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Butterflies 
and Moths

in
Europe



including those seen during 
Focus On Nature Tours  
in Spain, Sweden, 
and other countries
including Iceland where
normally butterflies are not there,
but there a good many moths are 



A List of Butterflies and Moths in Europe 
compiled by Armas Hill

Upper right photo: A BOG FRITILLARY in Estonia


Codes:

Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved

Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell  

Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter


Status of the butterflies in Europe:

(ce): 
critically endangered
(en):  endangered 
(vu):  vulnerable
(nt):   near-threatened

In Europe, nearly 9% of the butterflies are threatened, and another 105 are near-threatened. 
Almost a third (31%) of the butterflies of the continent are known to have a declining population. 

Geographical Codes, relating to European countries:

CI:    Canary Islands (Spain)
ES:  
Estonia
GB: 
Great Britain
IC: 
   Iceland
SP:   Spain
SW:  Sweden
NA:   also occurs in North America  

(ph):  species in a photo in the FONT website  


Throughout the world, there are over 180,000 described species of butterflies and moths (in the order Lepidoptera). 

In Europe, there are 482 species of BUTTERFLIES. The highest density of butterfly species is in mountainous areas in southern Europe, such as the Pyrenees and the Alps.
BUTTERFLIES are only 5% of the European Lepidoprera. the remaining species, which belong to 29 superfamilies, are colloquially referred to as MOTHS. Most of them fly during the night.

In the following list of European butterflies and moths, 684 species are included.  
 

Links to Groupings in this List:

BUTTERFLIES:    Swallowtails: Family Papilionidae     Yellows, Whites: Family Pieridae 

Gossamer Wings, Coppers & Blues: Family Lycaenidae      Brushfoots: Family Nymphalidae     

Skippers: Family Hesperiidae
     

MOTHS:
     Geometer Moths:  Family Geometridae     Plume Moths:  Family Pterophoridae

Emperor Moths:  Family Saturniidae     Sphinx & Hawk Moths:  Family Sphingidae

Tiger Moths & Ermines:  Family Arctiidae     Tussock Moths:  Family Lymantriida

Burnet Moths:  Family Zygaenidae     Clearwing Moths:  Family Sesiidae

Gracillarid Moths:  Family Gracillariidae     Tortrix Moths:  Family Tortricidae



SOME COMMENTARY REGARDING BUTTERFLY IDENTIFICATION:

"Get a guidebook, take a few years, and you'll still make mistakes. Butterfly identification has an initial, deceptive simplicity. 
Individuals in a species vary naturally, an eyespot slightly larger, a color brighter.
Males and females of a species can be strikingly dissimilar.
So can genetic morphs or forms within a gender.
In a single species, butterflies that live in a range of habitats can vary in appearance and produce different populations or geographical races, each better adapted to its environment.
Species can also produce generations of distinct morphs in the same place at different times of the year."

The above commentary taken from the book, "An Obsession with Butterflies", by Sharman Apt Russell (a wonderful read).  


Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Europe

A List & Photo Gallery of European Birds, in 2 parts:
Part #1: Grouse to Puffin     Part #2: Sandgrouse to Buntings

Mammals in Europe  (with some photos)     Butterflies of the Canary Islands

Lists & Photo Galleries of Butterflies, Moths, Dragonflies & Damselflies elsewhere in the World

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus of those with Photos in the FONT Website

Alphabetical Directory of Moths by Genus of those with Photos in the FONT Website

Directory of Photos in this Website

A Photo Gallery of Moths & Butterflies during the FONT tour in Ecuador, South America in July 2013



A List of European Butterflies:

         Family PAPILIONIDAE: SWALLOWTAILS (and allies): 

        
There are totally in the world about 700 known species of Swallowtails.


         Genus PARNASSIUS: 
a group of over 30 sedentary SWALLOWTAILS, many of which live in mountain habitats     

        
  1. Parnassius apollo  (nt)  ______  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Apollo
    (Range: European and central Asian mountain ranges)

  2. Parnassius phoebus  (nt)  ______
    Small Apollo

  3. Parnassius mnemosyne  (nt)  ______  ES  SW
    Clouded Apollo


    Genus ARCHON

  4. Archon apollinus  (nt)  ______
    False Apollo


    Genus PAPILIO: FLUTED SWALLOWTAILS -
    one of the most widespread of genera, with over 200 species. Most are tropical (some subtropical). Most have tails. Many are migratory. 

  5. Papilio machaon  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  SW  (C:41) (F:61, but not this particular subspecies) (S:51)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Old World Swallowtail
    (or Common Yellow Swallowtail, or Artemisia Swallowtail)
    (Range: across Europe & Asia, also in North Africa and in subarctic North America)  

    The Old World Swallowtail is an attractive migrant butterfly, easily recognized in flight. Throughout its range, there are a large number of subspecies of assorted colors, ranging from dark black to orange. There is always a pair of tails on the hindwing.     
    The last of the above 3 common names reflects a food plant, Artemesia, in North America, but in Eurasia, the food may be Wild Carrot, Fennel, or Milk Parsley.
    The full-grown caterpillars have the same colors as the adult butterfly, and they evert an orange osmeterium from behind the head to scare away predators. 



    Old World Swallowtails in Estonia

  6. Papilio hospiton  ______
    Corsican Swallowtail

    Papilio hospiton is a large and impressive butterfly that is endemic to Corsica and Sardinia, where it inhabits the rocky slopes of mountains.


    Genus IPHICLIDES

  7. Iphiclides feisthamelii  ______  SP
    Spanish Swallowtail

    Iphiclides feisthamelii
    has been considered a subspecies of the Scarce Swallowtail, Iphiclides podalirius feisthamelii. It is essentially a species of the Iberian peninsula, but it also extends northward into France.   

  8. Iphiclides podalirius  ______  ES
    Scarce Swallowtail
    (Range: from central & southern Europe to China, and in North Africa) 


    Genus ZERYNTHIA

  9. Zerynthia polyxena  ______  
    Southern Festoon 
    (Range: from central & southern Europe to western Asia) 

  10. Zerynthia rumina  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Spanish Festoon

    The Spanish Festoon is essentially a species of the Iberian peninsula, but it also extends northward into France.  



    Genus ALLANCASTRIA

  11. Allancastria cerisyi  (nt)  ______
    Eastern Festoon


    Family PIERIDAE
    most are predominantly white, yellow, or orange in color, and are often referred to as WHITES, YELLOWS, SULPHURS, or MARBLES

    Worldwide, approximately 1,000 species of whites & sulphurs have been described.  

     

    Subfamily COLIADINAE: SULPHURS

    300 species worldwide


    Genus COLIAS: 
    A large group of "YELLOWS", "SULPHURS", and "CLOUDED YELLOWS" mostly in the Northern Hemisphere (in North America & Asia), but also in Australia, Africa, and South America. Sexes are dimorphic. Many of the species are strong migrants. They breed extensively on members of the Leguminosae, the pea family.

  12. Colias alfacariensis  ______  SP
    Berger's Clouded Yellow

  13. Colias australis  ______
    New Clouded Yellow

  14. Colias crocea  ______  CI  ES  SP  SW
    Clouded Yellow
    (Range: in central & southern Europe)

  15. Colias chrysotheme  (vu)  ______
    Lesser Clouded Yellow

  16. Colias hecla  (nt)  ______  SW
    Northern Clouded Yellow

  17. Colias hyale  ______  ES  SW
    Pale Clouded Yellow
    (Range: northern & central Europe)

  18. Colias myrmidone  (en)  ______
    Danube Clouded Yellow

  19. Colias nastes  ______  SW
    Pale Arctic Clouded Yellow

  20. Colias palaeno  (ph)  ______  ES  SW  (F:88) 
    Moorland Clouded Yellow
    (also called Arctic Sulphur)

    Colia palaeno is a larger member of its genus with conspicuous black edges to its wings. The male is a rich lemon color, and the female is a pale cream. Both sexes have pink fringes to the wings, pink legs, and pink antennae. As indicated by its common names, this butterfly occurs on arctic moorlands, and at bogs where its caterpillar food plant, the whortleberry, is found. 



    A Moorland Clouded Yellow in Estonia

  21. Colias phicomone  (nt)  ______  SP
    Mountain Clouded Yellow 


    Genus EUCHLOE

  22. Euchloe bazae  (vu)  ______  SP  (endemic)
    Spanish Greenish Black-tip

    Euchloe bazae is endemic to the Spanish region of La Hoya de Baza in Granada.

  23. Euchloe belemia  ______  CI  SP  (with an endemic subspecies in the Canary Islands) 
    Green-striped White

    In Europe, Euchloe belemia occurs only on the Iberian peninsula and in the Canary Islands. 

  24. Euchloe charlonia  ______  CI  SP
    Greenish Black-tip

    The Greenish Black-tip is a butterfly of semi-desert habitats. In Spain, there are colonies in Granada and Huesca/Zaragosa, and also in the eastern Canary Islands.    

  25. Euchloe crameri  ______  SP
    Western Dappled White

  26. Euchloe simplonia  ______  SP
    Mountain Dappled White

  27. Euchloe tagis  ______  SP
    Portuguese Dappled White

     


    Genus GONEPTERYX: 
    Extending from Europe to Asia, large yellow and pale green butterflies. The wings are broad and slightly hooked, and the underside is fairly cryptic.  

  28. Gonepteryx rhamni  ______  ES  SP  SW  (F:98)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    (Common) Brimstone
    (or the Sulphur)
    (Range: in Europe, from Britain to the Mediterranean)

    The sexes of Gonepteryx rhamni are different colors. The male is bright lemon-yellow, the female lime-green. Each sex has a single small orange spot in the center of the wings. The wings are strongly curved. This butterfly lives along waysides and in scrubby areas and light woodlands. Its foodplants are buckthorns. 

  29. Gonepteryx cleobule  (vu)  ______  CI
    Canary Brimstone

  30. Gonepteryx cleopatra  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Cleopatra
    (Range: in Mediterranean Europe & North Africa)
      

  31. Gonepteryx maderensis  (en)  ______
    Madeiran Brimstone     


    Genus ANTHOCHARIS:  Mostly small "WHITE" butterflies which have brightly colored marks inside the tips of the forewings. The colors are usually orange-red (as are the orange tips). They exploit cruciferous plants.

     
  32. Anthocharis cardamines  ______  ES  SP  SW  (F:79) (S:73)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Orange Tip
    (Range: across Eurasia)

    The male of Anthocharis cardamines is distinguished by the orange tip on the forewing. Both sexes have a green mottling on the underside of the hindwing, which is partially visible on the upperside. The butterfly frequents damp areas, roadsides, and hedges. It can be a wanderer rather than a migrant, and can colonize areas away from where it emerged. There is a single generation a year and a long flight period from March to May.   

  33. Anthocharis belia  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767) 
    Moroccan Orange-Tip

  34. Anthocharis euphenoides  ______  SP
    Provence Orange-Tip



    Genus COLOTIS

  35. Colotis evagore  ______  SP
    Desert Orange-Tip 
    (also called Small Orange Tip)

    In Europe, Colotis evagore occurs only in Spain. 


    Genus ZEGRIS

  36. Zegris eupheme  (nt)  ______  SP
    Sooty Orange-Tip

    In Europe, the Sooty Orange-Tip occurs only in Spain. It is a butterfly of semi-desert habitats. 


    Genus APORIA: 
    Large butterflies found throughout Europe & Asia.

  37. Aporia crataegi  ______  ES  SP  SW  (S:66)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Black-veined White
     
    (Range: Much of Eurasia, from Portugal to Japan; Also: Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia; extinct in Britain.) 

    Black veins cross the white wings, giving the Black-veined White its common name. The wings are rather papery, and the butterflies lose their scales rapidly during their courtship rituals. 


    Genus LEPTIDEA

  38. Leptidea sinapis  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Wood White
    (Range: across Europe) 

  39. Leptidea morsei  (nt)  ______
    Fenton's Wood White

  40. Lepidea reali  ______  SW
    Real's Wood White



    Genus PIERIS
    (or said to be in the Genus ARTOGEIA)  

    PIERIS is a widespread and successful genus in North America. Europe, and Asia, and with introductions to South America (as well as into North America) and into the Australian region. Some species are strong migrants.    
       

  41. Pieris brassicae  (ph)  ______  CI  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Large
    (or Cabbage) White
    (Range: widespread across Europe, and in north Africa)

    A picture of Pieris brassicae, the Large White, follows here in this list, between the skippers and the moths.

  42. Pieris (or Artogeia) rapae  (ph)  ______  CI  ES  SP  SW  (C:39) (F:106)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Small White
    (also called: Small Cabbage White or Sharp-veined White)
    (Range: in much of the Northern Hemisphere, including Eurasia & North Africa, and in North America where introduced; also Australia & Hawaii.) 






    Two photographs of Small Cabbage Whites
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

    Another picture of Pieris rapae. the Small White, follows here in this list between the skippers and the moths.

  43. Pieris cheiranthi  (en)  ______  CI (endemic) 
    Canary Islands Large White 

    The introduction of alien parasites might be the cause of the decline of the Canary Islands Large White, Pieris cheiranthi. It is considered "endangered".

    Pieris cheiranthi is found in shady laurel forests on the islands of Tenerife, La Palma, and La Gomera, and possibly on Gran Canaria.  

  44. Pieris mannii  ______  SP
    Southern Small White

  45. Pieris napi  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Green-veined White
    (Range: across Europe)

  46. Pieris wollatoni  (ce)  ______
    Madeiran Large White



    Genus PONTIA

  47. Pontia daplidice  ______  CI  ES  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Bath White
    (Range: from central & southern Europe across Eurasia, also North Africa)

  48. Pontia edusa  ______  SW
    Eastern Bath White


    Genus CATOPSILIA

  49. Catopsilia florella  ______  CI
    African Migrant 
    (also called African Emigrant, or Common Vagrant)

    The African Migrant first became established in the Canary Islands in 1965. It spread to all of the islands of the archipelago by 1995. It is not known to breed elsewhere in Europe.
    In addition to the Canary Islands, it occurs in Africa, including Madagascar, and India, Sri Lanka, Burma, and China.     



    Family LYCAENIDAE (GOSSAMER WINGS), including: COPPERS, HAIRSTREAKS, BLUES
     
    Throughout the world but mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. The sexes often differ in coloration, and the undersides usually differ from the upper surfaces.
    Among several distinct groups are the HAIRSTREAKS, with tails and bright eyespot markings on the hindwings, creating a "false head" at the rear, to divert attackers. 
    Thus far, worldwide, about 5,000 species in this family have been discovered and named. Caterpillars of many of these species are closely associated with ants.



    Genus THECLA

  50. Thecla betulae  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Brown Hairstreak
    (Range: across Eurasia)


    Genus CALLOPHRYS: 
    Small-sized HAIRSTREAKS, occurring in Europe and Asia, and in North and South America. Many species breed on a variety of plant families.

     
  51. Callophrys rubi  ______  CI  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Green Hairstreak
    (Range: across Eurasia, and in North Africa)


    Genus NEOZEPHRUS (formerly QUERCUSIA)

  52. Neozephrus (has been Thecla) quercus  ______  ES  SP SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Purple Hairstreak
    (Range: across Eurasia, and in North Africa)


    Genus LAEOSOPIS

  53. Laeosopis roboris (or evippus)  ______  SP
    Spanish Purple Hairstreak

    The Spanish Purple Hairstreak is essentially a species of the Iberian peninsula, but it also extends northward into France.


    Genus SATYRIUM

  54. Satyrium acaciae  ______  SP
    Sloe Hairstreak

  55. Satyrium esculi  ______  SP
    False Ilex Hairstreak

  56. Satyrium ilicis  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Ilex Hairstreak

  57. Satyrium pruni  ______  ES  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Black Hairstreak 

  58. Satyrium spini  ______  SP
    Blue-spot Hairstreak

  59. Satyrium (or Strymonidia) w-album  ______  ES  SP  SW
    White-letter Hairstreak
    (Range: across Eurasia)


    Genus TOMARES

  60. Tomares ballus  ______  SP
    Provence Hairstreak

    The Provence Hairstreak is a species essentially of the Iberian peninsula, but it also extends northward into France,

  61. Tomares nogelii  (vu)  ______
    Nogel's Hairstreak

    The Nogel's Hairstreak, Tomares nogelii, is a habitat specialist that feeds solely on Astragalus ponticus. It has a highly fragmented distribution, which is little known. Tourist activities and agricultural improvement have diminished many colonies and the remaining populations are mainly threatened by changes in agricultural practices. The butterfly has disappeared from the European Union countries, but can still be found in Ukraine.


    Genus LYCAENA: COPPERS  Widespread in Europe and Asia, with some in North America and Australia. They occur mostly in temperate climates. Their colors are in the coppery and orange range, and the undersides often have dark spots. 

  62. Lycaena dispar  ______  ES
    Large Copper
    (Range: localized in northern & central Europe)  

    The Large Copper, Lycaena dispar, occurs in a range of grassland types, where it breeds on docks and sorrels. It has been protected, as it has declined in many countries. 
    However, it has been expending its range in some central and eastern European countries.   

  63. Lycaena phlaeas  (ph)   ______  CI  ES  SP  SW   (C:31) (F:251) (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)
    Common
    (or Small) Copper
    (Range: across Eurasia, also in western & eastern temperate North America) 

    Lycaena phlaeas is a widespread species that frequents wild habitats as well as urban sites, and breeds on docks which are very common as weeds. There are, throughout its vast range, a number of subspecies.



    A Small Copper photographed during a FONT tour in Sweden
    in September 2007
    (photo by James Scheib)


  64. Lycaena alciphron  ______  ES  SP
    Purple-shot Copper

  65. Lycaena bleusei  ______  SP  (endemic to the Iberian peninsula, Spain & Portugal)
    Iberian Sooty Copper

    Lycaena bleusei
    has been said to be a subspecies of the Sooty Copper, Lycaena tityrus bleusei. It occurs in the Sistema Central (Gredos, Guadarrama) in Spain, and in central Portugal, in a geographically isolated population.    

  66. Lycaena boetica  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)

  67. Lycaena helle  (en)  ______  SW
    Violet Copper

    The Violet Copper, Lycaena helle, is a rare and threatened butterfly in Europe. Most of the decline happened prior to 1995. The few remaining populations have been more or less stable in the last 10 years. The butterfly is found mostly on cool and wet meadows. 

  68. Lycaena hippothose  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)
    Purple-edged Copper 

  69. Lycaena tityrus  ______  ES  SP
    Sooty Copper
    (Range: across Europe, but not Britain or Scandanavia)

  70. Lycaena (formerly Heodes) virgaureae  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Scarce Copper


    Genus ARICIA

  71. Aricia agestis  ______  CI  SP
    Brown Argus
    (Range: temperate northern Europe)

  72. Aricia anteros  (nt)  ______
    Blue Argus

  73. Aricia artaxerxes  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Mountain Argus

  74. Aricia cramera  ______  SP
    Southern Brown Argus

  75. Aricia eumedon  ______  ES  SP
    Geranium Argus

  76. Aricia montensis  ______  SP

  77. Aricia morronensis  ______  SP  (endemic to the Pyrenees, Spain & France)
    Spanish Argus

    There are a number of widely scattered colonies of Aricia morronensis across Spain and just extending into France on the northern side of the Pyrenees where it is very local.  

  78. Aricia nicias  ______  SW
    Silvery Argus


    Genus EUMEDONIA

  79. Eumedonia eumedon  ______  SP  SW
    Geranium Argus


    Genus AGRIADES

  80. Agriades glandon  ______  SW
    Glandon Blue    

  81. Agriades pyrenaicus  ______  SP  (endemic to the Pyrenees, Spain & France)
    Agriades pyrenaicus pyrenaicus  ______  (subspecies in the central Pyrenees)
    Agriades pyrenaicus asturiensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Spain in the Picos de Europa & southern Asturias) 
    Gavarnie Blue

  82. Agrides zullichi  ______  SP (endemic)  (was Agriades glandon zullichi)
    Zullich's Blue

    Agrides zullichi is endemic to the Sierra Nevada, in Granada & Almeria. It flies only above 2,400 meters.      


    Genus CELASTRINA

  83. Celastrina argiolus  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Holly Blue
    (Range: across Europe to western Asia, also North Africa)


    Genus LAMPIDES:
    A genus with one species which has colonized much of the world. 

  84. Lampides boeticus ______  CI  SP  (F:246)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Pea Blue
    (or Long-tailed Blue)
    (Range: in Mediterranean Europe & North Africa)

    Lampides boeticus is one of the most successful of butterflies. This migrant breeds on many leguminous plants. The tail and eye-spot on the underside of the hindwing mirror the head and antennae to confuse predators. Females are a darker blue. Both sexes have a rippled underside pattern.



    Genus CACYREUS

  85. Cacyreus marshalli  ______  CI  SP
    Geranium Bronze


    Genus EVERES: 
    a small grouping of butterflies found in Europe, Asia, and Australia. They are usually sexually dimorphic and tailed, and breed on members of the pea family, Leguminosae.
     

  86. Everes argiades  ______  ES  SP
    Short-tailed Blue

  87. Everes alcetas  ______
    Provencal Short-tailed Blue

  88. Everes (or Cupido) decoloratus  (nt)  ______
    Eastern Short-tailed Blue 



    Genus CUPIDO

  89. Cupido minimus  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Small
    (or Little) Blue

  90. Cupido carswelli  ______  SP (endemic)
    Carswell's Little Blue

    Cupido carswelli is very similar to Cupido minimus. It is restricted to mountains in southeastern Spain, such as the Sierra de Cazorla and the Sierra de Espuna.   

  91. Cupido lorquinii  ______  SP
    Lorquin's Blue

    In Europe, Cupido lorquinii occurs only on the Iberian peninsula. 

  92. Cupido osiris  ______  SP
    Osiris Blue 



    Genus LEPTOTES

  93. Leptotes pirithous  ______  CI  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Lang's Short-tailed Blue


    Genus CYCLYRIUS

  94. Cyclyrius webbianus  ______  CI (endemic)  
    Canary Blue 

    Cyclyrius webbianus is a ubiquitous species in the Canary Islands, not bound to a particular habitat, and it is common from sea level up to the higher altitudes as high as 3,000 meters in the Canadas del Teide National Park on Tenerife. It has been found on all of the Canary islands except El Hierro. 
     
    There can be huge population densities with millions of individuals at various places. Said to be the most ancient Canary Island endemic butterfly. It is without a strong flight. Strangely, no inter-island variation has been discovered.     

    Cyclyrius webbianus is usually the only Lycaenidae in the Canary Islands in natural habitats. 

    The nearest relative of Cyclyrius webbianus seems to be Cyclyrius mandersi, an endemic of the island of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean.



    Genus ZIZERIA

  95. Zizeria knysna  ______  CI  SP
    African Grass Blue


    Genus AZANUS

  96. Azanus ubaldus  ______  CI
    Desert Babul Blue 
    (other names are Bright Babul Blue or Velvet-spotted Blue)  

    Azanus ubaldus was first found in the Canary Islands about 1982. The only European site of this essentially African butterfly is Gran Canaria.    


    Genus GLAUCOPSYCHE: 
    About 11 species of BLUES, found in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. Some are brightly colored. They breed on members of the pea family, Leguminosae. 


  97. Glaucopsyche alexis  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Green-underside Blue

  98. Glaucopsyche melanops  ______  SP
    Black eyed Blue

  99. Glaucopsyche paphos  ______
    Paphos Blue



    Genus SCOLITANTIDES: 
    Small-sized BLUES in Europe and Asia. They have checkered margins and exhibit sexual dimorphism. They occur in flowery habitats. 

  100. Scolitantides orion  ______  ES  SW  (F:271) 
    Checkered Blue

    The checkering around the margins, after which the butterfly is named, is pronounced on the uppers. The sexes are fairly similar, both having blue scales overlapping a greater suffusion of black. The male usually has more blue on the wings. The undersides are remarkably checkered, with lots of bold black spots over a white-gray background and an orange band on the hindwing. There is no tail. This butterfly lives in flowery habitats, and breeds on stonecrops, Sedum.


    Genus PLEBEJUS:  BLUES
    which occur in temperate regions of North America and Eurasia. They are relatively small butterflies which exhibit sexual dimorphism. The males are often with striking blues on the uppers. They live in open flowery areas, such as meadows. They bask in the sunlight, and breed on members of the pea family, Leguminosae.)
    Species in this genus were formerly in LYCAEIDES. 

     
      
  101. Plebejus argus  ______  ES  SP  SW   (F:263) (S:99)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Silver-studded Blue
    (Range: across Eurasia)

    The male of Plebejus argus has purplish blue uppers with a black margin, and pale-gray undersides. The female has dark brown uppers with a set of orange lunules inside the margin. The undersides are a light brown speckled with black. Both sexes have a white fringe and a distinctive band of orange lunules on the underside of the hindwings. The silvery-blue "studs" in each lunule are not always clear. 3 subspecies are recorded. The butterflies live in grassy areas, and coastal scrub. They breed on gorse, Ulex.  

  102. Plebejus idas  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)
    Idas Blue
    (Range: across northern & central Europe, and in higher altitudes)



    Idas Blue
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)

  103. Plebejus argyrognomon  ______  SW
    Reverdin's Blue 

  104. Plebejus dardanus  (nt)  ______
    Bosnian Blue

  105. Plebejus dorylas  ______  SW
    Turquoise Blue

  106. Plebejus hespericus  ______  SP (endemic)  (Some say it is a subspecies of the Zephyr Blue, Plebejus pylaon)  
    Spanish Zephyr Blue

    Plebejus hespericus
    is known mainly from three distinct areas in central & southeastern Spain.

  107. Plebejus (or Albulina) orbitulus  ______  SW
    Alpine Blue

  108. Plebejus pylaon  (nt)  ______
    Zephyr Blue

  109. Plebejus trappi  (nt)  ______
    Alpine Zephyr Blue  

  110. Plebejus zullichi  (en)  ______
    Zullich's Blue



    Genus LYSANDRA

  111. Lysandra albicans  ______  SP
    Spanish Chalk-hill Blue

    In Europe, Lysandra albicans occurs only in Spain. Otherwise it occurs in western North Africa.   

  112. Lysandra (or Polyommatus) bellargus  ______  ES  SP
    Adonis Blue
    (Range: from western Europe to western Asia)

  113. Lysandra (or Polyommatus) caelestissima  (or L. coridon caelestissima ______  SP (endemic)
    Azure Chalk-hill Blue

    Lysandra caelestissima
    is confined to eastern Spain, in the provinces of Teruel and Cuenca.    

  114. Lysandra (or Polyommatus) coridon  ______  ES  SP
    Chalk-bill Blue


    Genus CYANIRIS

  115. Cyaniris semiargus  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Mazarine Blue


    Genus VACCINIINA

  116. Vacciniina optilete  ______  ES
    Cranberry Blue


    Genus POLYOMMATUS  (or AGRODIAETUS)

  117. Polyommatus icarus  ______  CI  ES  SP  SW
    Common Blue
    (Range: across Eurasia, and in North Africa)

  118. Polyommatus (or Agrodiaetus) agenjoi  ______  SP (endemic)
    Agenjo's Anomalous Blue

    Agrodiaetus agenjoi
    is considered by some a subspecies of the Oberthur's Anomalous Blue, Agrodiaetus fabressei agenjoi. 
    It occurs only in northeastern Spain, in the provinces of Girona, Barcelona, and Lerida (Lleida).   

  119. Polyommatus albicans  ______  SP
    Spanish Chalk-hill Blue

  120. Polyommatus (or Agrodiaetus) ainsae  ______  SP (endemic)
    Forster's Furry Blue

    Agrodiaetus ainsae
    is known only on the limestone plateaus of central northern Spain and the central pre-Pyrenees, generally at altitudes between 900 & 1200 meters.

  121. Polyommatus amandus  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Amanda's Blue



    An Amanda's Blue in Estonia

  122. Polyommatus (or Agrodiaetus) damon  (nt)  ______  ES
    Damon Blue

  123. Polyommatus daphnis  ______  SP
    Meleager's Blue

  124. Polyommatus dorylas  (nt)  ______  SP
    Turquoise Blue

  125. Polyommatus eros  (nt)  ______
    Eros Blue

  126. Polyommatus escheri  ______  SP
    Escher's Blue

  127. Polyommatus (or Agrodiaetus) fabressei  ______  SP (endemic)
    Oberthur's Anomalous Blue

    Agrodiaetus fabressi
    is endemic to the Sistema Iberico and mountain ranges in southeastern Spain.

  128. Polyommatus (or Agrodiaetus) fulgens  (or Agrodiaetus dolus fulgens ______  SP (endemic)

    Some consider Agrodiaetus fulgens to be conspecific with the Forster's Furry Blue, Agrodiaetus ainsae, although the two differ both in the number and morphology of their chromosomes.    

    Agrodiaetus fulgens occurs only in Catalunya.

  129. Polyommatus galloi  (vu)  ______
    Higgin's Anomalous Blue  

  130. Polyommatus (or Plebicula) golgus  (vu)  ______  SP (endemic)
    Sierra Nevada Blue

    The Sierra Nevada Blue is an extremely rare species, known only on the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada. There is possibly a distinct subspecies in the adjacent Sierra de la Sagra. 

  131. Polyommatus humedasae  (en)  ______
    Piedmont Anomalous Blue

    The Piedmont Anomalous Blue, Polyommatus humedasae, occurs only on a few warm, dry, rocky slopes in one valley in northern Italy alone. It is classified as "endangered".   

  132. Polyommatus (or Plebicula) nivescens  (nt)  ______  SP  (endemic to the Pyrenees, Spain & France)
    Mother-of-Pearl Blue

    The Mother-of-Pearl Blue occurs mostly in eastern Spain, but also extends into the French Pyrenees.   

  133. Polyommatus orphicus  (vu)  ______

    The range of Polyommatus orphicus is in the Rhodopi Mountains in Bulgaria, & at a single locality in Greece.

  134. Polyommatus (or Agrodiaetus) ripartii  ______
    Ripart's Anomalous Blue

  135. Polyommatus semiargus  ______  SP
    Mazarine Blue

  136. Polyommatus thersites  ______  SP
    Chapman's Blue

  137. Polyommatus (or Agrodiaetus) violetae  (vu)  ______  SP (endemic)  (species described in 1979; by some considered a dubious taxon that could instead be Agrodiaetus ripartii violetae or Agrodiaetus fabressei violetae) 
    Andalusian Anomalous Blue

    Agrodiaetus violae
    flies only in the mountains of eastern Andalucia and Albacete.  


    Genus IOLANA

  138. Iolana iolas  (nt)  ______  SP
    Iolas Blue


    Genus PSEUDOPHILOTES

  139. Pseudophilotes abencerragus  ______  SP
    False Baton Blue

    In Europe, the False Baton Blue occurs only on the Iberian peninsula.

  140. Pseudophilotes baton  ______  SP
    Baton Blue

  141. Pseudophilotes panoptes  (nt)  ______  SP  (subspecies to the Iberian peninsula, Spain & Portugal) 
    Panoptes Blue

    The Panoptes Blue is fairly widespread across Spain & Portugal, except in the north & the Pyrenees. 

  142. Pseudophilotes vicrama  (nt)  ______  ES
    Eastern Baron Blue
      


    Genus MACULINEA: 
    "Large BLUES", found in Europe and Asia. They are tailless and have darker blue colors than many other BLUES. These butterflies have attracted a lot of attention from collectors, and some species are now scarce. All of those in Europe are classified as "endangered".
    The caterpillars start by feeding on their food plant and then switch to being looked after by ants.  


     
  143. Maculinea (or Phengarius) alcon  ______  SP  SW
    Alcon Blue

  144. Maculinea (or Phengarius) arion  (en)  ______  ES  SP SW
    Large Blue
    (Range: across Eurasia east to China; not in Britain)  

  145. Maculinea (or Phengarius) nausithous  (nt)  ______  SP
    Dusky Large Blue

  146. Maculinea (or Phengaris) teleius  (vu)  ______
    Scarce Large Blue

    The Scarce Large Blue, Phengaris teleius, is a species of wet meadows with Great Burnett (Sanguisorba officinalis. 
    The small caterpillars only feed on the flowerheads for 2 to 3 weeks. They then go down to the ground where they wait to be picked up by the worker ants of the genus Myrmica and carried off to the ants' nest. There they feed on ant grubs. The caterpillars also hibernate and pupate in the ants' nest. The species of host ant varies in different parts of is range. 
    Because of this complicated lifestyle the butterfly is vulnerable to any changes in the environment that affect either the hostplants or the hostants. 
    In much of Europe this species has declined due to either agricultural intensification (drainage, fertilization, pesticide use) or abandonment (where the habitat gets invaded by shrubs and later forest. Thus, the species is classified as "vulnerable".


    Genus TARUCUS:  Blue Pierrots

  147. Tarucus balkanicus  ______
    Little Tiger Blue
    (or Balkan Pierrot

  148. Tarucus theophrastus  ______  SP
    Common Tiger Blue 
    (other names are the Pointed Pierrot, or African Pierrot)

    In Europe, Tarucus theophrastus occurs only in Spain. Its larvae feed only on the spiny shrub Ziziphus lotus.  


    Genus TURANANA

  149. Turanana taygetica  (en)  ______
    Odd-spot Blue 


    Subfamily RIODINIDAE: METALMARKS


    Genus HAMEARIS

  150. Hamearis lucina  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Duke of Burgundy Fritillary
    (Range: western and central Europe)

    Hamearis lucina is the only metalmark native to Europe. It bears a resemblance to fritillaries, but its behavior is closer to that of the blues.
    The butterflies are often found on meadows with scrub or near woods with their major foodplant, Primulas, are present. the species is declining in many European countries. overall, the decline is somewhat less than 30% in the last 10 years.
           


    Family NYMPHALIDAE: BRUSHFOOTS

    Cosmopolitan, with subfamilies range from 8 to 25, depending upon taxonomic treatment

    This is the most diverse family of butterflies, with approximately 6,000 known species worldwide. Brushfoot butterflies appear 4 rather than 6-legged as their 2 front legs are much reduced.  


    Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE: SNOUTS

    Genus LIBYTHEA: SNOUTS 
    With long palps which protrude under the head like snout (as do those in the genus LIBYTHEANA). Occur in both the Old and New Worlds.   

     
  151. Libythea celtis celtoides  ______  SP  (F:174) (S:145)
    Nettle-tree
    Butterfly (or Eurasian Beak) 

    This species is recognized by its hooked forewings, and has orange blobs over its warm brown wings. This, the only snout butterfly in Europe, also occurs in North Africa, and has a wide distribution across Eurasia through to Japan. It lives in wooded areas, especially in valleys. One of its common names is from its caterpillar food plant, the Nettle Tree. The butterfly hibernates. it feeds on exudates from tree buds in the spring.



    Genus HYPOLIMNAS

  152. Hypolimnas misippus  (ph)  ______  CI
    Mimic
    (or Diadem, or Danaid Eggfly)

    Hypolimnas misippus seems to reach the Canary Islands at irregular intervals.  



    Above & below: The Mimic
    Above: a male.  Below: a female
    The female is a mimic of the Plain Tiger, Danaus chrysippus. 






    Genus BRENTHIS: 
    Small-sized FRITILLARIES occurring in Europe & Asia

  153. Brenthis daphe  ______  SP
    Marbled Fritillary

  154. Brenthis hecate  ______  SP
    Twin-spotted Fritillary

  155. Brenthis (or Argynnis) ino  ______  ES  SP  SW  (S:117)
    Lesser Marbled Fritillary
    (Range: in central & northern Europe, and into Asia)  


    Genus ISSORIA

  156. Issoria (formerly Argynnis) lathonia  ______  CI  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Queen of Spain Fritillary
    (Range: from North Africa into Europe and Asia)  


    Genus ARGYNNIS: 
    This genus of FRITILLARIES is composed of woodland butterflies occurring in Europe and Asia. Butterflies are large, orange, and speckled with black spots. The males have large black brands on the forewings. Some species in this genus breed on violets.

     
     
  157. Argynnis paphia  ______  ES  SP  SW  (F:120) (S:135)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Silver-washed Fritillary
    (Range: across Europe and in North Africa and western Asia)

    Of the species in this genus, the Silver-washed Fritillary may well be the most impressive. The male is very attractive with its long dark marks along the veins on the upper forewing. There are prominent spots all over the uppers of the female, which is very slightly larger. Unlike other fritillaries which lay eggs on violets, this species lays eggs on a tree trunk so the freshly emerged larvae have to walk to their food plants. 

  158. Argynnis aglaja  ______  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Dark Green Fritillary

  159. Argynnis laodice  ______  ES  SW
    Pallas' Fritillary

  160. Argynnis (formerly Pandoriana) pandora  ______  CI  ES  SP
    Cardinal
    (Range: in southern Europe and in north Africa & western Asia)


    Genus FABRICIANA: 
    Large FRITILLARIES that occur in Europe & Asia, closely related to, an same say part of, the genus ARGYNNIS. 

  161. Fabriciana (or Argynnis) adippe  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    High Brown Fritillary 

  162. Fabriciana (or Argynnis) niobe  ______  ES  SP  SW  (F:156)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Niobe Fritillary

    The Niobe Fritillary lives in meadows and pastures and breeds on violets.


    Genus BOLORIA  (and CLOSSIANA):  A large grouping of medium-sized FRITILLARIES in Europe, Asia, and North America. Found in meadows, both lowland and alpine. They breed on bog plants, including violets.   

  163. Boloria (or Clossiana) selene  ______  ES  SP  SW  NA
    Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary  (in North America called the Silver-bordered Fritillary)
    (Range: across Eurasia, and in temperate North America)

  164. Boloria (or Clossiana) euphrosyne  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pearl-bordered Fritillary



    A Pearl-bordered Fritillary
    (photo by Karl Frajord)

  165. Boloria aquilonaris  ______  ES  SW
    Cranberry Fritillary

  166. Boloria chariclea  (nt)  ______  SW
    Arctic Fritillary  

  167. Boloria (or Clossiana) dia  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  (another name has been Violet Fritillary (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Weaver's Fritillary



    A Weaver's Fritillary in Estonia

  168. Boloria (or Proclossiana) eunomia  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  SW  NA
    Bog Fritillary



    A Bog Fritillary in Estonia

  169. Boloria (or Clossiana) freija  ______  ES  SW
    Frejya's Fritillary

  170. Boloria frigga  ______  ES  SW
    Frigga's Fritillary

  171. Boloria (or Clossiana) improba  (en)   ______  SW
    Dusky-winged Fritillary

  172. Bolaria napaea  ______  SP  SW
    Mountain Fritillary 

  173. Boloria pales  ______  SP
    Shepherd's Fritillary

  174. Boloria (or Clossiana) polaris  (vu)  ______  SW
    Polar Fritillary

  175. Boloria (or Clossiana) thore  ______  SW
    Thor's Fritillary

  176. Boloria titania  (nt)  ______  ES  (another name is Purple Bog Fritillary)
    Titania's Fritillary



    Genus MESOACIDALIA

  177. Mesoacidalia (or Argynnis) aglaja  ______  ES
    Dark Green Fritillary  



    Genus MELITAEA:  some 40 species of FRITILLARIES, found in Europe, Asia, and North America. 
    They are medium-sized, and allied to the ARGYREUS genus. Spotting on the wings is quite variable. 

    Often MELITAEA is included in MELLICTA, which follows.   

  178. Meliaea aurelia  (nt)  ______    ES
    Nickert's Fritillary 

  179. Melitaea britomartis  (nt)  ______  SW
    Assmann's Fritillary

  180. Melitaea cinxia  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Glanville Fritillary

  181. Melitaea diamina  ______  ES  SP  SW
    False Heath Fritillary

  182. Melitaea didyma  ______  ES  SP
    Spotted Fritillary
    (Range: in southern Europe, north Africa, and some cooler parts of Asia)

  183. Melitaea phobe  ______  ES  SP
    Knapweed Fritillary

  184. Melitaea trivia  (nt)  ______  SP
    Lesser Spotted Fritillary 

    The Lesser Spotted Fritillary is one of the most colorful butterflies in Europe. Its population has recently had a marked decline, and the species is considered "near-threatened". 


    Genus MELLICTA: 
    About a dozen species found in Europe & Asia. They are spotted, variable, and good fliers.

     
  185. Mellicta athalia  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Heath Fritillary

  186. Mellicta dejone  ______  SP
    Provencal Fritillary

  187. Mellicta parthenoides  ______  SP
    Meadow Fritillary



    Genus EUPHYDRYAS

  188. Euphydryas (or Hypodryas) maturna  (vu) (ph)  ______  ES  SW
    Scarce Fritillary

    The Scarce Fritillary, Euphydryas maturna, occurs in clearings, where young ash trees are growing in open, mixed woodland. In Europe, it has had a strong decline in the 20th century, but the few remaining populations have shown only a small decline in the last 10 years, not enough for it to be a threatened species according to Red List criteria. That may soon change however as the butterfly now continues to decline, and even large populations are disappearing.  

       

    A Scarce Fritillary in Estonia

  189. Euphydryas aurinia  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Marsh Fritillary
    (Range: across Europe, into central Asia)



    A Marsh Fritillary in Estonia


  190. Euphydryas desfontainii  (nt)  ______  SP
    Spanish Fritillary

  191. Euphydryas (or Hypodryas) iduna  (nt)  ______  SW
    Lapland Fritillary


    Genus CHARAXES

  192. Charaxes jasius  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Two-tailed Pasha
    (Range: in Mediterranean Europe & North Africa)

    Charaxes jasius is the only double-tailed butterfly in Europe.


    Genus LIMENITIS: 
    White-marked admiral butterflies closely allied or part of the LADOGA genus. Found in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Australian region. 

  193. Limenitis (or Ladoga) populi  (ph)  ______  ES  SW  (F:175)  
    Poplar Admiral

    Limenitis populi is the largest of the admirals. Females are larger, but they have the same basic pattern as the male, a dark ground color with white marks. In this species, there is a series of orange chevrons, which run around the inside of the margins. This butterfly lives in woodland areas, and breeds on aspens and poplars, hence its common name.    



    Poplar Admirals in Estonia

  194. Limenitis (or Ladoga) camilla  ______  ES  SP  (C:77) 
    White Admiral

    (Range: across Eurasia) 

  195. Limenitis reducta  ______  SP
    Southern White Admiral



    Genus NEPTIS: 
    40 small-sized species that occur in Africa, Europe, Asia, and in the Australian region. They are commonly called "GLIDERS" or "SAILORS" because of the way in which they glide through the air. Their colors are characteristic, with a black ground color beneath white lines and spots.    

    40 small-sized species that occur in Africa, Europe, Asia, and in the Australian region. They are commonly called "GLIDERS" or "SAILERS" because of the way in which they glide through the air. Their colors are characteristic, with a black ground color beneath white lines and spots.    

     
     
  196. Neptis sappho  ______
    Common Glider
    (or Pallas' Sailer)
    (Range: from eastern Europe across Asia) 

  197. Neptis rivularis  ______   
    Hungarian Glider 


    Genus ARASCHNIA: 
    Characterized by their map-like patterning, these butterflies are found in Europe and Asia.

  198. Araschnia levana  ______  ES  SW  (C:79) (F:120) (S:108)
    Map Butterfly


    The spring form of Araschnia levana is orange with dark brown markings; the summer form is a dark chocolate-brown with white bands. There is a characteristic map-like pattern of yellowish-white lines on the dark underside.
    There's not just seasonal differences in plumage, but also between male and female. The male, smaller & brighter, is tawny and black. The dark brown female has a yellow band crossing the wings and a partial red band toward the hingwing margins, with white spots near the apex of the forewing. The species flies in open woodland, and breeds on nettles.  



    Genus POLYGONIA:  Known as "Comma" Butterflies in Europe, or "Question Mark" or "Anglewing" Butterflies in the USA, they also occur in Asia. They have dark brown, orange, and black wings with ragged edges and an underside which is usually cryptic. The butterflies are strong fliers and hibernate. They often breed on nettles, Urtica species.    

  199. Polygonia c-album  ______  ES  SP  SW  (C:103) (F:196) (S:125)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Eurasian Comma
    (Range: in western & southern Europe and in north Africa & western Asia) 

    The white mark on the underside of the hindwing is the feature after which the Comma is named. There are seasonal variations, the first generation being lighter than the second generation. The butterfly is territorial, not migratory. It breeds on nettle, Urtica, and hops, Humulus.) 


    Genus NYMPHALIS: 
    A small grouping of butterflies occurring in Europe, Asia, and North America. They are generally powerful fliers. Some species are migratory and hibernate as adults.

     
     
  200. Nymphalis antiopa  (ph)  ______  ES  SP  SW  NA  (C:43) (F:187) (S:122)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Camberwell Beauty  (in North America called the Mourning Cloak)

    (Range: in Europe and cooler regions of Asia; also in North America)  


    This spectacular butterfly, Nymphalis antiopa, has a dark velvety maroon upperside with blue marginal spots and broad, pale yellow borders to the wings. These creamy-appearing borders are quite distinctive in flight. A fine line of blue spots separate the contrasting maroon and yellow colors. The species occurs in the Northern Hemisphere in both the Old and New Worlds. It is a migrant, often found in pine woodlands and along forest rides and glades, where it breeds on willows, beeches, and elms. Many places this butterfly is the first to be seen in the spring, as it ventures out of its overwintering hibernation for brief sorties on warm, sunny days of late-winter and early-spring. 



    A Camberwell Beauty in Estonia

  201. Nymphalis polychloros  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Large Tortoiseshell
    (Range: across Eurasia)  

  202. Nymphalis (or Polygonia) vaualbum  ______  ES  NA
    False Comma 
    (in North America called the Compton Tortoiseshell)  

  203. Nymphalis xanthomelas  ______  ES  (another name is Scarce Tortoiseshell)
    Yellow-legged Tortoiseshell   


    Genus INACHIS: 
    This genus has a single species with "eyes" resembling the markings on a Peacock's tail (that is the Peacock, the bird).

     
  204. Inachis io  (ph)  ______  ES  IC  SP  SW  (C:53) (S:126)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Peacock
    (Range: across Eurasia, occurring into cooler areas)

    Inachis io is an exquisite butterfly, with a unique pattern, and a favorite of both gardeners and naturalists. It emerges from its chrysalis in summer and is quite fond of garden and hedgerow flowers. In the fall, it retires to a hollow log or tree to hibernate. When it flies again in the spring, it's most likely found along the edges of woodlands, to find a mate. The geographic range is across temperate Eurasia. The butterfly lives around farmyards and in valleys, and breeds on nettles.  

     

    Peacock
    (photo by Karl Frafjord) 

    Another picture of Inachis io, the Peacock, follows here in this list, between the skippers and the moths. 


    Genus VANESSA: LADY BUTTERFLIES - A widespread grouping of strong fliers, sometimes migratory, with bright oranges and reds.

  205. Vanessa atalanta  (ph)  ______  CI  ES  IC  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Red Admiral
    (Range: across the Northern Hemisphere, in Eurasia, North Africa, & in North America) 



    Red Admiral
    A nice number of these, at times, have been seen 
    during FONT tours in southern Sweden in September. 
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)


  206. Vanessa virginiensis  ______  CI  SP
    American Painted lady

    Vanessa virginiensis probably colonized in the Canary Islands in historical times, with the introduction of favored food-plants.

    in Europe now, the only resident populations of Vanessa virginiensis are in coastal regions of the southern & western Iberian peninsula and in the Canary Islands.  

  207. Vanessa vulcania  ______  CI
    Canary Red Admiral

    The sister species of Vanessa vulcania is Vanessa indica in the Orient. There is a vast distributional gap between the two species.
    An explanation: There is evidence of warmer and more humid conditions around what was the Tethys Sea (what is now the Mediterranean Sea) back during the Pliocene, supporting laurel forests similar to those of the Canary Islands.
    Since both species can be vagrants with a strong flight, and adapted to laurel forests, their common ancestor could have been able to colonize the present gap in distribution. 

    The Canary Red Admiral resides in laurel forests. It completes its life-cycle only in the Canaries and Madeira, although it may reach western Europe as a vagrant.   


    Genus CYNTHIA: 
    Representatives of this grouping occur in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Many are powerful migrants, such as Cynthia cardui, the Painted Lady. This genus is very closed related to the genus VANESSA. 

      
  208. Cynthia cardui  (ph)  ______  CI  ES  IC  SP  SW  (C:27) (F:140) (S:141)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Painted Lady
    (Range: widespread around the world, but more common in warmer climes)

    Cynthia cardui
    is the most widespread of the world's butterflies. Its range is worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand. It is a very powerful migrant. Throughout is vast range, this species is quite uniform in its pattern and coloration, although some subspecies do exist. A reason for its success is that it breeds on a wide variety of plants. These include common members of the mallow and daisy families, especially thistles.



    Above & below: the Painted Lady
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Doris Potter)




    Genus AGLAIS:  In this grouping, there are more species in Europe and Asia than in North America. They are relatively small butterflies with orange, yellow, and black markings. Some species are migratory. They hibernate.  

     
  209. Aglais urticae  (ph)  ______  IC  ES  SP  SW   (F:114)  (S:110)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Small Tortoiseshell
    (or Mountain Tortoiseshell)
    (Range: across Eurasia)

    The sexes of the Small Tortoiseshell are similar, with three black bars on the leading edge of the forewing. This species is very common in all sorts of habitats from gardens to uplands. It breeds on the ubiquitous nettle Urtica species, and is a strong migrant.



    The Small Tortoiseshell is one of only 4 species of butterflies that occur in Iceland.
    This butterfly was photographed during a FONT tour in Sweden in September 2007.
    (photo by James Scheib) 

    Another picture of Aglais urticae, the Small Tortoiseshell, follows later here in this list, between the skippers and the moths.  


    Genus APATURA: 
    Large and powerful butterflies that occur in Europe, Asia, and the Australian region.

  210. Apatura iris  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Purple Emperor
    (Range: from western Europe to western Asia) 

  211. Apatura ilia  ______  ES  SP
    Lesser Purple Emperor
       


    Genus DANAUS 

  212. Danaus (or Anosia) chrysippus chrysippus  (ph)  ______  CI  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Plain Tiger  (or African Monarch)



    The Plain Tiger

  213. Danaus plexippus  (ph)  ______  CI  SP
    Monarch

    In Europe, the only resident populations of the Monarch are in coastal regions of the southern & western Iberian peninsula and in the Canary Islands. 

    Danaus plexippus was first found in the Canary Islands about 1887. The species has been observed crossing the ocean between the Canary Islands.




    The Monarch
    (photo by Rise Hill)
     


    Subfamily SATYRIDAE: 


    Genus MELANARGIA

  214. Melanargia galathea  ______  ES  SP
    Marbled White
    (Range: in western & central Europe and North Africa and into Asia)

  215. Melanargia ines  ______  SP
    Spanish Marbled White

    In Europe, Melanargia ines occurs only on the Iberian peninsula.  

  216. Melanargia lachesis  ______  SP
    Iberian Marbled White

  217. Melanargia occitanica  ______  SP

  218. Melanargia russiae  ______  SP
    Esper's Marbled White


    Genus BRINTESIA

  219. Brintesia circe  ______  SP
    Great Banded Grayling


    Genus HIPPARCHIA

  220. Hipparchia semele  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Grayling
    (Range: across Europe into Asia)

  221. Hipparchia alcyone  ______  SP
    Rock Grayling

  222. Hipparchia bacchus  (vu)  ______  CI  (endemic)  
    El Hierro Grayling

  223. Hipparchia fagi  (nt)  ______  SP
    Woodland Grayling

  224. Hipparchia fidia  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)

  225. Hipparchia gomera  ______  CI  (endemic)  

  226. Hipparchia hermione  (nt)  ______
    Rock Grayling

  227. Hipparchia leighebi  (nt)  ______
    Eolian Grayling

  228. Hipparchia sbordonii  (nt)  ______
    Ponza Grayling

  229. Hipparchia statilinus  (nt)  ______  SP
    Tree Grayling

  230. Hipparchia tilosi  (vu)  ______  CI  (endemic) 
    La Palma Grayling

  231. Hipparchia wyssii  ______  CI  (endemic) 
    Canary Grayling    


    Genus PSEUDOCHAZARA

  232. Pseudochazara amymone  (vu)  ______

  233. Pseudochazara cingovskii  (ce)  ______  
    Macedonian Grayling

  234. Pseudochazara euxina  (en)  ______

  235. Pseudochazara orestes  (vu)  ______
    Dils' Grayling

  236. Pseudochazara wyssii  ______  CI (endemic)
    Canary Grayling

    Pseudochazara wyssii occurs as distinct races on all of the western Canary Islands, where is particularly found in rocky gullies at middle elevations. 


    Genus OENEIS

  237. Oeneis bore  ______  SW
    Arctic Grayling

  238. Oeneis jutta  ______  ES  SW
    Baltic Grayling

  239. Oeneis norna  (nt)  ______  SW
    Norse Grayling


    Genus SATYRUS

  240. Satyrus actaea  ______  SP
    Black Satyr 


    Genus CHAZARA

  241. Chazara briseis  (nt)  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1764)
    The Hermit

  242. Chazara prieuri  ______  SP
    Southern Hermit

    In Europe, the cryptically-colored Southern Hermit only occurs in Spain. Otherwise it is in northern Africa.  


    Genus EREBIA: 
    A large grouping of BROWNS with over 100 species, represented in Europe, Asia, North America, and the Australian region. Most live at high elevations. These butterflies are medium-sized and have dark red colors.   

  243. Erebia aethiops  ______
    Scotch Argus 
    (or Northern Brown)  

  244. Erebia alberganus  ______  SP
    Almond-eyed Brown

  245. Erebia arvernensis  ______  SP
    Western Brassy Ringlet

  246. Erebia christi  (vu)  ______
    Raetzer's Ringlet

  247. Erebia claudina  (nt)  ______
    White Speck Ringlet

  248. Erebia disa  ______  SW
    Arctic Ringlet

  249. Erebia euryale  ______  SP
    Large Ringlet

  250. Erebia embla  ______  ES  SW
    Lapland Ringlet

  251. Erebia epiphron  ______  SP
    Mountain Ringlet

  252. Erebia epistygne  (nt)  ______
    Spring Ringlet

  253. Erebia flavofascitata  (nt)  ______
    White-banded Ringlet   

  254. Erebia gorge  ______  SP
    Silky Ringlet

  255. Erebia gorgone  ______  SP  (endemic to the Pyrenees, Spain & France)
    Gavarnie Ringlet

    In the Pyrenees, the Gavarnie Ringlet occurs mainly in the central part of the range.  

  256. Erebia hispania  ______  SP (endemic)
    Spanish Brassy Ringlet

    Erebia hispania
    is now endemic to the Sierra Nevada mountains in southern Spain, as Erebia rondoui has been split from it.    

  257. Erebia lefebvrei  ______  SP  (endemic to the Pyrenees, Spain & France)
    Lefebvre's Ringlet

    Erebia lefebvrei is confined to the Pyrenees and the Cordillera Cantabrica, usually above 1800 meters.

  258. Erebia ligea  ______  ES  SW
    Arran Brown

  259. Erebia manto  ______  SP
    Yellow Spotted Ringlet

  260. Erebia meolans  ______  SP
    Piedmont Ringlet 

  261. Erebia neoridas  ______  SP
    Autumn Ringlet

  262. Erebia palarica  ______  SP (endemic)
    Chapman's Ringlet

    Erebia palarica
    is the largest species in its genus. It flies in flowery meadows with Genista scrub in the western & central Cordillera Cantabrica, between Galacia and Cantabria/Palencia.

  263. Erebia pandrose  ______  SW
    Dewy Ringlet

  264. Erebia pronoe  ______  SP
    Water Ringlet

  265. Erebia rondoui  ______  SP  (endemic to the Pyrenees, Spain & France)
    Pyrenees Brassy Ringlet

    Erebia rondoui
    was recently split from the Spanish Brassy Ringlet, Erebia hispania. It is known only in the Pyrenees, including Andorra. 

  266. Erebia sthennyo  ______  SP  (endemic to the Pyrenees, Spain & France)
    False Dewy Ringlet

    Erebia sthennyo
    occurs only in the central Pyrenees in Spain in Huesca & Lerida, and just into France.

  267. Erebia sudetica  (vu)  ______
    Sudeten Ringlet 

    The Sudeten Ringlet, Erebia sudetica, is a European endemic found on alpine and sub-alpine grasslands, especially those near the tree-line. Its population has declined by more than 30% in the last 10 years. It is considered "vulnerable".  

  268. Erebia triaria  ______  SP
    De Prunner's Ringlet

  269. Erebia tyndarus  ______  SP
    Swiss Brassy Ringlet

  270. Erebia zapateri  ______  SP (endemic)

    Erebia zapateri is restricted to limestone habitats in the Spanish provinces of Teruel, Castellon, Cuenca, and Guadalajara, usually above 1,200 meters.


    Genus MANIOLA

  271. Maniola jurtina  ______  CI  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Meadow Brown
    (Range: across Europe, into Asia) 

  272. Maniola halicarnassus  (nt)  ______
    Thomson's Meadow Brown


    Genus HYPONEPHELE

  273. Hyponephele lupina  ______  SP

  274. Hyponephele lycaon  ______  ES  SP
    Dusky Meadow Brown


    Genus LOPINGA

  275. Lopinga achine  (vu)  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Woodland Brown


    Genus PYRONIA

  276. Pyronia (or Maniola) tithonus  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)
    The Gatekeeper
    (Range; in western & southern Europe) 

  277. Pyronia bathseba  ______  SP
    Spanish Gatekeeper

  278. Pyronia cecilia  ______  SP


    Genus APHANTOPUS

  279. Aphantopus hyperantus  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Ringlet
    (Range: across Eurasia)


    Genus COENONYMPHA

  280. Coenonympha pamphilus  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Small Heath
    (Range: in northern Europe, including Britain & Scandinavia) 

  281. Coenonympha amyntas  ______  ES

  282. Coenonympha arcania  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)
    Pearly Heath
    (Range: from western Europe to western Asia)

  283. Coenonympha dorus  ______  SP
    Dusky Heath

  284. Coenonympha glycerion  ______  SP

    There is an isolated colony of Coenonympha glycerion in the eastern Pyrenees in Spain.  

  285. Coenonympha hero  (vu)  ______  ES  SW
    Scarce Heath

  286. Coenonympha iphioides  ______  SP (endemic to the Iberian peninsula, Spain & Portugal)
    Spanish Heath

    Coenonympha iphioides
    has been said to be Coenonympha glycerion. It occurs in damp places in the northern Iberian peninsula. 

  287. Coenonympha oedippus  (en)  ______
    False Ringlet

  288. Coenonympha orientalis  (vu)  ______ 
    Balkan Heath

  289. Coenonympha phryne  (ce)  ______

    Coenonympha phryne
    occurs on pristine steppes in Russia and Ukraine. It is listed as "critically endangered" in Europe.

  290. Coenonympha tullia  (vu)  ______  ES  SW
    Large Heath 
    (in North America called the Ringlet)
    (Range: in central & northern Europe, into Asia; also in North America) 


    Genus MINOIS: 
    Medium-sized butterflies in the SATYRIDS. 

  291. Minois dryas  ______  SP (C:65) (F:182) (S:175)
    Dryad 
    (Range: in southern Europe and across Asia) 

    The dark males of Minois dryas are easy to see in their mountainous habitat. The females, slightly larger and lighter, are usually near by. On the forewings are a pair of bluish eye-spots. Throughout the range, there are a number of subspecies. Breeding is on various grasses.


    Genus KANETISA

  292. Kanetisa circe  ______  SP


    Genus ARETHUSANA

  293. Arethusana arethusa  ______  SP
    False Grayling

  294. Arethusana boabdil  ______  SP(endemic)  (was Arethusana arethusa boabdil)
    Andalusian False Grayling

    Arethusana boabdil is confined to open woodlands and scrubby grasslands in southeastern Spain, especially in the province of Granada.    


    Genus PARARGE

  295. Pararge aegeria  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Speckled Wood
    (Range: across Europe, into Asia) 

  296. Pararge xiphia  (en)  ______
    Madeiran Speckled Wood

  297. Pararge xiphioides  ______  CI (endemic) 
    Canary Speckled Wood

    Pararge xiphioides is a fairly common species on the islands of La Gomera, La Palma, Tenerife, and Gran Canaria. 


    Genus LASIOMMATA: 
    A grouping of European & Asian BROWNS. They have brown or orange ground colors, sometimes speckled, and with false eyes on the wings. They live in open sunny sites and breed on grasses.  

  298. Lasiommata maera  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Large Wall Brown

  299. Lasiommata (formerly Pararge) megera  ______  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Wall Brown
    (Range: across Europe into Asia)

  300. Lasiommata petropolitana  ______  ES  SW
    Northern Wall Brown


    Family HESPERIIDAE: SKIPPERS 

    A very large family (3,000 species throughout the world) of stout-bodied short-winged butterflies that resemble day-flying moths. The adult butterfly's flight resembles a 'skipping' motion when going from flower to flower. Their forewings are closed above their back when they are settled.



    Genus PYRGUS 

  301. Pyrgus malvae  ______  ES  SP  SW  (S:45)
    Grizzled Skipper
    (Range: across Europe east to Mongolia)  

  302. Pyrgus alveus  ______  ES  SP SW
    Large Grizzled Skipper

  303. Pyrgus andromedae  ______  SW
    Alpine Grizzled Skipper

  304. Pyrgus armoricanus  ______  SP  SW
    Oberthur's Grizzled Skipper

  305. Pyrgus carthami  ______  SP
    Salflower Skipper

  306. Pyrgus centaureae  ______  SW
    Northern Grizzled Skipper

  307. Pyrgus cirsii  (vu)  ______  SP
    Cinquefoil Skipper

  308. Pyrgus foulquieri  ______  SP
    Foulquier's Grizzled Skipper

  309. Pyrgus malvoides  ______  SP
    Southern Grizzled Skipper

  310. Pyrgus onorpordi  ______  SP
    Rosy Grizzled Skipper

  311. Pyrgus serratulae  ______  ES  SP
    Olive Skipper



    Genus CARCHARODUS

  312. Carcharodus alceae  ______  SP
    Mallow Skipper  

  313. Carcharodus baeticus  ______  SP
    Southern Marbled Skipper

  314. Carcharodus flocciferus  (nt)  ______  SP
    Tufted Marbled Skipper

  315. Carcharodus lavartherae  (nt)  ______  SP
    Marbled Skipper

  316. Carcharodus tripolinus  ______  SP
    False Mallow Skipper

    In Europe, Carcharodus tripolinus occurs only on the Iberian peninsula.


    Genus CARTEROCEPHALUS

  317. Carterocephalus palaemon  ______  ES  SP  SW  (C:47) 
    Checkered Skipper
     (another name has been Arctic Skipper)
    (Range: in cold and temperate Europe, Asia, and North America) 

  318. Carterocephalus silvicolus  (ph)  ______  ES  SW
    Northern Checkered Skipper  



    A Northern Checkered Skipper in Estonia


    Genus HETEROPTERUS

  319. Heteropterus morpheus  ______  ES  SP  SW
    Large Checkered Skipper 


    Genus ERYNNIS

  320. Erynnis tages  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Dingy Skipper
    (Range: from western & northern Europe across Eurasia)


    Genus MUSCHAMPIA

  321. Muschampia cribrellum  (nt)  ______
    Spinose Skipper


    Genus THYMELICUS

  322. Thymelicus sylvestris  ______   ES  SP
    Small Skipper

    Thymelicus sylvestris
    and Thymelicus lineola are very closely related, and can only be distinguished by the darker color of the antennae of T. lineola.

  323. Thymelicus lineolua  ______  ES  SP  SW
    European Skipper 
    (known in Europe as the Essex Skipper)
    (Range: in Europe, North Africa, and Asia; introduced in North America) 

  324. Thymelicus acteon  (nt)  ______  SP
    Lulworth Skipper
    (Range: from western & southern Europe east into Asia) 

  325. Thymelicus christi  ______  CI  (species endemic to the Canary Islands)
    Canary Skipper

    Thymelicus christi
    was considered a subspecies of Thymelicus acteon, the Lulworth Skipper


    Genus OCHLODES

  326. Ochlodes venata  ______  ES  SP  SW  (S:45)
    Large Skipper
    (Range: across Eurasia)  


    Genus HESPERIA 

  327. Hesperia comma  ______  ES  SP  SW  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Silver-spotted Skipper


    Genus GEGENES

  328. Gegenes nostrodamus  ______  SP


    G
    enus SPIALIA

  329. Spialia sertorius  ______  SP
    Red-underwing Skipper


    Genus SYRICHTUS

  330. Syrichtus proto  ______  SP
    Sage Skipper 


    Genus BORBO

  331. Borbo borbonica  ______  SP
    Zeller's Skipper  

    In Europe, the Zeller's Skipper occurs only in Spain. Otherwise, it is in Africa & the Middle East.  






    Above: a moth and butterflies in a collection in Iceland
    Tyria jacobaeae, the Cinnabar Moth, in the subfamily Arctiidae 
    (number 519 in this list)
    Pieris brassidae, the Large White, in the family Pieridae
    Pieris rapae, the Small White, in the family Pieridae
    Aglias urtica, the Small Tortoiseshell, in the family Nymphalidae
    Inachis io, the Peacock, in the family Nymphalidae





    Some more moths and two butterflies in a collection in Iceland
    Agrius convolvuli, the Convolvulus Hawkmoth, in the family Sphingidae 
    (number 471 in this list)
    Vanessa atalanta, the Red Admiral, in the family Nymphalidae
    Cynthia cardui, the Painted Lady, in the family Nymphalidae
    Agrotis ipsilon, the Dark Sword Grass Moth, in the family Noctuidae 
    (number 533 in this list)
    Autographa gamma, the Silver Y Moth, in the family Noctuidae 
    (number 538 in this list)
    Agrochola circellaris, the Brick Moth, in the family Noctuidae
      (number 531 in this list)
    Phlogophora meticuiosa, Angle Shades, in the family Noctuidae 
    (number 563 in this list)
    Nomophila noctuella, the Rush Veneer, in the subfamily Crambidae in Pyralidae 
    (number 442 in this list)
    Udea ferrugalis, in the subfamily Crambidae in the family Pyralidae 
    (number 448 in this list)
    Plutella xylostella, in the family Yponomeutidae 
    (number 520 in this list)




    A LIST OF EUROPEAN MOTHS
      
      

    Family THYATIRIDAE

  332. Achlya flavicornis  ______  GB
    Yellow Horned Moth

  333. Cymatophorima diluta  ______  GB
    Oak Lutestring

  334. Habrosyne pyritoides  ______  GB
    Buff Arches

  335. Ochropacha duplaris  ______  GB
    Common Lutestring

  336. Polyploca ridens  ______  GB
    Frosted Green Moth 

  337. Tethea ocularis  ______  GB
    Figure of Eighty

  338. Tethea or  ______  GB
    Poplar Lutestring  

  339. Tetheella fluctuosa  ______  GB
    Satin Lutestring 

  340. Thyatira batis  ______  GB  (S:188)
    Peach Blossom


    Family ENDROMIDAE:
    in this family, one genus, with only one species 

  341. Endromis versicolora  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Kentish Glory


    Family GEOMETRIDAE: 
    This is the second largest family of moths, with over 15,000 species worldwide. These moths are generally slender-bodied and weak fliers, and many rely on camouflage for survival. However there are some exceptions. 
    Their CATERPILLARS are popularly known as INCHWORMS or LOOPERS for their mannerism of drawing up the center of their body in order to move forward, as they have legs only at their head and tail ends.




    Moths in the family Geometridae, in the left column, in the family Noctuidae in the right column,
    in a collection in Iceland
    In Geometridae:
    Xanthorhoe designata, the Flame Carpet 
    (in the list below, number 411)
    Xanthorhoe decoloraria, the Red Carpet 
    (in the list below, number 413)
    Epirrhoe alternata, the Common Carpet 
    (in the list below, number 362)
    Entephria flavivinctata, the Yellow-ringed Carpet 
    (in the list below, number 360)
    Chloroclysta citrata, the Dark Marble Carpet 
    (in the list below, number 355)
    Hydriomena furcata, the July Highflyer 
    (in the list below, number 379)
    There is another Geometridae butterfly below Hydriomena furcata, unidentified here.   
    In Noctuidae:
    Syngrapha interrogationis, the Scarce Silver Y 
    (in the list below, number 570)
    Apamea maillardi, the Exile, 
    (in the list below, number 537)
    Photedes stigmatica, the Square-spotted Clay Moth 
    (in the list below, number 564)
    The other moths in the right column are in another photograph below,  



  342. Abraxas grossulariata  ______  ES  (S:198)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Magpie Moth

  343. Alcis repandata  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mottled Beauty

  344. Alsophila aescularia  ______  ES  GB
    March Moth

  345. Angerona prunaria  ______  ES  (S:198)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Orange Moth

  346. Anticlea cabrerai  ______  CI  (species described in 1962)

  347. Anticlea derivata  ______  GB
    Streamer

  348. Archiearis parthenias  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)
    Orange Underwing

  349. Biston betularia  ______  ES  (S:198)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Peppered Moth

  350. Biston strataria  ______  ES
    Oak Beauty

  351. Camptogramma bilineata  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Yellow Shell

  352. Catarhoe rubidata  ______  ES  GB(rare)
    Ruddy Carpet

  353. Charissa canariensis  ______  CI

  354. Chlorissa viridata  ______  ES  GB(rare)
    Small Grass Emerald

  355. Chloroclysta citrata  (ph)  ______  GB  IC  NA
    Dark Marble Carpet

    A picture of Chloroclysta citrata, the Dark Marble Carpet, is above in this list, above number 342. 

  356. Chloroclysta miata  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)   

  357. Comibaena bajularia  ______  ES  GB
    Blotched Emerald

  358. Ecliptopera silaceata  (vu)  ______  ES  GB
    Small Phoenix

  359. Ennomos autumnaria  ______  ES
    Large Thorn

  360. Entephria flavicinctata  (ph)  ______  GB(local)  IC(south)
    Yellow-ringed Carpet

    A picture of Entephria flavicinctata, the Yellow-ringed Carpet, is above in this list, above number 342. 

  361. Entephria caesiata  (ph)  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA
    Gray Mountain Carpet

    A picture of Entephria caesiata, the Gray Mountain Carpet, is above in this list, above number 342.

  362. Epirrhoe alternata  (ph)  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA
    Common Carpet

    Another name for Epirrhoe alternata is the White-banded Toothed Carpet.

    A picture of specimens of Epirrhoe alternata, the Common Carpet, is above in this list, above number 342.
    Another picture, of a live moth, is below: 



    Common Carpet, White-banded Tooth Carpet
    (photo by Stephen Kloiber)

  363. Epirrhoe galiata  (vu)  ______  ES  GB(local)
    Galium Carpet

  364. Epirrhoe rivata  ______  ES  GB(local)
    Wood Carpet

  365. Epirrhoe tristata  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Small Argent and Sable

  366. Erannis defoliaria  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA  (S:200)
    Mottled Umber 

  367. Eulithis mellinata  ______  ES  GB
    Spinach Moth

  368. Eulithis populata  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Northern Spinach Moth 

  369. Eulithis prunata  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Phoenix

  370. Eulithis pyraliata  ______  GB
    Barred Straw 

  371. Eulithis testata  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)
    Chevron

  372. Eupithecia nanata  ______  ES  GB  IC
    Narrow-winged Pug

  373. Eupithecia plumbeolata  ______  ES  GB  IC
    Lead-colored Pug

  374. Eupithecia satyrata  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA
    Satyr Pug

  375. Eupithecia sobrinata  ______  GB  IC  NA
    Juniper Pug

  376. Geometra papilionaria  (ph)  ______  ES  GB  (S:194)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Large Emerald
    (Range: across Eurasia)

    The Large Emerald is a large, robust Geometrid moth that has, as its name suggests, green wings.
    Green is definitely an unusual color for lepidopterans. Only in a few families is there an occasional green species, for example, in the noctuids and tortricids.
    However, among the geometrids there is an entire subfamily, the GEOMETRINAE, whose members are colored various shades of green. Some 25 species of these are found in Europe. 
    The largest is the Large Emerald, from which the entire family GEOMETRIDAE gets its name. It inhabits broad-leaved forests in Europe and Asia, with its range extending as far east as Kamchatka and Sakhalin (in far-eastern Siberia). It prefers damp, rather warm, broad-leaved forests with birch, and valley forests with alder. This moth is not particularly abundant anywhere, but it is found most frequently in foothills. 
    The pattern on the wings is variable. The green coloration is not constant. When the moth emerges from the pupa it is dark green, but gradually it becomes increasingly lighter.



    A Large Emerald, Geometra papilionaria 
    (photo by Karl Frafjord)


  377. Hemistola chrysoprasaria  (vu)  ______  ES  GB
    Small Emerald

  378. Hemithea aestivaria  ______  ES  GB
    Common Emerald

  379. Hydriomena furcata  (ph)  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA
    July Highflyer

    A picture of Hydriomena furcata, the July Highflyer, is above in this list, above number 342.

  380. Hypomecis roboraria  ______  ES  (S:199)
    Great Oak Beauty

  381. Idaea biselata  ______  ES  GB
    Small Fan-footed Wave

  382. Idaea eugeniata  ______  SP

  383. Idaea muricata  ______  ES  GB(rare)
    Purple-bordered Gold

  384. Idaea ochrata  ______  GB
    Bright Wave

  385. Idaea rusticola  ______  GB(local)
    Least Carpet

  386. Idaea sylvestraria  ______  ES  GB(rare)
    Dot-bordered Wave

  387. Jodis lactearia  ______  ES  GB(local)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Little Emerald

  388. Lycia hirtaria  ______  (S:200)
    Brindled Beauty
    (Range: western & northern Europe) 

    Lycia hirtaria is a generally brown and white Geometrid moth that is particularly effective at camouflage. 

  389. Mesoleuca albicillata  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Beautiful Carpet

  390. Operophtera brumata ______  ES  GB  IC  NA  (S:196)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Winter Moth

  391. Opisthograptis luteolata  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  
    Brimstone Moth

  392. Orthonama obstipata  ______  GB  IC(immigrant)  NA
    Gem

  393. Orthonama vittata  ______  ES  GB
    Oblique Carpet

  394. Ourapteryx sambucaria  ______  ES  (S:201) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Swallow-tailed Moth
    (Range: across Europe into temperate Asia) 

    Ourapteryx sambucaria is a relatively large Geometrid with a striking appearance. When found during the day, it can be mistaken for a butterfly. 

  395. Perizoma alchemillata  ______  ES  GB  IC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Small Rivulet

  396. Perizoma blandiata  ______  ES  GB  IC
    Pretty Pinion

  397. Plagodis dolabraria  ______  ES  (S:201)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Scorched Wing 

  398. Pseudoterpna pruinata  ______  GB
    Grass Emerald

  399. Rheumaptera hastata  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA  (S:197)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Argent and Sable

  400. Rhodometra sacraria  ______  CI  ES  GB(immigrant)  SP  (S:196)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    The Vestal

  401. Rhodostrophia vibicaria  ______  ES  SP
    Rose-banded Wave

  402. Rhoptria asperaria  ______  CI  SP

  403. Scopula decorata  ______  ES  SP
    Middle Lace Border

  404. Scopula emutaria  ______  GB(rare)
    Rosy Wave

  405. Scopula ornata  ______  ES  GB(rare)
    Lace Border

  406. Scotopteryx bipunctaria  ______  GB(rare)
    Chalk Carpet

  407. Selenia tetralunaria  ______  ES  (S:202)
    Purple Thorn

  408. Siona lineata  ______  ES  SP
    Black-veined Moth

  409. Timandra comae  (vu)  ______  ES  GB
    Blood-vein

  410. Venusia cambrica  ______  ES  (S:197)
    Welsh Wave

  411. Xanthorhoe designata  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA
    Flame Carpet 

    A picture of Xanthorhoe designata, the Flame Carpet, is above in this list, above number 342.

  412. Xanthorhoe fluctuata ______  ES  GB (S:197)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Garden Carpet

  413. Xanthorhoe decoloraria (or munitata ______  GB  IC  NA
    Red Carpet

    A picture of Xanthorhoe decoloraria, the Red Carpet, is above in this list, above number 342.

     

    Family PTEROPHORIDAE:  Plume Moths

  414. Agdistis bifurcatus  ______  CI  (species described in 1952)

  415. Agdistis frankeniae  ______  CI

  416. Agdistis heydeni  ______  CI

  417. Agdistis meridionalis  ______  CI

  418. Agdistis pseudocanariensis  ______  CI  (species described in 1973)

  419. Agdistis salsolae  ______  CI

  420. Agdistis satanas  ______  CI

  421. Agdistis tamaricis  ______  CI

  422. Amblyptilia acanthadactyla  ______  CI  

  423. Cnaemidophorus rhododactyla  ______  ES

  424. Crombrugghia distans  ______  CI

  425. Crombrugghia laetus  ______  CI

  426. Emmelina monodactyla  ______  CI  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 

  427. Pterophorus pentadactyla  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    White Plume Moth
    (Range: across Eurasia)

    Pterophorus pentadactyla is a pure white moth. It, and others in its family, are commonly known as "plume moths" since their wings have the appearance of fine feathers. The forewing of this species is divided 2 two lobes, or ""plumes"", while its hindwing is divided into 3.
    The White Plume Moth holds its wings out when it rests, adopting a T-shape. This is accentuated by the proportionally long, white hindlegs, which trail alongside its abdomen.


  428. Stenoptila islandica  ______  IC
    Icelandic Plume

  429. Stenoptila pterodactyla  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761) 


    Family PYRALIDAE (including the family CRAMBIDAE)

  430. Acrobasis klimeschi  ______  CI

  431. Acrobasis obliqua  ______  CI

  432. Aglossa caprealis  ______  CI

  433. Aglossa pinguinalis  ______  CI  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 

  434. Bostra obsoletalis  ______  SP

  435. Crambus nemorella (has been C. pratellus______  (in the family Crambidae)

  436. Crambus pascuella  ______  ES  GB  IC  NA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (in the family Crambidae)

  437. Ectomyelois ceratoniae  ______  GB  IC(rare)  NA
    Carob Bean Moth

  438. Ephestia kuehniella  ______  ES  GB  IC(rare)  NA
    Mediterranean Flour Moth

  439. Gesneria centuriella  ______  ES  IC  NA  (in the family Crambidae)

  440. Herpetogramma licarsisalis  ______  SP
    Grass Webworm Moth

  441. Metasia cuencalis  ______  SP  (in the family Crambidae)

  442. Nomophila noctuella  (ph)  ______  ES  GB  IC(immigrant)  SP  NA  (in the family Crambidae)
    Rush Veneer 

    A picture of Nomophila noctuella, the Rush Veneer, is here, earlier in this list, between the skippers and the moths. 

  443. Nymphula nymphaeata  ______  (in the family Crambidae)
    Brown China-mark

  444. Plodia interpunctella  ______  ES  GB  IC(rare)  NA
    Indian Meal Moth
    (Range: in Eurasia & North America)

  445. Pyla fusca  ______  GB  IC  NA

  446. Pyralis farinalis  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Meal Moth

  447. Spoladea recurvalis  ______  SP  (in the family Crambidae)
    Beet Webworm Moth

  448. Udea ferrugalis  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(immigrant)  (in the family Crambidae) 

    A picture of Udea ferrugalis is here, earlier in this list, between the skippers and the moths.


    Family LASIOCAMPIDAE, LAPPET MOTHS: 
    These are stocky and often furry moths which unlike all others lack the wing-cupling device which distinguishes moths from butterflies.
    Their CATERPILLARS are also hairy and they form egg-shaped cocoons, hence the common name for some in this family of EGGAR
    MOTHS. 

  449. Dendrolimus pini  ______  ES  GB(rare immigrant)  (S:204)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pine-tree Lappet

  450. Eriogaster lanestris  ______  ES  GB(rare)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Small Eggar

  451. Euthrix (formerly Philudoria) potatoria  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Drinker

  452. Gastropacha quercifolia  ______  ES  GB  (S:204)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Lappet Moth
    (Range: across Eurasia)

  453. Gastropacha populifolia  ______  ES

  454. Lasiocampa quercus  ______  ES  GB  (S:207) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Oak Eggar
    (Range: across Europe and in North Africa)

  455. Lasiocampa trifolii  ______  ES  GB(rare)
    Grass Eggar

  456. Macrothylacia rubi  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    The Fox 

  457. Malacosoma castrensis  ______  ES  GB(rare)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Ground Lackey

  458. Malacosoma neustria  (vu)  ______  ES  GB  IC(rare)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Lackey

  459. Odonestis pruni  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  460. Phyllodesma ilicifolia  ______  ES  GB(extirpated)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Small Lappet

  461. Phyllodesma japonica  ______  ES

  462. Poecilocampa populi  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    December Moth

  463. Trichiura crataegi  (vu)  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pale Eggar


    Family BRAHMAEIDAE: 
    A small family of 20 or so described species in Africa, Asia, and Europe.

  464. Acanthobrahmaea eurppaea  ______  (S:217)
    Hartig's Brahmaea

    The Hartig's Brahmaea occurs in woodlands by the shores of a volcanic lake in Licania, Italy. It is now a protected species.

  465. Lemonia dumi  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)


    Family SATURNIIDAE:  A family of SILKMOTHS, known as EMPEROR MOTHS. They are large and attractive species, many of which spin a coarse silk for their cocoons.      

  466. Aglia tau  ______  ES  (S:222)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Tau Emperor

    Aglia tau
    is sometimes placed in a separate family, SYSSPHINGIDAE.

  467. Graellsia isabellae  (ph)  ______  SP  (S:229)   
    Spanish Moon Moth

    Graelisia isabellae
    is the single member of its genus. It is a relict species closely related to the genera ACTIAS in North America and eastern Asia, and ARGEMA in eastern Africa.  

    At the end of April and the beginning of May, the Spanish Moon Moth begins to hatch after overwintering in the cocoon.

    The favored food of Graelisia isabellae are pines. The larvae feed on pine needles.



    Spanish Moon Moth

  468. Saturnia pavonia  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Emperor Moth
    (Range: across Europe, into Scandinavia)

  469. Saturnia pyri  ______
    Greater
    (or Viennese) Emperor  (another name is Great Peacock Moth)  (S:235)
    (Range: in southern Europe and North Africa and western Asia)  

    Saturnia pyra is Europe's largest moth, and generally it is observed in southern areas. 


    Family SPHINGIDAE: HAWK MOTHS:
    This family has around 1,000 species. They have a fast powerful flight and a particularly long tongue or proboscis. Many in this family resemble other types of insects and even birds, particularly hummingbirds.

  470. Acherontia atropos  (ph)  ______  CI  ES  IC(immigrant)  GB(migant)  (S:236)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Death's-head Hawkmoth



    Death's-head Hawkmoth, referring here to its occurrence in Iceland

    Since his childhood, Halfdan Bjornsson observed butterflies and moths at Kuisker (in Iceland), catching them in traps or nets.
    The solitary vagrants could never survive in the Icelandic climate, but Halfdan's collection is a unique archive of the species carried to Iceland across the ocean.
    In 1941, he found a Death's-head Hawkmoth, Acheronttia atropos, on the shore below the farm. With a wingspan of 14 centimeters, it is the largest lepidoptera ever found in Iceland. 

  471. Agrius convolvuli  (ph)  ______  CI  ES  IC(immigrant)  GB(migrant)  NA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Convolvulus Hawkmoth

    A picture of Agrius convolvuli, the Convolvulus Hawkmoth, is here, earlier in this list, between the skippers and the moths. 

  472. Daphnis nerii  ______  ES  GB(migrant)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Oleander Hawkmoth

  473. Deilephila elpenor  ______  ES  GB  (S:245)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Elephant Hawkmoth

  474. Deilephila porcellus  ______  ES  GB(local)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Small Elephant Hawkmoth

  475. Hemaris fuciformis  ______  ES  GB(rare)  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Broad-bordered Bee Hawkmoth

  476. Hemaris tityus  ______  ES  GB(rare)  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Narrow-bordered Bee Hawkmoth

  477. Hippotion celerio  ______  CI  GB(migrant)  (S:245)
    Silver-striped Hawkmoth

  478. Hyloicus pinastri  ______   GB(local)
    Pine Hawkmoth

    During the 20th Century, a melanistic form of Sphinx ligustri began to appear in industrial regions.

  479. Hyles euphorbiae  ______  ES  GB(migrant)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Spurge Hawkmoth

  480. Hyles galli  ______  ES  GB(migrant, sometimes overwinters)
    Bedstraw Hawkmoth

  481. Hyles lineata  (ph)  ______  GB(vagrant)  (S:245)
    White-lined Sphinx
    (Range: nearly worldwide, in Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, North America, and South America)



    A White-lined Sphinx photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Doris Potter)


  482. Hyles livornica  ______  CI  ES  GB(migrant)
    Striped Hawkmoth

  483. Hyles tithymali  ______  CI

  484. Laothoe amurensis  ______  ES

  485. Laothoe populi  ______  ES  GB  (S:239)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Poplar Hawkmoth

  486. Macroglossum stellatarum ______  CI  ES  IC(immigrant)  GB  SP  (S:243)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hummingbird Hawkmoth

  487. Mimas tiliae  ______  ES  GB  (S:240)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Lime Hawkmoth

  488. Proserpinus proserpina  ______  GB
    Willowherb Hawkmoth

  489. Smerinthus ocedllata  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Eyed Hawkmoth


  490. Sphinx ligustri  ______  ES  GB(south)  (S:237)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Privet Hawkmoth

  491. Sphinx pinastri  ______  ES  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)


    Family NOTODONTIDAE: 
    A family with its members distinguished by hairy features. The moths have tufts of scales on the forewings which stand upright when the moth is at rest. As a result, they are usually referred to as PROMINENTS.  

  492. Cerura vinnula ______ (S:246)
    Puss Moth
    (Range: across Eurasia) 

    When threatened, Cerura vinnula raises its head, showing a pink "face" with false "eyes".

  493. Stauropus fagi ______ (S:249)
    Lobster Moth

  494. Eligmodonta ziczac  ______
    Pebble Prominent

  495. Notodonta dromedarius  ______
    Iron Prominent

  496. Phalera bucephala  ______
    Buff-tip

  497. Pygaera curtula  ______
    Chocolate-tip

  498. Pygaera pigra  ______
    Small Chocolate-tip


    Family THAUMETOPOEIDAE

  499. Thaumesopoea pityocampa  ______  SP
    Pine Processionary


    Family ARCTIIDAE:
    This family contains over 10,000 species worldwide and contains two distinct groups known as TIGER MOTHS and ERMINES. 
    The TIGER MOTHS have earned their popular name from their bright colors and eye-catching patterning. The coloring of these species is an indicator that they are poisonous. As with a number of butterflies, their displays of color act as a warning to potential predators.
    ERMINES are pale, with black spots.   

    The family ARCTIIDAE has now been said to be part of the family EREBIDAE.   


  500. Arctia caja  ______  GB  (S:274)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Garden Tiger
    (Range: in Europe and cooler parts of Asia; also in North America)   

    The caterpillar of Arctia caja is covered in poisonous spines, and is commonly referred to a a "Woolly Bear".

  501. Arctia hebe (or Ammogiota festiva______

  502. Arctia villica  ______  GB(local)
    Cream-spot Tiger

  503. Callimorpha (formerly Panaxia) dominula  (ph)  ______  GB(local)  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Scarlet Tiger



    Scarlet Tiger

  504. Eilema albicosta  ______  CI

  505. Eilema complana  ______  GB(rare)
    Scarce Footman

  506. Eilema pygmaeola  ______  GB
    Pygmy Footman

  507. Euplagia quadripunctaria  ______  GB  SP
    Jersey Tiger

  508. Hypantria cunea (i)  ______
    Fall Webworm Moth 

  509. Hyphoraia aulica  ______

  510. Miltochrista miniata  ______  GB(local)
    Rosy Footman

  511. Parasemia plantaginis  ______  GB  SP
    Wood Tiger

  512. Phragmatobia fuliginosa  ______  GB  (S:277)
    Ruby Tiger 

  513. Setina irrorella  ______  GB  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Dew Moth

  514. Spiris striata  ______  SP
    Feathered Footman

  515. Spilosoma lubricipeda  (ph)  ______  GB  (S:278)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    White Ermine
    (Range: across Eurasia)

    The White Ermine is a relatively small Arctid moth with forewings that closely resemble the fur of its mammalian namesake, being pure white with black dots. 

     

    White Ermine

  516. Spilosoma urticae  ______  GB
    Water Ermine

  517. Spilosoma luteum  ______  GB
    Buff Ermine

  518. Thumatha senex  ______  GB
    Round-winged Muslin

  519. Tyria (formerly Callimorpha) jacobaeae  (ph)  ______  IC(rare)  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Cinnabar Moth

    A picture of Tyria jacobaeae, the Cinnabar Moth, is here, earlier in this list, between the skippers and the moths.  


    Family YPONOMEUTIDAE: 
    a family of Ermine Moths mostly in the tropics

  520. Plutella senilella  (ph)  ______  IC

  521. Plutella xylostella  (ph)   ______  GB  IC(immigrant)  NA
    Diamondback Moth

    A picture of Plutella xylostella. albeit a poor one, is earlier in this list, between the skippers and the moths. 
    But a much better one is here below:



    Diamondback Moth
    (photo by Stephen Kloiber)

  522. Yponomeuta gigas  ______  CI

  523. Yponomeuta padella  ______  CI  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  524. Zellaeria oleastrella  ______  CI

  525. Zellaeria wolffi  ______  CI  (species described in 1983)


    Family NOCTUIDAE, NOCTUID MOTHS: 
    These can range from small micromoths to larger macromoths. Some are drab and unremarkable, while others are as striking as butterflies. 
    This is one of the largest families of moths containing over 25,000 species. It also includes a number of highly destructive caterpillars.



    Moths in the family Noctuidae, in a collection in Iceland
    Eurois occulta, the Great Brocade 
    (in the list below, number 554)
    Xylena vetusta, the Red Sword Grass Moth 
    (in the list below, number 572)
    Strandfussiana lucernea, the Northern Rustic 
    (in the list below, number 569)
    Rhyacia quadrangula 
    (in the list below, number 567)
    Diarsia mendica, the Ingrailed Clay 
    (in the list below, number 550)


  526. Acronicta alni  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Alder Moth

  527. Acronicta cuspis  ______

  528. Acronicta menyanthidis  ______

  529. Acronicta psi  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Gray Dagger

  530. Acronicta rumicis  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Knot Grass

  531. Acronicta tridens  ______

  532. Agrochola circellaris  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(south)
    the Brick  

    A picture of Agrochola circellaris, the Brick Moth, is here, earlier in this list, between the skippers and the moths. 

  533. Agrotis exclamationis  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Heart and Dart

  534. Agrotis ipsilon  (ph)  ______ GB  IC(immigrant)  NA
    Dark Sword Grass Moth

    A picture of Agrotis ipsilon, the Dark Sword Grass Moth, is here, earlier in the list, between the skippers and the moths. 

  535. Agrotis segetum  ______
    Turnip Moth

  536. Amphipyra pyramidea  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Copper Underwing

  537. Amphipyra tragopogonis  ______
    The Mouse

  538. Apamea maillardi  (ph)  ______  GB  IC  NA
    The Exile

    A picture of Apamea maillardi, the Exile, is above in this list, above number 342.
     
  539. Autographa gamma  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(immigrant)  NA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Silver Y Moth

    A picture of Autographa gamma, the Silver Y Moth, is here, earlier in this list, between the skippers and the moths. 


  540. Blepharita adusta  ______  GB  IC  NA
    Dark Brocade

  541. Callopistria latreillei  ______  SP

  542. Caradrina clavipalpis  ______  GB  IC(northwest)
    Pale Mottled Willow

  543. Catocala fraxini   ______  GB  IC(rare immigrant)  (S:260)
    Blue Underwing

  544. Catocala nupta  ______
    Red Underwing

  545. Catocala sponsa  ______
    Dark Crimson Underwing

  546. Ceramica pisi  ______  GB  IC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Broom Moth

  547. Cerapteryx graminis  ______  GB  IC  NA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Antler Moth

  548. Cucullia artemisiae  ______
    Scarce Wormwood

  549. Cucullia verbasci  ______
    Mullein

  550. Diachrysia chrysitis  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Burnished Brass Moth

  551. Diarsia mendica  (ph)  ______  GB  IC
    Ingrailed Clay

    A picture of Diarsia mendica, the Ingrailed Clay, is above in this list, above number 525.

  552. Ephesia fulminea  ______

  553. Eublemma parva  ______  SP
    Small Marbled 

  554. Eupsilia trnsversa  ______  GB  IC(south)
    Satellite

  555. Eurois occulta  (ph)  ______  GB  IC  NA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Great Brocade

    A picture of Eurois occulta, the Great Brocade, is above in this list, above number 525. 

  556. Euxoa islandica islandica  ______  IC  (a subspecies endemic to Iceland)
    Iceland Dart

  557. Mamestra brassicae ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Cabbage Moth

  558. Mamestra persicariae  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1761)
    The Dot

  559. Mythimna pallens  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Common Wainscot  

  560. Mythimna unipuncta  ______  GB  IC(immigrant)  NA
    White-speck (or American Wainscot)

  561. Noctua fimbriata  ______
    Broad-bordered Yellow Underwing

  562. Noctua pronuba  ______  GB  IC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Large Yellow Underwing

  563. Peridroma saucia  ______  GB  IC(immigrant)  NA
    Pearly Underwing

  564. Phlogophora meticulosa  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(immigrant)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Angle Shades

    A picture of Phlogophora meticulosa, Angle Shades, is here, in this list, between the skippers and the moths. 

  565. Photedes stigmatica  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(north)
    Square-spotted Clay

    A picture of Photedes stigmatica, the Square-spotted Clay, is above in this list, above number 342.


  566. Pseudozarba bipartita  ______  SP

  567. Rhizedra lutosa  ______  GB  IC(immigrant)
    Large Wainscot

  568. Rhyacia quadrangula  (ph)  ______  IC  NA

    A picture of Rhyacia quadrangula is above in this list, above number 525. 

  569. Spodoptera cilium  ______  SP
    Dark Mottled Willow

  570. Standfussiana lucernea  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(south)
    Northern Rustic

    A picture of Strandfussiana lucernea, the Northern Rustic, is above in this list, above number 525. 

  571. Syngrapha interrogationis  (ph)  ______  GB  IC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Scarce Silver Y

    A picture of Syngrapha interrogationis, the Scarce Silver Y, is above in this list, above number 342.


  572. Xylena exsoleta  ______  GB  IC(south)
    Sword Glass

  573. Xylena vetusta  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(south)  NA
    Red Sword Grass Moth

    A picture of Xylena vetusta, the Red Sword Grass Moth, is above in this list, above number 525.


    Family LYMANTRIIDAE: TUSSOCK-MOTHS
    Those in this family are often slightly hairier than NOCTUID MOTHS. Within this family, only the male is capable of flight. The female is generally large-bodied and immobile, with wings that can not function.   

    The family LYMANTRIIDAE has now been said to be part of the family EREBIDAE.     


  574. Arctornis l-nigrum  ______  GB
    Black V Moth

  575. Calliteara pudibunda  ______  GB (S:268)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Pale Tussock

  576. Dicallomera fascelina  ______  GB(local)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Dark Tussock

  577. Euproctis chrysorrhoea  ______  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Brown-tail

  578. Euproctis similis  ______  GB
    Yellow-tail

  579. Leucoma salicis  ______  GB(local)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    White Satin

  580. Lymantria dispar  (ph)  ______  GB(immigrant, former resident)  NA(i)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Gypsy Moth
    (Range: across Eurasia; introduced in North America in the 19th Century)

    Males and females of Lymantria dispar are very different. The male is smaller with mottled brown, orange and yellow forewings, which are bordered with white and dark brown checkering. The female has creamy white wings with dark markings on the forewings, including a characteristic V shape near the leading edges. The borders of both of her wings are checkered with white and black. Her body is very large, and when carrying a huge egg sac, it doubles in size.  



    Gypsy Moths, showing the male & female

  581. Lymantria monarcha  ______  GB(local)  (S:271)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Black Arches Moth 

  582. Orgyia antiqua  ______  GB  IC(south)  NA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Vapourer

  583. Orgyia recens  ______  GB
    Scarce Vapourer 


    Family ZYGAENIDAE:  Burnet Moths  In this family, those in the genus ZYGAENA are brightly-colored and day-flying moths of the Western Palearctic.  Also known as Forester Moths and sometimes called Smoky Moths.  

    The moths are brightly-colored, and thus a warning to predators that they are distasteful. They contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN) throughtout all stages of their life-cycle. Unlike many insects with such toxins, they obtain glucosides from feeding on Birds-foot Trefoil (Lotus) so that they, themselves can use HCN as a defense.
    However, they are capable of making their own HCN, and so when an environment is poor in cyanide-producing plants, they can synthesize it themselves.   

  584. Adscita geryon  ______  GB  SP
    Cistus Forester

  585. Adscita globulariae  ______  GB
    Scarce Forester

  586. Adscita statices  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Forester

  587. Aglaope infausta  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1787)
    Almond Tree Leaf Skeletonizer Moth  

  588. Rhagades pruni  (ph)  ______  ES



    The moth, Rhagades pruni, in Estonia

  589. Zygaena anthyllidis  ______  SP

  590. Zygaena carniolica  ______

  591. Zygaena contaminei  ______  SP

  592. Zygaena ephialtes  ______

  593. Zygaena exulans  ______  GB
    Scotch Burnet

  594. Zygaena fausta  (ph)  ______  SP  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)



    Zyganena fausta in Spain

  595. Zygaena filipendulae  ______  ES  GB  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Six-spotted Burnet Moth

  596. Zygaena hilaris  ______  SP

  597. Zygaena ignifera  ______  SP 

  598. Zygaena lavandulae  ______  SP

  599. Zygaena loti  ______  GB
    Slender Scotch Burnet

  600. Zygaena lonicerae  ______  ES  GB
    Narrow-bordered Five-spot Burnet

  601. Zygaena minos  ______  ES

  602. Zygaena nevadensis  ______  SP

  603. Zygaena occitanica  ______  SP

  604. Zygaena osterdensis  ______  ES  SP

  605. Zygaena purpuralis  ______  GB
    Transparent Burnet 

  606. Zygaena rhadamanthus  ______  SP

  607. Zygaena sarpedon  ______  SP

  608. Zygaena transalpina  ______  SP

  609. Zygaena trifolii  ______  GB
    Five-spot Burnet 

  610. Zygaena viciae  ______  ES  GB
    New Forest Burnet


    Family SESIIDAE:  Clearwing Moths

  611. Bembecia handiensis  ______  CI  (species described in 1997)

  612. Bembecia vulcanica  ______  CI  (species described in 1969)

  613. Pennisetia hylaeiformis  ______

  614. Pyropteron (or Bembecia) chrysidiformis  ______  SP
    Fiery Clearwing

  615. Sesia apiformis  ______  SP
    Hornet Clearwing

  616. Synanthedon tipuliformis  ______
    Currant Clearwing


    Family GRACILLARIIDAE
    about 200 species in Europe out of about 2,000 worldwide

  617. Aspilapteryx multipunctella  ______  CI

  618. Caloptilia aurantiaca  ______  CI

  619. Caloptila coruscans  ______  CI

  620. Caloptila laurifoliae  ______  CI

  621. Caloptila robustella  ______  CI  (species described in 1972)

  622. Caloptila staintoni  ______  CI

  623. Dialectica hedemanni  ______  CI

  624. Dialectica scalariella  ______  CI 

  625. Graciliaria syringella  ______
    Lilac Leaf Miner

  626. Leucospilapteryx omissella  ______  CI

  627. Phyllocnistis canariensis  ______  CI

  628. Phyllocnistis citrella  ______  CI

  629. Phyllonorycter bartolomella  ______  CI  (species described in 1968)  

  630. Phyllonorycter blancardella  ______

  631. Phyllonorycter cytisella  ______  CI

  632. Phyllonorycter cytisifoliae  ______  CI

  633. Phyllonorycter foliolosi  ______  CI

  634. Phyllonorycter juncei  ______  CI 

  635. Phyllonorycter kleemannella  ______

  636. Phyllonorycter klimeschiella  ______  CI

  637. Phyllonorycter messaniella  ______  CI

  638. Phyllonorycter spartocytisi  ______  CI

  639. Phyllonorycter sylvella  ______


    Family TORTRICIDAE:  Tortrix Moths

  640. Acleris ferrugana  ______  GB  IC  NA
    Rusty Button

  641. Acleris maccana  (ph)  ______  GB  IC  NA
    Marbled Button

    A picture of Acleris maccana, the Marbled Button, is below in this list, below number 652.

  642. Acleris notana  (ph)  ______  IC  

    A picture of Acleris notana is below in this list, below number 652.

  643. Apotomis sororuculana  (ph)  ______  GB  IC 

    A picture of Apotomis sororuculana is below in this list, below number 652.

  644. Eana osseana  (ph)  ______  GB  IC  NA
    Dotted Shade

    A picture of Eana osseana, the Dotted Shade, is below in this list, below number 652.

  645. Epinotia caprana  ______  GB  IC(west)

  646. Epinotia solandriana  ______  GB  IC  NA

  647. Hedya nubiferana  ______
    Marbled Orchard Tortrix 

  648. Lobesia littoralis  (ph)  ______  GB  IC
    the Marble

    A picture of Lobesia littoralis, the Marble, is below in this list, below number 652.

  649. Olethreutes suderana  ______

  650. Rhyacionia buoliana  ______
    Pine-shoot Moth

  651. Tortrix viridana  ______
    Green Oak Tortrix

  652. Zeiraphera griseana  ______  IC
    Larch Tortrix  




    Moths in a collection in Iceland, in the families Cochylidae, Oecophoridae, 
    Tineidae, Tortricinae, Yponomeutidae

    In the left column:
    In Tineidae:  
    Tineola bisselliella, the Webbing Clothes Moth  
    (in the list below, number 684)
    Monopis laevigella
    (formerly rusticella), the Skin Moth  (in the list below, number 682)
    In Yponomeutidae:
    Plutella senilella 
    (in the list above, number 520)
    In Oecophoridae:
    Endrosis sarcitrella, the White-shouldered Hawk Moth  (in the list below, number 675)
    Hofmannophila pseudospretella, the Brown House Moth 
    (in the list below, number 677)

    In the right column:
    In Tortricinae:
    Eana osseana, the Dotted Shade 
    (in the list above, number 644) 
    Acleria maccana, the Marbled Button 
    (in the list above, number 641)
    Acleria notana 
    (in the list above, number 642) 
    Apotomis sororculana 
    (in the list above, number 643)
    Lobesia littoralis, the Marble 
    (in the list above, number 648)
    In Cochylidae:
    Cochylia dubitana 
    (in the list below, number 653) 


    Family COCHYLIDAE 
    (closely allied to TORTIRICIDAE)

  653. Cochylis dubitana  (ph)  ______  GB  IC 

    A picture of Cochylis dubitana is above in this list, below number 652.


    Family COSSIDAE:  MIller Moths

  654. Cossus cossus  ______
    Goat Moth

  655. Stygia hades  ______  CI

  656. Stygia nilssoni  ______  CI

  657. Wiltshirocossus aries  ______  CI

  658. Zeuzera pyrina  (ph)  ______
    Leopard Moth



    Leopard Moth
    (photo by Stephen Kloiber)


    Family ADELIDAE

  659. Adela degeerella  ______

  660. Adela reaumurella  ______


    Family GLYPHIPTERIGIDAE:  Sedge Moths

  661. Acrolepiopsis vesperella  ______  CI

  662. Digitivalva pappella  ______  CI

  663. Glyphipterix equitella  ______  CI

  664. Glyphipterix fortunatella  ______  CI

  665. Glyphipterix pygmaeella  ______  CI

  666. Glyphipterix simplicella  ______  GB  IC(west)
    Cocksfoot Moth

  667. Glyphipterix umbilici  ______  CI


    Family HEPIALIDAE

  668. Hepialus humuli  ______
    Ghost Moth

  669. Hepialus humuli  ______
    Gold Swift


    Family GELECHIIDAE:  Twirler Moths

  670. Bryotropha similis  ______  GB  IC  NA

  671. Gnorimoschema valesiellum  ______  GB  IC  NA

  672. Scrobipalpa atriplicella  ______  GB  IC  NA
    Orache Groundling 

  673. Scrobipalpa samadensis  ______  GB  IC
    Groundling


    Family OECOPHORIDAE:  Concealer Moths

  674. Diurnea fagella  ______

  675. Endrosis sarcitrella  (ph)   ______  GB  IC(rare)  NA
    White-shouldered House Moth 

    A picture of Endrosis sarcitrella, the White-shouldered House Moth, is above in this list, below number 652.   

  676. Harpella forficella  ______  CI

  677. Hofmannophila pseudospretella  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(rare)  NA
    Brown House Moth 

    A picture of Hofmannophila pseudospretella, the Brown House Moth, is in this list, below number 652.

  678. Oecophor bractella  ______


    Family COLEOPHORIDAE

  679. Coleophora algidella  ______  IC
    a case moth

  680. Coleophora alticolella  ______  GB  IC  NA 
    a case moth


    Family GLYPHIPTERIGIDAE

  681. Glyphipterix simplicella  ______  GB  IC


    Family TINEIDAE

  682. Monopis laevigella (formerly rusticella)  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(rare)  NA
    Skin Moth

    A picture of Monopis laevigella, the Skin Moth, is above in this list, below number 652.  

  683. Nemapogon personellus  ______  GB  IC(rare)
    Clothes Moth

  684. Tineola bisselliella  (ph)  ______  GB  IC(rare)  NA
    Webbing Clothes Moth    

    A picture of Tineola bisselliella, the Webbing Clothes Moth, is above in this list, below number 652. 


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