laying, caterpillars, chrysalids, multiple adults. 

  35. American Copper  (ph)  ______  (PE:12) (K:81) (W:93)  DE(rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Lycaena phlaeas

    Adult food: white clover, butterflyweed 

    Notable:
    in DE: 2011: Cape Henlopen Apr 18



    The population of the "American Copper" in eastern North America
    is thought to have been introduced from Europe, where it is known
    as the Small Copper.
    This butterfly was photographed in Europe, in Sweden, 
    during a FONT tour in September 2007.
    (photo by James Scheib)   

  36. Bronze Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:89) (W:95)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NH  NJ(very rare)   PA
    Lycaena hyllus

    The Bronze Copper is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

    Overall, the Bronze Copper is widespread but exists in small and isolated populations.  

    Host plants for Lycaena hyllus include: Curly Dock, Rumex crispus, Water Dock, Rumex orbiculaus, and Knotweeds, Polygonum spp.
    Adult food: dogbane, boneset, knotweed
    Natural habitats include wet or moist places such as marshes and bogs.  

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Salem Co Sep 9

  37. Bog Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:85) (W:95)  MD(very rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Lycaena epixanthe

    Adult food: cranberry flowers

  38. Dorcas Copper  ______  (PE:12) (K:85)  ME
    Lycaena dorcas claytoni

  39. Atala  ______  (PE:12) (W:96)   FL
    Eumaeus atala 

  40. Great Purple Hairstreak  ______  (PE:12) (W:97)  DE(rare)  FL  MD(rare)  NC  NJ  VA
    Atlides balesus

    Adult food: buttonbush, sweet pepperbush

  41. Coral Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (W:95)  DE(local, rare)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium titus

    Adult food: butterflyweed, New Jersey tea, dogbane

  42. Oak Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (W:95)  (has been called Southern Hairstreak)
    Satyrium favonius

    SUBSPECIES:
    Satyrium favonius ontario  Northern Oak Hairstreak  ______  MA  MD
    (rare)  NC  PA  VA
    Satyrium favonius favonius 
    Southern Oak Hairstreak  ______  FL

    Adult food of the Northern Oak Hairsteak: dogbane, NJ tea, milkweed 

  43. Acadian Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14)  MA  MD(rare,stray)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Satyrium acadica

    Adult food: burdock

    The Acadian Hairstreak is one of 17 northern butterfly species whose population was found to have decreased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012. 

  44. Edwards' Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (W:95)  MA  MD(very rare)  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium edwardsii

    Adult food: NJ tea, milkweed, goldenrod

  45. Banded Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:98)  DE(local)  FL  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium calanus

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, NJ tea

  46. Hickory Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:95)  MA  MD(extirpated)  NC  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Satyrium caryaevorum

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, sumac, bee balm

  47. King's Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95)  DE(south)  FL(north)  MD(very rare)  NC
    Satryium kingi

    Adult food: milkweed, catbriar leaves (for perching)

    The King's Hairstreak is classified as endangered in Delaware and Maryland.  

  48. Striped Hairstreak  ______  (PE:14) (K:95) (W:99)  DE(rare)  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrium liparops

    Adult food: dogbane, NJ tea, viburnum

  49. Brown Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105)  DE(south)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Callophrys
    (or Deciduphagus) angustinus

    Adult food: laurel leaves, huckleberry, blueberry

  50. Hoary Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105) (W:95)  MA  MD(very rare)  ME  NJ
    Callophrys
    (or Deciduphagus) polios

    Adult food: lowbush blueberry

  51. Frosted Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105)  DE(south, very rare)  MA  MD(very rare)  NC  NH(very rare)  NJ(rare)  PA  VA
    Callophrys
    (or Deciduphagus) irus

    Adult food: lupine, wild indigo 

    The Frosted Elfin is classified as endangered in Delaware, Maryland, and New Hampshire, and as threatened in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York  It has been extirpated in northern Delaware. 

    During the two decades prior to 2012, the Frosted Elfin, was classified as a species of special concern in Massachusetts, and it received formal protection. During that time, the population of that southerly species in the state increased. It is thought that increase may also have been due to climate change, a warming trend.   

  52. Henry's Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:105) (W:100)  DE(south)  MA  MD  ME(coastal)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Callophrys
    (or Deciduphagus) henrici

    Adult food: phlox, redbud. Goes to puddles. 

  53. Eastern Pine Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:107) (W:101)  DE(south)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Callophrys
    (or Incisalia) niphon

    Adult food: pussytoes, lupine, wild plum 

  54. Bog Elfin  ______  (PE:14) (K:107)  MA(rare)  ME  NH
    Callophrys
    (or Incisalia) lanoraieenis

    The Bog Elfin is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  55. Juniper Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:111) (W:102)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NH  PA  VA
    Callophrys
    (or Mitoura) gryneus

    Adult food: eastern red cedar (at treetops), mountain mint, pussytoes 

  56. Hessel's Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:111)  DE(south)  MA  MD(extirpated)  NC(east)  NH  NJ  VA(east)  
    Callophrys
    (or Mitoura) hesseli

    Adult food: sweet pepperbush, blueberry. Goes to wet sand. 

    The Hessel's Hairstreak is classified as endangered in Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, and New York.

  57. White M Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:93) (W:95)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Parrhasius m-album

    Adult food: boneset, viburnum, goldenrod

  58. Gray Hairstreak ______ (PE:15) (K:93) (W:103)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Strymon melinus

    Adult food: white clover, trefoils, milkweed, mint

  59. Martial Scrub-Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:121)   FL
    Strymon martialis

  60. Bartram's (or Caribbean) Scrub-Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:121)   FL
    Strymon acis

  61. Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak  (ph)  ______  (PE:14) (K:121)  FL
    Strymon istapa 



    A Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  62. Fulvous Hairstreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:103)  FL
    Electrostrymon angelica

  63. Red-banded Hairstreak ______ (PE:13) (K:103)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Calycopis cecrops

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, sumac, leaf tips

  64. Gray Ministreak  ______  (PE:13) (K:119)   FL  (has also been called Azia Hairstreak)
    Ministrymon (or Tmolus) azia

  65. Silver-banded Hairstreak  ______  (P:13) (K:117)  FL
    Chlorostrymon simaethis 

  66. Early Hairstreak  ______  (PE:15) (K:115)  MA(rare)  MD(very rare)  ME  NC  NH  PA  VA(west)
    Erora laeta

    Adult food: spring beauty, fleabane. Goes to puddles.  

  67. Eastern Pygmy Blue  _______  (PE:15) (K:127)  FL
    Brephidium isophthalma  

  68. Cassius Blue  (ph)  ______  (PE:16) (K:127)   FL
    Leptotes cassius



    Above & below: A Cassius Blue
    photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photos by Marie Gardner)



  69. Ceraunus Blue  ______  (PE:15) (K:129)   FL
    Hemiargus ceraunus

  70. Miami Blue  ______  (PE:15) (K:129)   FL
    Hemiargus
    (or Cyclargus) thomasi

  71. Acacia Blue  ______  (K:129)   FL  (also called Nickerbean Blue)
    Hemiargus
    (or Cyclargus) ammon  

  72. Eastern Tailed-Blue  (ph)  ______ (PE:16) (K:125) (W:104)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Everes comyntas

    Adult food: clovers, trefoils, legumes 



    Above & below: an Eastern Tailed-Blue
    In the upper photo, notice the tails.
    (photos by Marie Gardner)




  73. Spring Azure  (ph)  ______ (PE:16) (K:131) (W:105)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Celastrina ladon

    A breakdown pertaining to "splits" in this species complex follows.    



    Spring Azures photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Doris Potter)


    A BREAKDOWN OF THE "SPRING AZURE SPECIES":


    Spring (or Edwards') Azure  ______  DE  NJ  PA  (occurs in deciduous woods from central New England to northern Florida)
    Celastrina ladon

    In the above form, the pale "violaceae" morph predominates, but "lucia" and "marginata" sometimes occur in the northern part of the range.

    Adult food: apple, spicebush. Goes to puddles. 



    The pale "violaceae" morph of the Spring Azure
    (photo by Rise Hill)


    Northern Azure  ______  NJ  MD
    (rare)  (not systematically described)  (occurs south to about New Jersey)
    Celastrina lucia

    Adult Northern Azures perch on black cherry. Goes to puddles.  


    Cherry Gall Azure  ______  NJ  MD 
    (a confusing segregate; not yet systematically described)  (has been combined with the next form, the Atlantic, or Holly, Azure)  (occurs mainly in southern New England and New York, including Long Island, and west into central Pennsylvania; not in the New Jersey Pine Barrens)
    Celastrina sp.

    Adults food: flowering olive, leaf tips. Goes to puddles. 


    Atlantic
    (or Holly) Azure  ______  DE  MD  NJ  (a distinctive segregate)  (occurs in coastal plain woodlands and pine barrens, often near acid bogs or cedar swamps)  (another name is Pine Barren Azure)
    Celastrina idella

    About 95 per cent of the Atlantic Azures surveyed are of the "violaceae" morph. 

    Adult food: highbush blueberry. Goes to puddles. 


    Summer Azure ______ (K:131)  DE  MA  MD  NC  NJ
    Celastrina (ladon) neglecta

    The Summer Azure has been considered part of the Spring Azure.

    Adult food: small-bracted dogwood blossoms, dogbane. Goes to puddles.

  74. Appalachian Azure  ______  (PE:16) (K:131)  DE(north, very rare)  MD(rare)  NC(west)  NJ  PA  VA(west)  (another name is Appalachian Blue)
    Celestrina neglectamajor

    Adult food: viburnum, blackberry, leaf tips. Goes to puddles.  

  75. Dusky Azure  ______  (PE:16) (K:131)  MD(extirpated)  NC(west)  PA  VA(west)
    Celastrina nigra
    (or ebenina)

    Adult food: violet, geranium. Goes to damp soil. 

  76. Silvery Blue  ______  (PE:16) (K:125) (W:106)  MD  MA  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Glaucopsyche lygdamus

    Adult food: redbud, cinquefoil, composites

  77. "Crowberry"  Northern Blue  ______  (K:135)  ME
    Lycaeides idas empetri

  78. "Karner"  Melissa Blue  ______  (K:135)  NH(rare)
    Lycaeides melissa samuelis

    Lycaeides melissa samuelis
    is a US federally endangered species. In the East, small populations exist in New Hampshire and New York. Elsewhere, there are small populations in: Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin.    

  79. Northern Metalmark  ______  (PE:17) (K:143) (W:107)  MD  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Calephelis borealis

    Adult food: yarrow, goldenrod, fleabane

  80. Little Metalmark  ______  (PE:17) (K:143)  MD(very rare)  NC(east)  VA(southeast)
    Calephelis virginiensis

    Adult food: thistle, goldenrod


    BRUSHFOOTS

  81. American Snout  ______  (PE:18) (K:223) (W:109)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Libytheana carinenta

    Adult food: dogbane, aster. Goes to puddles.

  82. Zebra Longwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:155) (W:112)  FL  MD(very rare)  NC
    Heliconius charitonius

    Adult food: lantana, zinnias 



    A Zebra Longwing photographed during a FONT tour

  83. Julia  (or Julia Heliconian)  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:157) (W:111)   FL
    Dryas iulia



    A Julia Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour 

  84. Gulf Fritillary  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:157) (W:110)  DE(rare,stray)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ
    Agraulis vanillae

    Adult food: composites



    Above & below: Gulf Fritillary butterflies
    The lower photo was the first documenting photograph of the species
    in Kent County, Delaware, in August 2012.  
    (both photos by Howard Eskin) 




  85. Variegated Fritillary  (ph)  ______ (PE:20) (K:157) (W:122)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Euptoieta claudia

    Adult food: red clover, milkweed, thistle






    Two photographs of the Variegated Fritillary
    (upper photo by Doris Potter, during a FONT tour:
     lower photo by Marie Gardner)

  86. Diana Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:159) (W:125)  MD(rare,stray)  NC(west)  VA(west)
    Speyeria diana

    Adult food: milkweed, thistle, ironweed

  87. Regal Fritillary  (t3)  ______  (PE:20) (K:159) (W:125)  DE(extirpated)  MD(extirpated)  NJ  PA(local)  VA(local)
    Speyeria idalia

    The Regal Fritillary is a species of tall-grass prairies and occurs in remnants of that habitat. Its geographic range has been from eastern Montana east across the United States to Maine.
    However, it is now very rare or at best locally common in that range, and now rare or absent from the former range east of the Appalachians.
    it has been recorded in southern Ontario and Manitoba, but seems not to have permanent colonies in Canada.

    The sudden and poorly understood decline of the Regal Fritillary in the eastern United States has been startling. The butterfly was locally common until the 1970s. It simply vanished by about 1988. Presently, only a handful of known colonies remain in the East, now in Pennsylvania and Virginia. The Virginia colony was found only in 1997.

    In Pennsylvania, the Regal Fritillary colony is on the grounds of the Fort Indiantown Gap military facility in the south-central part of the state. That colony is the largest population of the species remaining east of Indiana. That population in Pennsylvania is about 1,000 adults, and it has been secure since monitoring began in 1998.

    The Virginia population, referred to above, is on the grounds of another military facility, the Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

    Adult food: butterflyweed, thistle, ironweed

  88. Great Spangled Fritillary  (ph)  _____ (PE:20) (K:159) (W:123)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(mostly west)
    Speyeria cybele

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, Joe-pye weed 

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Salem Co Aug 17



    Great Spangled Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  89. Aphrodite Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:167) (W:125)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Speyeria aphrodite

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, dogbane, butterflyweed

  90. Atlantis Fritillary  ______  (PE:20) (K:167) (W:125)  MA  MD(very rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Speyeria atlantis

    Adult food: spirea, dogbane, milkweed

    The Atlantic Fritillary is one of 17 northern butterfly species whose population was found to have decreased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012. 
    It was found to have declined by more than 80 per cent. 
    The species has not (yet) had formal protection in the state.  

  91. Meadow Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:169) (W:125)  DE(north, very rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Boloria bellona

    Adult food: dogbane, spearmint, Queen Anne's lace

  92. Silver-bordered Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:171) (W:125)  DE(extirpated)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NH  NJ(rare)  PA
    Boloria selene

    There has been a decline of the population of the Silver-bordered Fritillary in parts of eastern North America, possibly due to changes in land use.  
    The single-brooded subspecies in Maryland, B. s. marilandica, now appears to be extinct.    

    The more-widespread subspecies of the Silver-bordered Fritillary still in the eastern United States is Boloria selene myrina.
    Two darker subspecies occur in Canada: B. s. terranova & B. s. atrocostalis.
    A larger subspecies, B. s. nebraskensis, is further west in the United States.

    In Eurasia, where the Silver-bordered Fritillary also occurs, it is called the Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary. The nominate subspecies occurs in Eurasia.          

    The Silver-bordered Fritillary, Boloria selene myrina, is classified as threatened in New Jersey.

  93. Bog Fritillary  ______  (PE:18) (K:171)  ME
    Boloria eunomia

  94. Purplish Fritillary  _______  (K:175)  NH
    Boloria montinus 
    (or Chariclea montina  

  95. Pearl Crescent  (ph)  ______ (PE:22) (K:177) (W:126)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Phyciodes tharos

    Adult food: butterflyweed, milkweed



    Pearl Crescent
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  96. Northern Crescent  ______  (PE:22) (K:177)  ME  NH  NJ  PA(northwest)
    Phyciodes selenis 
    (or cocyta)

    Adult food: clover, fleabane, dogbane

  97. Tawny Crescent  ______  (PE:22) (K:177)  MD(extirpated)  NC(far-west)  NJ
    Phyciodes batesii

    Adult food: milkweed, thistle, dogbane

    The Tawny Crescent seems to be extirpated in some eastern states such as Pennsylvania & New York, such that now there is an isolated population in southwestern North Carolina & adjacent Georgia.

    In North Carolina, Phyciodes batesii is common at a few sites in Clay County. The occurrence of the butterfly in the mountains is not known north of Buncombe County, North Carolina.

  98. Phaon Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:181) (W:125)  FL  NC(east)
    Phyciodes phaon
     

  99. Cuban Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:183)   FL
    Phyciodes
    (or Anthanassa) frisia

  100. "Seminole"  Texan Crescent  ______  (PE:21) (K:183)  FL
    Phyciodes
    (or Anthanassa) texana seminole

  101. Gorgone Checkerspot  ______  (PE:19) (K:185)
    Chlosyne gorgone

  102. Silvery Checkerspot  (ph)  ______  (PE:19) (K:185) (W:127)  MD  MA  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Chlosyne nycteis 

    Adult food: sunflower, dogbane, fleabane, clover



    Silvery Checkerspot
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  103. Harris' Checkerspot  ______  (PE:19) (K:185) (W:125)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA(north)
    Chlosyne barrisii

    Adult food: daisy fleabane, hawkweed, composites

  104. Baltimore Checkerspot  ______  (PE:22) (K:195) (W:128)  DE(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Euphydryas phaeton

    Adult food: milkweed, daisy, dogbane

  105. Question Mark  (ph)  ______  (PE:22) (K:197) (W:114)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polygonia interrogationis

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil. 



    Question Mark
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  106. Eastern Comma  (ph)  ______  (PE:22) (K:197) (W:113)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polygonia comma

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.  





    Eastern Comma
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  107. Satyr Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:197)  ME
    Polygonia satyrus

  108. Green Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:199)  MA  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ
    Polygonia faunus

  109. Hoary Comma  ______  (PE:23) (K:199)  ME
    Polygonia gracilis

  110. Gray Comma  ______  (PE:22) (K:199) (W:121)  DE(rare)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA
    Polygonia progne

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  111. Compton Tortoiseshell  ______  (PE:23) (K:201) (W:121)  MA  MD(very rare as a breeder)  ME  NH  PA
    Nymphalis
    (or Roddia) vau-album

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    In Eurasia, where Nymphalis vau-album also occurs, it is called the False Comma.  

  112. Mourning Cloak  (ph)  ______  (PE:23) (K:203) (W:115)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Nymphalis antiopa

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    In Europe, where the Mourning Cloak also occurs, it is called the Camberwell Beauty.



    Mourning Cloak
    (left) & Eastern Comma (right)
    (photo by Doris Potter)


  113. Milbert's Tortoiseshell  ______  (PE:23) (K:201) (W:116)  DE(rare, north)  MA  MD(rare,stray)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Nymphalis
    (or Aglais) milberti

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, ironweed

  114. Red Admiral  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:203) (W:117)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Vanessa atalania

    The name Red Admiral is a latter-day contraction of its older name  "Red Admirable". It is not closely related to the true admirals (in the genus Limenitis), but is instead a lady (in the genus Vanessa).

    The northward movement of the Red Admiral in the spring and early summer is well known, both in North America and in Europe (different populations).
    Along the East Coast of the US, massive spring flights have occurred about once a decade recently: in 1981, 1990, 2001, and then again in 2012. Such peaks tend to be followed by precipitous population crashes.

    Adult food: tree sap, rotting fruit, Joe-pye weed  



    A Red Admiral & a Yellow Jacket (a wasp, not a bee)
    (photo by Marie Gardner)



    Red Admiral on Thistle
    (photo by Howard Eskin)
     
  115. American Lady  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:205) (W:119)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Vanessa virginiensis  

    Old names for the American Lady were Hunter's Butterfly, and the Painted Beauty. 

    The pink flush at the base of the ventral forewing of the American Lady rivals the brightest pinks in the animal kingdom. It is more intense than the color of any flamingo. (see the third photo below) 

    Adult food: milkweed, dogbane, clover



    Above & below: the American Lady
    (photo above by Howard Eskin; 
     the first two photos below by Marie Gardner)











    The American Lady, Vanessa virginiensis, and the Painted Lady, Vanessa cardui, are similar.

    The hindwing of the ventral surface of the American Lady (above) has a lovely, complex cobweb pattern,
    and two large eyespots near the outer margins, compared to a series of smaller "eyes" in the Painted Lady (below).    

  116. Painted Lady  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:205) (W:118)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Vanessa cardui

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, aster

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 29-Sep 1, with 800 counted Aug 31 & 600 counted Sep 1  



    Painted Lady
    (photo by Doris Potter during a FONT tour) 

  117. Common (or Northern) Buckeye  (ph)  ______ (PE:23) (K:207) (W:120)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Junonia coenia

    Adult food: aster, goldenrod, Queen Anne's lace 



    Common Buckeye on Goldenrod
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  118. Tropical Buckeye  ______  (PE:23) (K:207)   FL
    Junonia genovera zonalis

  119. Mangrove Buckeye  ______  (PE:23) (K:207)   FL
    Junonia evarete

  120. White Peacock  (ph)  ______  (PE:24) (K:209) (W:121)  FL  NC(east)
    Anartia jatrophae



    White Peacock

  121. White Admiral  ______  (PE:24) (K:211)  MD(rare)  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Limenitis arthemis arthemis

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil. 

  122. Red-spotted Purple  (ph) ______ (PE:24) (K:211) (W:121)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Limenitis arthemis astyanax 
    (conspecific with the more-northerly White Admiral)

    The marginal orange spots makes the Red-spotted Purple form of the White Admiral a good mimic of the distasteful Pipevine Swallowtail.    

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil. 






    Red-spotted Purples
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Rise Hill)

  123. Viceroy  (ph)  ______ (PE:24) (K:211) (W:130)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Limenitis archippus

    The Viceroy is a mimic of the widespread and conspicuous (but distasteful) Monarch. The Viceroy is recognized with its postmedian black line on the hindwing and a SINGLE row of white spots in the black marginal band.

    Adult food: flowers, rotting fruit. Goes to damp soil.



    Above & below: the Viceroy
    (upper photo by Doris Potter; lower photo by Marie Gardner)




  124. Malachite  (ph)  ______  (PE:26) (K:209) (W:129)   FL
    Siproeta stelenes



    Malachite

  125. Dingy Purplewing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:215)   FL
    Eunica montima



    Dingy Purplewing

  126. Florida Purplewing  (ph)   ______  (PE:25) (K:215)   FL  (has also been called Large Purplewing)
    Eunica tatila



    Florida Purplewing

  127. Ruddy Daggerwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:219) (W:129)   FL
    Marpesia petreus 



    Ruddy Daggerwing

  128. Florida Leafwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:221)   FL
    Anaea (troglodyta) floridalis



    Florida Leafwing

  129. Goatweed Leafwing  (ph)  ______  (PE:25) (K:221) (W:129)   FL
    Anaea andria 



    Goatweed Leafwing
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  130. Hackberry Emperor ______ (PE:26) (K:223)  DE(rare)  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Asterocampa celtis

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  131. Tawny Emperor  ______  (PE:26) (K:223) (W:131)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Asterocampa clyton

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  132. Monarch  (ph)  ______ (PE:27) (K:227) (W:138)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Danaus plexippus

    Adult food: milkweeds, goldenrod



    Above: The Monarch, stage #1: the Caterpillar
    (this & the following photo by Doris Potter)



    Above: The Monarch, stage #2: the Chyrsalid



    Above: The Monarch, stage #3: the Butterfly
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

    The Monarch is one of the few butterflies to migrate long distances. It undertakes seasonal flights that rival those of many birds.
    Monarchs mate on the ground. Then the male carries his partner aloft.
    The metamorphosis from egg to butterfly (as in the 3 photos above) takes about a month.
    The last generation of butterflies born each summer become fall migrants to mostly the pine-clad mountains of central Mexico. with some in western north America to coastal California.
    With no older generations to guide them, Monarchs migrate by a genetically inherited navigation system, traveling in fronts of hundreds of thousands of individuals. They can cover up to 180 miles a day, flying, gliding, and soaring on updrafts of air. 
    Reaching their destination, the butterflies spend the winter clustered in groves of trees.



    In Mexico, where Monarchs winter, not only are the pine trees covered with them,
    so is the ground below where the butterflies and pine needles fall.
    This photograph was taken during a FONT tour in the mountains of central Mexico.
    (photo by Alan Brady)
       
  133. Queen  (ph)  ______  (PE:27) (K:229) (W:137)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ(rare)  VA
    Danaus gilippus

    Adult food: milkweeds, goldenrod

    The Queen is a rare stray along the Atlantic coastal plain as far north as Massachusetts.






    Two Photos above of the Queen
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

  134. Soldier  (ph)  ______  (PE:27) (K:229)  FL
    Danaus eresimus



    SATYRS & WOOD-NYMPHS

  135. Georgia Satyr  ______  (PE:28) (K:233) (W:136)  FL  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Neonympha areolata

  136. Mitchell's Satyr  (t1)  ______  (PE:28) (K:233)  MD(extirpated)  NC(local)  NJ(very rare)  VA(local)
    Neonympha mitchellii

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

    The Mitchell's Satyr is classified as endangered in New Jersey. 

    SUBSPECIES:
    Neonympha mitchellii francisci  Saint Francis' Satyr  ______  NC(local)  VA(local)

    Neonymoha mitchellii francisci occurs in sand hills in North Carolina in Hoke and Cumberland counties. Also a population has been found in Virginia.

  137. Carolina Satyr ______ (PE:28) (K:231) (W:136)  FL  MD(rare)  NC  NJ  VA
    Hermeuptychia sosybius

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  138. Gemmed Satyr ______ (PE:28) (K:235) (W:136)  FL(north)  MD(extirpated)  NC  VA
    Cyllopsis gemma

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  139. Little Wood-Satyr  ______  (PE:27) (K:231) (W:132)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Megisto cymela cymela
    Megisto cymela viola 
    "Viola's Little Wood-Satyr"  ______  (PE:27)  (K:231)  FL
    (north) 

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil



    Little Wood-Satyr 
    Megisto cymela cymela
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  140. Common Ringlet  ______  (PE:28) (K:241) (W:134)  MA  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Coenonympha tullia

  141. Common Wood-Nymph  ______  (PE:28) (K:237) (W:135)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Cercyonis pegala

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap, flowers. Goes to damp soil.

  142. Northern Pearly-eye  ______  (PE:27) (K:239) (W:133)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Enodia anthedon 

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  143. Southern Pearly-eye ______ (PE:27) (K:239)  NC  NJ  VA(southeast)
    Enodia portlandia

  144. Creole Pearly Eye ______ (PE:27) (K:239)  NC  VA(south)
    Enodia creola

  145. Eyed Brown  ______  (PE:27) (K:239)  DE(extirpated)  MA  ME  NH  NJ  PA
    Satyrodes eurydice

  146. Appalachian Brown  ______  (PE:27) (K:239) (W:136)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Satyrodes appalachia

    Adult food: rotting fruit, tree sap. Goes to damp soil.

  147. Melissa Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:251)  NH
    Oeneis melissa

  148. Polixenes Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:251)  ME
    Oeneis polixenes

  149. Jutta Arctic  ______  (PE:29) (K:253)  ME
    Oeneis jutta


    SKIPPERS

  150. Mangrove Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267) (W:67)  FL
    Phocides pigmalion

  151. Hammock Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267) (W:67)  FL
    Polygonus leo

  152. Long-tailed Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:269) (W:60)  DE(north)  FL  MA(rare)  ND(rare)  NC  NJ  VA  (the caterpillar is called the Bean Leaf Roller)
    Urbanus proteus

    Adult food: butterfly bush, composites

    The Long-tailed Skipper is a flashy mostly neotropical species. It can be very common in the southeastern US, especially in the late summer. Further north, it is an irregular emigrant, but its late-season appearances are local and unpredictable.

    In the northeastern US, the Long-tailed Skipper occurred with some regularity from the late 1800s to the mid 1900s. 
    Then, it virtually disappeared in that region for about 40 years. 
    It returned north in numbers during the 1990s. 
    The long period of absence is unexplained. Some say that the increased cultivation of soybeans in the southeastern US may have caused the resurgence.   

    In 2012, mostly in Sep, Long-tailed Skippers were found in 9 counties in New Jersey: Atlantic, Bergen, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Morris, Ocean, Somerset.   

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Aug 29 



    Above & below: Long-tailed Skipper
    (these photos taken in Cape May, New Jersey by Rise Hill)





  153. Dorantes Longtail  ______  (PE:text) (K:269)   FL  MD(very rare)
    Urbanus dorantes

    Adult food: lantana

  154. Zestos Skipper  ______  (PE:30) (K:267)   FL
    Epargyreus zestos

  155. Silver-spotted Skipper ______ (P:30) (K:257) (W:59)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Epargyreus clarus

    Adult food: ironweed, Joe-pye weed, milkweed



    Above & below: Silver-spotted Skippers
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Howard Eskin)




  156. Golden-banded Skipper  ______  (PE:31) (K:257)  DE(extirpated)  MD(extirpated)  NC(west)  NJ  VA(west)
    Autochton cellus

    Adult food: dogbane, honeysuckle, wild hydrangea, buttonbush

  157. Hoary Edge  ______  (PE:31) (K:259) (W:61)  DE(rare)  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Achalarus lyciades

    Adult food: clover, milkweed, dogbane

  158. Southern Cloudywing  ______  (PE:31) (K:261)  DE(south)  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Thorybes bathyllus

    Adult food: dogbane, clover, milkweed

    The common names given to cloudywings in eastern North America just don't seem right. 
    The Southern Cloudywing could more aptly be called the Eastern Cloudywing.
    The Confused Cloudywing (below) might better be the Southern, or the Southeastern Cloudywing.
    And the Northern Cloudywing (also below) might better be called the Common Cloudywing, as it is the most widespread species in the genus ranging further north into Canada and further south into Mexico than either the other two cloudywings just mentioned. It is also far more common and widespread than any other member of the Thorybes genus.    

  159. Confused Cloudywing  ______  (PE:31) (K:261)  DE(extirpated)  FL(north)  MD(extirpated)  NC  NJ  VA
    Thorybes confusis

    Adult food: milkweed, clover, thistle

  160. Northern Cloudywing  _____  (PE:31) (K:261) (W:62)  DE(south)  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Thorybes pylades

    Adult food: dogbane, Joe-pye weed, clover



    Northern Cloudywing
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  161. Florida Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287) (W:67)   FL
    Ephyriades brunneus

  162. Dreamy Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285) (W:63)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis icelus

    Adult food: redbud, hawkweed, clover. Goes to damp soil.

  163. Sleepy Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285)  DE(rare)  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis brizo

    Adult food: blueberry, blackberry. Goes to damp soil.

  164. Juvenal's Duskywing ______ (PE:32) (K:281) (W:64)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis juvenalis

    Adult food: violet, cinquefoil. Goes to damp soil. 

  165. Horace's Duskywing ______ (PE:32) (K:281)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis horatius

    Adult food: buttonbush, dogbane, goldenrod

  166. Zarucco Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:281)  DE(rare)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ  VA
    Erynnis zarucco

    Adult food: boneset, camphorweed

  167. Wild Indigo Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis baptistae

    Adult food: blackberry, clover, dogbane

  168. Persius Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:285)   MA(very rare)  MD(rare,stray)  NJ
    Erynnis persius

    Adult food: lupine, wild indigo

    The Persius Duskywing is classified as endangered in Massachusetts.

  169. Columbine Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  NJ  PA  VA
    Erynnis lucilius

  170. Mottled Duskywing  ______  (PE:32) (K:287)  MD(extirpated)  NC  NJ  VA
    Erynnis martialis

    Adult food: New Jersey tea, dogbane. Goes to damp soil. 

  171. "Appalachian" Grizzled Skipper  ______  (PE:33) (K:291)  MD(extirpated)  NJ(very rare)  VA
    Pyrgus centaureae wyandot

    Adult food: cinquefoil, strawberry, violet

    The "Appalachian" Grizzled Skipper is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

  172. Common Checkered Skipper  ______ (PE:33) (K:289) (W:65)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Pyrgus communis

    Adult food: clover, aster, fleabane 

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Ocean Co Aug 20

  173. Tropical Checkered Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:33) (K:289)   FL
    Pyrgus oileus

  174. Hayhurst's Scallopwing ______ (PE:31) (K:297)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Staphyllus hayhurstii

    Adult food: burdock, knotweed, clover

  175. Common Sootywing ______ (PE:33) (K:299) (W:66)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Pholisora catullus

    Adult food: white sweet clover, mint, oxalis


    GRASS-SKIPPERS: Subfamily HESPERINAE

  176. Arctic Skipper  ______  (PE:33) (K:301)  MA  ME  NH  NJ
    Carterocephalus palaemon

  177. Swarthy Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:311)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Nastra iherminier

    Adult food: clover, mint, New Jersey tea 

  178. Neamathia Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:311)   FL
    Nastra neamathia

  179. Three-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:309)  FL
    Cymaenes tripunctus

  180. Eufala Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:353)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ  VA
    Lerodea eufala

    Adult food: aster, goatweed

  181. Clouded Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:309)  DE(south)  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Lerema accius

    Adult food: ironweed, buttonbush, verbena

  182. European Skipper  (i/E)  ______  (PE:35) (K:305) (W:69)  DE(north, rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Thymelicus lineola

    The European Skipper is native to Eurasia, where it is called the Essex Skipper. It was introduced into Ontario, Canada in the early 20th Century.    

    Adult food: fleabane, clover, hawkweed

  183. Southern Skipperling  ______  (PE:34) (K:305)  FL  NC
    Copaeodes minimus

  184. Least Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:305) (W:68)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Ancyloxypha numitor

    Adult food: clover, oxalis, dogbane

  185. Cobweb Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:317)  DE(south)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Hesperia metea

    Adult food: moss phlox, violet, clover

  186. Indian Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:319) (W:73)  DE(north, rare)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Hesperia sassacus

    Adult food: hawkweed, phlox, blackberry

  187. Meske's Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:319)  FL  NC
    Hesperia meskei

  188. Dotted Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:313)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ
    Hesperia attalus

    The Dotted Skipper is found in very restricted areas, and is considered threatened throughout its range.
    In eastern North America, it is classified as threatened in Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Virginia.

    Adult food: thistle, knotweed, blazing star 
    Host plants for Hesperia attalus include: Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum and Fall Witchgrass, Leptoloma cognatum.
    Natural habitats include: short grass prairies, woodland meadows, pine barrens, and dry sandy places.

  189. Common Branded Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:313)  ME
    Hesperia comma

  190. Leonard's Skipper  ______  (PE:34) (K:317)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Hesperia leonardus 

    Adult food: blazing star, ironweed, thistle

  191. Fiery Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:35) (K:303) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Hylephila phyleus

    Adult food: tickseed sunflower, thistle, knapweed

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Jun 30



    Fiery Skipper
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  192. Sachem  ______  (PE:37) (K:303) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Atalopedes campestris

    Adult food: Joe-pye weed, thistle, aster

  193. Whirlabout ______ (PE:35) (K:303)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC  NJ
    Polites vibex

    Adult food: fleabane, milkweed, dogbane

  194. Peck's Skipper  (ph)  ______  (PE:35) (K:323) (W:70)  DE  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polites peckius

    Adult food: ironweed, milkweed, thistle



    Peck's Skipper
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  195. Long Dash  ______  (PE:35) (K:323)  MA  MD  ME  NH  PA  VA(west)
    Polites mystic

    Adult food: milkweed, dogbane, hawkweed

  196. Crossline Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:325)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(coastal)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polites origenes

    Adult food: milkweed, clover, dogbane

  197. Tawny-edged Skipper  ______  (PE:35) (K:325) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Polites termistocles

    Adult food: ironweed, dogbane, milkweed

  198. Baracoa Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:325)   FL
    Polites baracoa

  199. Little Glassywing  ______  (PE:36) (K:327) (W:73)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Pompeius verna

    Adult food: ironweed, mint, thistle 

  200. Northern Broken-Dash  ______  (PE:36) (K:327) (W:73)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  ME(south)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Wallengrenia egeremei

    Adult food: dogbane, milkweed, New Jersey tea

  201. Southern Broken-Dash  ______  (PE:36) (K:327)  DE(south)  FL  MD  NC  VA
    Wallengrenia otho

    Adult food: thistle, milkweed, dogbane

  202. Arogos Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  FL(north)  NC(local)  NJ(very rare)
    Atrytone arogos

    The Arogos Skipper, Atrytone arogos arogos is classified as endangered in New Jersey and New York.

  203. Delaware Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:36) (K:337) (W:73)  DE  FL  MA  MD  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Anatrytone logan

    Adult food: milkweed, buttonbush, mint



    Delaware Skipper
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  204. Byssus Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  FL  NC(east)
    Problema byssus

  205. Rare Skipper ______ (PE:36) (K:337)  DE(rare)  MD(rare)  NC
    Problema bulenta 

    Adult food: buttonbush

    The Rare Skipper is classified as endangered in Delaware.

  206. Hobomok Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:331) (W:71)  DE(north)  MA  MD  ME  NC(west)  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Poanes hobomok

    Adult food: blackberry, milkweed

  207. Zabulon Skipper  (ph)  ______ (PE:36) (K:331)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Poanes zabulon

    Adult food: buttonbush, blackberry, ironweed

    The Zabulon Skipper is one of 12 southern butterfly species whose population was found to have increased during a two-decade study in Massachusetts released in August 2012.
    Historically rare there, it was found in the study to have increased by 18 fold in 19 years. 



    Zabulon Skipper
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  208. Broad-winged Skipper  _____  (PE:37) (K:337)  DE  FL(north)  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA(east)
    Poanes viator

    Adult food: buttonbush

  209. Yehl Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:333)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Poanes yehl

  210. Mulberry Wing  ______  (PE:text) (K:331)  DE(north)  MA  MD  NH  NJ  PA
    Poanes massasoit massasoit
    Poanes massasoit chermocki 
    Chermock's Mulberry Wing  ______  DE
    (south,rare)  MD(rare)

    Adult food: swamp milkweed, buttonbush

    Poanes massasoit chermocki
    is classified as endangered in Delaware.

  211. Aaron's Skipper  ______  (PE:36) (K:333)  DE  FL  MD  NC(east)  NJ  VA(east)
    Poanes aaroni

    Adult food: buttonbush

  212. Black Dash  ______  (PE:37) (K:325) (W:73)  DE(north)  MA  MD  NH  NJ  PA
    Euphyes conspicua

    Adult food: swamp milkweed, ironweed

  213. Dukes' Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Euphyes dukesi

  214. Dion Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  DE(rare)  FL(north)  MA(rare)  MD  NC(east)  NJ  VA(east)
    Euphytes dion

    Adult food: buttonbush

    The Dion Skipper is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  215. Berry's Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)  FL  NC(east)
    Euphyes berryi

  216. Palmetto Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:335)   FL
    Euphyes arpa
     
  217. Palatka Skipper  ______  (PE:37) (K:333)  FL  MD(rare,stray)  NC(east)
    Euphyes pilatka

    Adult food: pickerelweed

  218. Two-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:333)  MA  MD(extirpated)  ME  NC(east)  NH  NJ  PA
    Euphyes himacula

    Adult food: ironweed, milkweed, spirea

  219. Dun Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:327) (W:74)  DE  FL  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Euphyes vestris

    Adult food: milkweed, mint, dogbane

  220. Dusted Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:339) (W:75)  DE(south)  FL  MA  MD(rare)  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Atrytonopsis hianna 

    Adult food: clover, blackberry, low grassblades

  221. Common Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343) (W:75)  MA  MD  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA
    Amblyscirtes vialis

    Adult food: blackberry, phlox, cinquefoil

  222. Pepper-and-Salt Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343)  MA  MD(rare)  ME  NC  NH  NJ  PA  VA(west)
    Amblyscirtes hegon

    Adult food: fleabane, viburnum. Goes to damp soil.

  223. Dusky Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:343)  FL(north)  NC(east)
    Amblyscirtes alternata

  224. Bell's Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:345)
    Amblyscirtes belli

  225. Reversed Roadside-Skipper  ______  (PE:38) (K:345)  NC
    Amblyscirtes reversa

  226. Carolina Roadside-Skipper ______ (PE:38) (K:345)  NC
    Amblyscirtes carolina

  227. Lace-winged Roadside-Skipper ______ (PE:38) (K:345)  FL(north)  NC  VA(southeast)
    Amblyscirtes aesculapius

  228. Twin-spotted Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:353)  FL  MA  MD(rare,stray)  NC(east)
    Oligoria maculata

    Adult food: Hercules club

  229. Monk  ______  (PE:text)   FL
    Asbolis capucinus

  230. Brazilian Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:357) (W:75)  DE(rare,stray)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD(rare,stray)  NC(east)  NJ
    Calpodes ethlius

    Adult food: butterflybush

  231. Ocola Skipper ______ (PE:39) (K:355) (W:75)  DE(south)  FL  MA(rare,stray)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Panoquina ocola

    Adult food: ironweed, milkweed, buttonbush

    The Ocola Skipper does long-distance, mass emigrations in the late summer. It is one of very few grass skippers to do so. Such seasonal movements are often not obvious, with some stray individuals nectaring north of range in a garden or park.

    Early date: NJ, 2012: Aug 9

    Notable: in NJ: 2012: Cape May Co Aug 31, Sep 4, Sep 15

  232. Obscure Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:355)   FL
    Panoquina panoquinoides

  233. Salt Marsh Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:355)  DE  FL  MD  NC  NJ  VA
    Panoquina panoquin

    Adult food: buttonbush, fleabane

  234. Yucca Giant-Skipper ______ (PE:39) (K:359)  FL  NC
    Megathymus yuccae

  235. Cofaqui Giant-Skipper  ______  (PE:39) (K:359)  FL  
    Megathymus cofaqui



    Some selected reference books regarding Butterflies & Caterpillars:

    "Butterflies of the East Coast, an Observer's Guide", by Rick Cech & Guy Tudor, 2005 

    "A Field Guide to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler, illustrated by Vichai Malikul, 1998 

    "Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufmann (with 2,200 images & 70 photographs)

    "Butterflies through Binoculars", by Jeffrey Glassberg, 1993

    "Caterpillars of Eastern North America", by Donald L. Wagner, 2005 




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