PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


North America


Noting those during 
Focus On Nature Tours
with an (*)

Toads & Frogs (seen or heard)
Skinks, Anoles, and other Lizards

A list of eastern North American Amphibians & Reptiles
compiled by Armas Hill

UPPER RIGHT PHOTO: a LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE photographed off the North Carolina seacoast 
(Photo by Alan Brady)


DE:   occurs in Delaware 
FL:   occurs in Florida
MA:  occurs in Massachusetts 
MD:  occurs in Maryland
NC:  occurs in North Carolina
NJ:   occurs in New Jersey
PA:  occurs in Pennsylvania
SC:  occurs in South Carolina
VA:  occurs in Virginia 

(t1):  critically endangered
(t2):  endangered 
(t3):  threatened
(nt):  a near-threatened species globally 

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

Excellent recordings of teh sounds of frogs and toads are in the audio CD of "The Calls of Frogs and Toads", by Lang Elliot, 2004.
In this list, numbers noted as (LE:xx) refer to that of the particular frog or toad in the CD. Recordings in the disk referred to here were by Lang, Elliott, Carl Gerhardt.

Links to Groupings in this List:

AMPHIBIANS    Frogs & Toads   Salamanders

REPTILES     Crocodile & Alligator     Turtles    Lizards     Snakes 

Other Links: 

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in North America
(including North Carolina, Delaware, Maryland & Virginia)
    Upcoming FONT Tours Elsewhere  

Lists & Photo Galleries of:
Birds of North America, in 6 parts

Mammals of Eastern North America    Butterflies & Moths of Eastern North America

Dragonflies & Damselflies of Eastern North America    

Wildflowers and Other Plants of Eastern North America

Other Photo Galleries & Lists of Amphibians & Reptiles

A Directory of Photos in this Website



           Family RANIDAE: TRUE FROGS


  1. Green Frog  (ph) (*)  ______  NC  SC  PA   (Size: 2 to 3.5 inches)
    Rana clamitans melanota  Northern Green Frog  ______  DE  MD  NJ  VA   
    Rana clamitans clamitans 
    Bronze Frog  ______  FL

    Above & below: Green Frogs
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin, lower photo by Marie Gardner)

    Below: a tadpole of the Green Frog 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  2. American Bullfrog  (ph) (*)  ______  (LE:1)  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Size: 3 to 8 inches)
    Rana catesbeiana

    The coloration and pattern of the American Bullfrog is variable. 
    The dorsal color varies from bright leaf green to olive, olive-brown, or brown.
    The dorsal pattern varies with individuals that may include mottling or marbles that are dark brown to black on the back and the sides of the body.

    The American Bullfrog may be heard, generally, in the northeastern US from April to August. It avoids temporary bodies of water.  

    Above & below: American Bullfrogs
    (top photo courtesy of Doris Potter; middle photo during a FONT tour, 
     lower photo by Marie Gardner; see note above about color & pattern variation)   

  3. River Frog  ______  FL  NC(south)  SC  (Size: 3 to 5.25 inches)
    Rana heckscheri

  4. Pig Frog  ______  (LE:2)  FL  SC  (Size: 3 to 6.25 inches)
    Rana grylio

    The Pig Frog is usually heard in offshore vegetation, sometimes while floating in the water. Large choruses produce a steady roar. Heard from April to August.

  5. Pickerel Frog  (ph) (*)  ______  (LE:11)  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Size: 1.25 to 3.5 inches)
    Rana palustris 

    The Pickerel Frog breeds in lakes, ponds, and streams. It also occurs in grassy areas away from water. Males sometimes call while submerged.

    Pickerel Frog
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  6. Carpenter Frog  (*)  ______  DE  MD  NC(east & south)  NJ  SC  VA(east)  (also called the Sphagnum Frog due to its close association with sphagnum bogs)  (Size: 1.5 to 2.5 inches) 
    Rana virgatipes 

    Rana virgatipes
    is a species of special concern in New Jersey.

  7. Northern Leopard Frog  (ph)  ______  PA  (Size: 2 to 5 inches)
    Rana pipiens

    Northern Leopard Frog
    (photo by Doris Potter)

  8. Southern Leopard Frog ______ NC  NJ  PA  SC  (Size: 2 to 3.5 inches)
    Rana sphenocephala
    Rana sphenocephala utricularia  ______ 
    DE  MD  VA

  9. Carolina Gopher Frog (*) ______  NC  
    Rana c. capito
    Rano capito aesopus 
    Florida Gopher Frog  ______  FL

  10. Mink Frog  ______
    Rana septentrionalis

  11. Wood Frog  ______  DE  MD  NC(west)  NJ  PA  SC(very local in northwest)  VA(mostly west)  (Size: 1.5 to 3.25 inches)
    Rana sylvatica

    The geographic range of the Wood Frog extends further north than any other North American amphibian, as far as Labrador, Canada. 
    Rana sylvatica can actually withstand the complete freezing of its body.

    On the Delmarva Peninsula, the Wood Frog is one of the earliest of frog species to breed each year.  

  12. Crawfish Frog  ______  NC  SC  (Size: 2.75 to 3.5 inches)
    Rana areolata

    Rana areolata
    is classified as near, or potentially, threatened in North Carolina. 

    Family HYLIDAE

  13. Spring Peeper  (*)  ______  (Size: 0.75 to 1.5 inches)
    (formerly Hyla) crucifer 
    Pseudacris crucifer crucifer 
    Northern Spring Peeper  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA
    Pseudacris crucifer bartramiana 
    Southern Spring Peeper  ______  FL 
    (range is in northern Florida & southern Georgia)     

    Some other names of the Spring Peeper are:
    "Pink-winks" along Nova Scotia's south shore
    "Pinkletinks" on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts
    "Tinklewinks" in New Brunswick, Canada 

  14. Southern Chorus Frog  (*)  ______  NC  SC  (Size: 0.75 to 1.25 inches)  
    Pseudacris nigrita nigrita
    Pseudacris nigrita verrucosa 
    Florida Chorus Frog  ______  FL

  15. Striped Chorus Frog  ______  MD  NC  PA  SC   (subspecies of the Western Chorus Frog; has been called Upland Chorus Frog(Size: 0.75 to 1.5 inches)
    Pseudacris triseriata feriarum  Upland Chorus Frog  ______  NJ
    Pseudacris triseriata kalmi  New Jersey Chorus Frog  ______  DE  MD  NJ  VA 
    (Some consider the New Jersey Chorus Frog as a distinct species Pseudacris kalmi.)

  16. Mountain Chorus Frog  ______  MD  NC(far west)  PA  VA(far west & local in south)  (Size: 1 to 1.5 inches)
    Pseudacris brachyphona

  17. Brimley's Chorus Frog  ______  NC  SC  VA(southeast)  (Size: 1 to 1.25 inches)
    Pseudacris brimleyi

  18. Ornate Chorus Frog  (*)  ______  NC  SC  (Size: 1 to 1.5 inches)
    Pseudacris ornata

  19. Pine Barrens Treefrog  (*)  ______  NC  NJ  SC(local)  (Size: 1 to 2 inches)
    Hyla andersonii

    In New Jersey, the Pine Barrens Treefrog is classified as endangered. It is restricted, in New Jersey, to the Pine Barrens.

    In North Carolina, the Pine Barrens Treefrog occurs in 16 counties in the south-central part of the state.
    In South Carolina, it occurs only in the northern part of the upper coastal plain. 

  20. Green Treefrog  (*)  ______  DE  MD  NC  SC  VA(east)  (Size: 1.25 to 2.5 inches)
    Hyla cinerea

  21. Barking Treefrog  (*)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  SC  VA(far southeast)  (Size: 2 to 2.75 inches)
    Hyla gratiosa

    Hyla gratiosa
    is classified as endangered in Delaware & Maryland and threatened in Virginia. 

  22. Pine Woods Treefrog  (*)  ______  FL  NC  SC  VA(southeast)  (Size: 1 to 1.5 inches)
    Hyla femoralis

  23. Squirrel Treefrog  (*)  ______  FL  NC  SC  VA(far southeast)  (Size: 1 to 1.5 inches)
    Hyla squirrela

  24. Gray Treefrog  (*)  ______ MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Size: 1.25 to 2.5 inches)
    Hyla versicolor

    Hyla versicolor
    and Hyla chrysoselis (below) are identical in appearance, but they can be distinguished in the field by their vocalizations. The two species do not interbreed. 

  25. Cope's Gray Treefrog  ______  MD  NC  NJ  SC  VA
    Hyla chrysoselis 

    The Cope's Treefrog is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

  26. Bird-voiced Treefrog  ______  SC(local)  (Size: 1 to 2 inches)
    Hyla avivoca

    The Bird-voiced Treefrog in South Carolina is only in the swamps of the Savannah River and it tributaries.

  27. Northern Cricket Frog  (*)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Size: 0.5 to 1.5 inches)
    Acris crepitans crepitans

  28. Southern Cricket Frog  (*)  ______ NC  SC  VA(far southeast)  (Size: 0.5 to 1.5 inches)
    Acris gryllus gryllus
    Acris gryllus dorsalis 
    Florida Cricket Frog  ______  FL

  29. Little Grass Frog  ______  FL  NC  SC  VA(far southeast & local in south)  (Size: 0.5 to 0.75 inches)
    Limnaoedus ocularis

    The Little Grass Frog is the smallest frog in North America.


  30. American Toad  (ph) (*)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC(far northwest)  VA  (Size: 2 to 4.5 inches)  
    Bufo americanus americanus 
    Eastern American Toad  ______  DE  MD  VA

    Above & below: American Toads
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; two photos below by Marie Gardner)

  31. Oak Toad  (*)  ______ NC  SC  VA  (Size: .75 to 1.25 inches)
    Bufo quercicus

  32. Southern Toad  (*)  ______ NC  SC  VA(far southeast)  (Size: 1.75 to 4 inches)
    Bufo terrestris

  33. Fowler's Toad  (ph) (*) ______ DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Size: 2 to 3.5 inches)
    Bufo woodhousei fowleri   (an eastern race of the Woodhouse's Toad

    Bufo woodhousei fowleri
    is a subspecies of special concern in New Jersey. 

    Fowler's Toad
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  34. Eastern Spadefoot Toad  (*)  ______ DE  MA(rare)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Size: 1.75 to 3 inches)
    Scaphiopus holbrooki holbrooki

    The Eastern Spadefoot Toad is classified as threatened in Massachusetts. 


  35. Eastern Narrowmouth Toad  (*)  ______ MD  NC  SC  VA(mostly east)  (Size: 1 to 1.5 inches)
    Gastrophryne carolinensis

    Gastrophryne carolinensis
    is classified as endangered in Maryland. Breeding activity has not been confirmed on the Delmarva Peninsula for more than 25 years.




  36. Eastern Hellbender  ______  MD  NC(west)  PA  SC(local in far northwest)  VA(west)  (Length: 12 to 29 inches)
    Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis

    Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis
    is classified as endangered in Maryland.


  37. Common Mudpuppy  ______  MD  NC(local in west)  PA  VA(far-west)  (Length: 8 to 9 inches)
    Necturus maculosus maculosus

  38. Carolina Mudpuppy  ______  NC  (has been called Neuse River Waterdog (Length: 6.5 to 11 inches)
    Necturus lewisi   

    Necturus lewisi
    is classified as near, or potentially, threatened in North Carolina. It is endemic to the state, in the Neuse and Tar River basins. 

  39. Dwarf Mudpuppy  ______  NC  SC  (has been called Dwarf Waterdog (Length: 4.5 to 7.5 inches)
    Necturus punctatus 

  40. Two-toed Amphiuma  ______ NC  SC  VA(east)  (Length: 18 to 46 inches)
    Amphiuma means

  41. Lesser Siren ______  NC  SC  (Length: 6 to 15 inches)
    Siren intermedia

  42. Greater Siren  ______  NC  SC  VA(east)  (Length: 20 to 37.5 inches)
    Siren lacertina

    Siren lacertina
    is classified as near, or potentially, threatened in North Carolina.

  43. Narrow-billed Dwarf Siren  ______  FL(central)  SC  (Length: 4 to 6 inches)
    Pseudobranchus striatus axanthus 


  44. Mabee's Salamander   ______ NC  SC  (Length: 3 to 4.5 inches) 
    Ambystoma mabeei

  45. Spotted Salamander   ______ DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 6 to 10 inches)
    Ambystoma maculatum

  46. Marbled Salamander   ______  DE  MA(rare)  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 3.5 to 5 inches)
    Ambystoma opacum

    The Marbled Salamander is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  47. Mole Salamander  ______  NC(mostly west)  SC  (Length: 3 to 5 inches)
    Ambystoma talpoideum

  48. Flatwoods Salamander  ______  SC  (Length: 3.5 to 5 inches)
    Ambystoma cingulatum

  49. Jefferson Salamander  ______  MA  MD  NJ  PA  VA(north & west)  (Length: 4.25 to 8.5 inches)
    Ambystoma jeffersonianum

    The Jefferson Salamander was named for Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. The college was named for Thomas Jefferson, who was both a naturalist and the 3rd president of the United States.   

  50. Blue-spotted Salamander  ______  MA  NJ
    Ambystoma laterale

    Ambystoma laterale
    is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

  51. Tremblay's Salamander  ______  NJ
    Ambystoma tremblayi

    The Tremblay's Salamander is a hybrid species of the Jefferson Salamander and the Blue-spotted Salamander (both above).
    This hybridization creates two all female species - the Tremblay's and Silvery Salamanders. These genetic curiosities have 3 sets of chromosomes instead of 2.
    Tremblay's Salamanders breed with male Blue-spotted Salamanders in March and April.

    Ambystoma tremblayi is classified as endangered in New Jersey.    

  52. Silvery Salamander  ______  NJ
    Ambystoma platineum

  53. Eastern Tiger Salamander  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA(east)  (Length: 7 to 11 inches)
    Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum

    Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum
    has been classified as endangered in Delaware & New Jersey.


  54. Northern Dusky Salamander  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 2.5 to 5.5 inches)
    Desmognathus fuscus fuscus

  55. Southern Dusky Salamander  ______ NC  SC  VA(southeast)  (Length: 3 to 6.5 inches)
    Desmognathus auriculatus 

  56. Santeetlah Dusky Salamander  ______  NC(far-west)
    Desmognathus santeetlah

  57. Seal Salamander  ______  (Length: 3 to 6 inches)
    Desmognathus monticola
    Desmognathus monticola monticola 
    Appalachian Seal Salamander  ______  MD  NC  PA  SC
    (far northwest)  VA  

  58. Black-bellied Salamander  ______  NC(west)  SC(far northwest)  VA(west)  (Length: 4 to 8 inches)
    Desmognathus quadramaculatus

  59. Mountain Dusky Salamander  ______  MD  NC(west)  NJ  PA  SC(far northwest)  VA(west)  (Length: nearly 3 to 4.5 inches)
    Desmognathus ochrophaeus

    Desmognathus ochrophaeus
    has an amazing variation in color, markings, body proportions, and size. The variation is individual, ontogenetic, and geographic. 

  60. Imitator Salamander  ______  NC(far-west)  (Length: 3 to 4.5 inches)
    Desmognathus imitator

    Desmognthus imitator
    is a cryptic species that resembles Desmognathus ochrophaeus in size and general appearance but differs in genetic makeup.
    Many populations of Desmognathus imitator vary markedly in color and pattern and can be distinguished from Desmognathus ochrophaeus only by electrophoretic analysis.
    Presently, only certain populations along the main ridge of the Great Smoky Mountains can be distinguished  from Desmognathus ochrophaeus by their color patterns.   

  61. Apalachicola Dusky Salamander  ______
    Desmognathus apalachicolae

  62. Pigmy Salamander  ______  NC(west)  (Length: 1.5 to 2 inches)
    Desmognathus wrighti

  63. Seepage Salamander  ______  NC(far-west)  (another name is Cherokee Salamander (Length: 1.75 to 2.25 inches)
    Desmognathus aeneus

  64. Shovelnose Salamander  ______  NC(west)  (Length: 3.5 to 5.5 inches)
    (or Leurognathus) marmoratus

  65. Cumberland Salamander  (nt)  ______  VA(far west)  (species described in 2003)  (Length: 3 to 6.5 inches)
    Desmognathus welteri

  66. Northern Two-lined Salamander  ______    DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 2.5 to 5 inches)
    Eurycea bislineata bislineata

  67. Southern Two-lined Salamander  ______  NC
    Eurycea cirrigera

  68. Blue Ridge Two-lined Salamander  ______  NC
    Eurycea wilderae

  69. Junaluska Salamander  (t3)  ______  NC(far-west)  (species described in 1976)  (Length: 3 to 4 inches)
    Eurycea junaluska

    Eurycea junluska
    is known only to be in Graham County, North Carolina, and the western tip of the Great Smoky Mountains Park.

  70. Long-tailed Salamander  ______  (Length: 3.5 to 8 inches)
    Eurycea longicauda longicauda  ______  DE  MD  NC
    (locally in west)  NJ  PA  VA(west)  (in Appalachian & Piedmont Regions) 
    Eurycea longicauda guttolineata  Three-lined Salamander  ______  MD  NC  SC  VA

    Eurycea longicauda longicauda
    is classified as threatened in New Jersey. 

  71. Cave Salamander  ______  VA(west)  (Length: 5 to 7 inches)
    Eurycea lucifuga

  72. Dwarf Salamander  ______  NC  SC  (Length: 2 to 3.5 inches)
    Eurycea quadridigitata

  73. Eastern Red-backed Salamander  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  (has been called Redback Salamander) (Length: 2.25 to 5 inches)
    Plethodon cinereus

  74. Southern Red-backed Salamander  ______  NC(far west)  (Length: 2.25 to 5 inches)
    Plethodon serratus

  75. Peaks of Otter Salamander  (t3)  ______  VA(locally in west)  (species described in 1957)  (Length: 3 to 5 inches)
    Plethodon hubrichti

    Plethodon hubrichti
    occurs only in cool, moist woods on the Peaks of Otter in Virginia. 

  76. Ravine Salamander  ______  NC(west)  PA  VA(far west)  (Length: 3 to 5.5 inches)
    Plethodon richmondi

  77. Shenandoah Salamander  ______  VA(locally in north)  (Length: 3 to 4.5 inches)
    Plethodon shenandoah

    Plethodon shenandoah
    occurs only in the highest mountains in the Shenandoah National Park in northern Virginia. 

  78. Valley and Ridge Salamander  ______  MD  PA  VA(west)  (species described in 1972)  (Length: 3 to 5.5 inches)
    Plethodon hoffmani

  79. Cheat Mountain Salamander  (nt)  ______
    Plethodon nettingi

  80. Weller's Salamander  (t2)  ______  NC(far-west)  (Length: 2.5 to 3 inches)
    Plethodon welleri

  81. Wehrle's Salamander  ______  MD  NC(local)  PA  VA(west)  (Length: 4 to 6.5 inches)
    Plethodon wehrlei

  82. White-spotted Salamander  ______  VA(west, locally)  (also called the Cow Knob Salamander(Length: 4 to 6 inches)
    Plethodon punctatus

  83. Northern Slimy Salamander  ______ MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 4.5 to 8 inches)
    Plethodon glutinsus glutinsus

  84. Tellico Salamander  ______  (species described in 1983)
    Plethodon aureolus

  85. Cumberland Plateau Salamander  ______  (species described in 1951)
    Plethodon kentucki

  86. Southern Appalachian Salamander  ______
    Plethodon teyahalee

  87. Yonahlossee Salamander  ______  NC(west)  VA(west locally)  (Length: 4.5 to 7.5 inches)
    Plethodon yonahlossee

  88. Jordan's Salamander  ______  NC(west)  SC(far nothwest)  VA(west)  (Length: 3.5 to 7 inches)
    Plethodon jordani

  89. Northern Zigzag Salamader  ______  NC  (Length: 2.5 to 4.5 inches)
    Plethodon dorsalis

    In North Carolina, Plethodon dorsalis is only known to occur in Henderson County.

    It seems as if the known populations of Plethedon dorsalis are relicts of a widespread Pleistocene population.

  90. Southern Zigzag Salamander  ______  (species described in 1997)
    Plethodon ventralis

  91. Webster's Salamander  ______  SC(local)  (Length: 2.5 to 4.5 inches)
    Plethodon websteri 

  92. Four-toed Salamander  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 2 to 3.5 inches)
    Hemidactylium scutatum

  93. Many-lined Salamander  ______  NC(east)  SC  VA(southesast)  (Length: 2.5 to 4.5 inches)
    Stereochilus marginatus

  94. Green Salamander  ______  MD  NC(far-west)  PA  VA(far-west)  (Length: 3 to 5.5 inches)
    Aneides aeneus

    Aneides aeneus
    is classified as threatened in Pennsylvania.

  95. Spring Salamander  ______   (Length: nearly 4.5 to 8.5 inches)
    Gyrinophilus porphyriticus porphyriticus  Northern Spring Salamander  ______  MD  NJ  PA
    Gyrinophilus porphyriticus danielsi 
    Blue Ridge Spring Salamander  ______  NC  SC
    (northwest)  VA(west)
    Gyrinophilus porphyriticus dunni   Carolina Spring Salamander  ______  NC

  96. West Virginia Spring Salamander  ______
    Gyrinophilus subterraneus 

  97. Mud Salamander  ______   (Length: 3 to 7.5 inches) 
    Pseudotriton montanus montanus   Eastern Mud Salamander  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA 

    Pseudotriton montanus montanus
    is classified as threatened in New Jersey. 

  98. Red Salamander  ______   (Length: 3 to 7 inches)
    Pseudotriton ruber ruber  Northern Red Salamander  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  
    Pseudotriton ruber schencki 
    Blackchin Red Salamander  ______  NC


  99. Eastern Newt  ______  (Length: 2.5 to 5.5 inches)
    Notophthalmus viridescens
     viridescens  Red-spotted Newt  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA  
    Notophthalmus viridescens dorsalis 
    Broken-striped Newt  ______  NC  SC

  100. Striped Newt  ______  FL(north)
    Notophthalmus perstriatus 



  101. American Crocodile  ______  FL
    Crocodylus acutus


  102. American Alligator  (ph) (*)  ______  FL  NC(east)  SC  (Length: 6 to 19 feet)
    Alligator mississippiensis

    An American Alligator
    (photo by Howard Eskin)



  103. Snapping Turtle  (ph) (*)  ______  NC  SC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 8 to 18.5 inches)
    Chleydra serpentina
    Chleydra serpentina serpentina 
    Eastern Snapping Turtle  ______  DE  MD  NJ  PA  VA 

    Snapping Turtle
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  104. Alligator Snapping Turtle  ______  FL(north)
    Macroclemys temminckii


  105. Mud Turtle  (*)  ______  (Length: 3 to 5 inches)
    Kinosternon subrubum
    Kinosternon subrubum subrubum 
    Eastern Mud Turtle  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  SC  VA  
    Kinosternon subrubum steindachneri 
    "Florida Mud Turtle"  ______  FL  

    Kinosternon subrubum subrubum
    is believed to be extirpated in Pennsylvania.  

  106. Eastern (or Common) Musk Turtle  (*)  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  SC  PA  VA   (has been called Stinkpot)  (Length: 3 to 5.5 inches)
    Sternotherus odoratus

  107. Loggerhead Musk Turtle  ______  FL(north)
    Sternotherus minor minor

  108. Stripeneck Musk Turtle  ______  NC(far west)  (Length: 3 to 4.5 inches)
    Sternotherus minor pelifer


  109. Eastern River Cooter  (*)  ______  NC  SC  VA  (Length: 5.5 to 12.5 inches) 
    (formerly Chrysemys) concinna 

  110. Florida (or Peninsula) Cooter  ______  FL(north)  NC  SC  VA(east)  (Length: 9 to 15.5 inches)
    Pseudemys floridana

  111. Northern Red-bellied Cooter   ______  DE  MA(very rare)  MD  NC(east)  NJ  PA  VA(east)  (another name has been Redbelly Turtle (Length: 10 to 16 inches)
    Pseudemys rubriventris

    A disjunct population of Pseudemys rubriventris occurs in Massachusetts, where it is classified as endangered.

    Pseudemys rubriventris is classified as threatened in Pennsylvania.

    Above & below: Northern Red-bellied Cooters
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  112. Florida Redbelly Turtle  ______  FL
    Pseudemys nelsoni

  113. Eastern Box Turtle  (ph) (*)  ______  DE  MA  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 4.5 to 6.5 inches)
    Terrapene carolina carolina

    Above & below: Eastern Box Turtles
    (upper photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Rise Hill)
    In the lower photo, the turtle is crossing a road.

  114. Painted Turtle  (ph) (*)  ______  (Length: 4.5 to 7 inches)
    Chrysemys picta 
    Chrysemys picta picta 
    Eastern Painted Turtle  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  
    Chrysemys picta marginata  ______  NJ

    Painted Turtles
    (above photo by Howard Eskin; lower photo by Marie Gardner)

  115. Yellowbelly (or Pond) Slider  (ph) (*)  ______   NC  SC  VA  (Length: 5 to 11.5 inches)    
    (formerly Chrysemys
    ) scripta
    Trachemys scripta scripta  ______
    Trachemys scripta elegans 
    Red-eared Slider  ______  DE  MD  NJ  

    In Trachemys scripta, the reddish stripe behind the eye is unique among North American turtles, but not all individuals have it. Rarely, the red is replaced by yellow.

    The Yellowbelly, or Pond Slider
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  116. Spotted Turtle ______ DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 3.5 to 5 inches)
    Clemmys guttata

  117. Bog Turtle  ______  DE(very rare)  MA(very rare)  MD  NC(west)  NJ  PA  VA(local)  (Length: 3 to 4 inches)
    Clemmys muhlenbergii

    Clemmys muhlenbergii
    is classified as endangered in Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, & Virginia and threatened in Maryland. It is classified as federally threatened by the US government. 

  118. Wood Turtle  ______  MA  MD  NJ  PA  VA(far north)  (another name has been "Sculptured Turtle") (Length: 5.5 to 9 inches)
    Clemmys insculpta

    Clemmys insculpta
    is classified as threatened in New Jersey & Virginia.

  119. Common Map Turtle  ______  MD  NJ  PA  VA(far west)  (Length: 4 to 6 inches)
    Graptemys geographica

    Graptemys geographica
    is classified as endangered in Maryland.

  120. Chicken Turtle  ______  FL  NC  SC  (Length: 4 to 10 inches)
    Deirochelys reticularia

  121. Blanding's Turtle  ______   MA(rare)  PA  (Length: 5 to just over 7 inches)
    Emydoidea blandingii

    The Blanding's Turtle is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

  122. Diamondback Terrapin  (ph) (*)  ______  (Length: 6 to 9 inches)
    Malaclemys terrapin
    Malaclemys terrapin terrapin 
    Northern Diamond-backed Terrapin  ______  DE  MA
    (rare)  MD  NC(east)  NJ  VA(east)  

    The Northern Diamond-backed Terrapin is classified as threatened in Massachusetts.

    Diamondback Terrapin
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  123. Gopher Tortoise  ______  FL  SC(far south)  (Length: 6 to 14.5 inches)
    Gopherus polyphemus


    An excellent book, filled with good information about Sea Turtles, and interesting reading, is "Voyage of the Turtle - in Pursuit of the Earth's Last Dinosaur", by Carl Safina, published in 2007.   

  124. Leatherback (Sea Turtle)  (t1) (ph) (*)  ______  DE  MA(very rare)  MD  NC  NJ  SC  VA  (offshore ocean)  (Length: 53 to 70 inches)
    Dermochelys coriacea

    Along the Atlantic Coast of eastern North America, the Leatherback Sea Turtle has nested as far north as North Carolina, and on several beaches around the Gulf of Mexico.
    In the Western Atlantic Ocean at sea the Leatherback occurs as far north as Newfoundland and as far south as Argentina. It has commonly occurred in New England waters during the summer months.     

    But in 20 years, from 1980 to 2000, the Leatherback Sea Turtle lost an estimated 70 per cent of its worldwide population.
    One study saw this decline in only 14 years. It estimated that Leatherback numbers fell from 115,000 adult females alive in 1982 to fewer than 35,000 in 1996. 
    The two main problems for the species were said to be drowning in fishing gear and having its eggs taken by people, mainly for food and supposed aphrodisiac powers.   

    The Leatherback Sea Turtle is classified as endangered by the US government. It is classified as endangered in Massachusetts.     

  125. Loggerhead (Sea Turtle)  (t2) (ph) (*) ______  DE  MA(rare)  MD  NC  NJ  (offshore ocean)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 31 to 47 inches)
    Caretta caretta 

    The Loggerhead Sea Turtle nests in eastern North America as far north as a few undisturbed beaches in North Carolina. In the western Atlantic Ocean, it occurs at sea as far north as the Canadian Maritime Provinces and as far south as Argentina.

    The Loggerhead Sea Turtle is classified as federally threatened by the US government. It is classified as threatened in Massachusetts & New Jersey. 

    Loggerhead Sea Turtle 
    (photographed by Alan Brady 
    during a FONT North Carolina pelagic trip)
  126. Green Sea Turtle  (t2)  ______  DE(where rare)  MA(rare)  MD  NC  NJ  SC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 30 to 60 inches)
    Chelonia mydas

    In the western Atlantic Ocean, the Green Sea Turtle has occurred at sea as far north as Massachusetts and as far south as northern Argentina. 

    The Green Sea Turtle is classified as federally threatened by the US government. It is classified as threatened in  Massachusetts & New Jersey.  

  127. Atlantic Hawksbill Sea Turtle  (t1)  ______  MA(very rare)  MD  NC  NJ  SC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 29.5 to 36 inches)
    Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata

    In the western Atlantic Ocean, the Atlantic Hawksbill has been found at sea as far north as southern New England and as far south as southern Brazil.

    The Atlantic Hawksbill is classified as federally endangered by the US government. It is classified as endangered in Massachusetts & New Jersey.

    There is one confirmed record of the Atlantic Hawksbill off the Delmarva Peninsula, in the lower Chesapeake Bay prior to 1994. 

  128. Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle  (t1)  ______  MA(very rare)  MD  NC  NJ  SC  VA  (Another name is Atlantic Ridley Sea Turtle (Length: 23 to 30 inches)
    Lepidochelys kempii

    The Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle occurs chiefly in the Gulf of Mexico, but immatures often appear in the summer and fall as far north as New England, and more rarely to Nova Scotia.

    The Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle is classified as federally endangered by the US government. It is classified as endangered in Massachusetts & New Jersey.

    Lepidochelys kempii is found in numbers each year from May to November in the Chesapeake Bay and off the Mid-Atlantic Coast especially around barrier islands. 
    It has been estimated that the annual population of this species in the lower Chesapeake Bay is between 300 and 500 individuals.   

    The closely-related Olive Ridley may eventually appear in eastern North America, particularly Florida, Nesting colonies, apparently derived from migrants across the Atlantic Ocean from West Africa, occur on several beaches in the Guianas and Trinidad, and strays have been been known in Puerto Rica and the northern coast of Cuba.        


  129. Spiny Softshell  (ph)  ______  (Length: 5 to 9 inches)
    (formerly Trionyx) spinifera
    Apalone spinifera spinifera 
    Eastern Spiny Softshell  ______  MD  NC  NJ  SC  PA  VA(locally in west) 
    Apalone spinifera aspera 
    Gulf Coast Shiny Softshell  ______  NC

    A Spiny Softshell photographed during a FONT tour

  130. Florida Softshell  ______  SC(far south)  (Length: 6 to 11 inches)
    Apalone ferox



  131. Carolina Anole  (*)  ______  NC  SC  (also called Green Anole(Length: 5 to 8 inches)
    Anolis carolinensis 

  132. Brown Anole  (i) (ph)  ______  FL
    Anolis sagrei

    A Brown Anole photographed during a FONT tour


  133. Texas Horned Lizard  ______  SC(introduced)  (Length: 2.5 to 7 inches)
    Phrynosoma cornutum  

  134. Fence Lizard  (*)  ______  (Length: 4 to 7.3 inches)
    Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus  Northern Fence Lizard  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA
    Sceloporus undulatus undulatus 
    Southern Fence Lizard  ______  FL

  135. Florida Scrub Lizard  ______  FL
    Sceloporus woodi


  136. Italian Wall Lizard  (i)  ______
    Podarcis sicula

    The Italian Wall Lizard is native to Italy and Mediterranean islands, with colonies also in Spain and Turkey. It was known to be in Philadelphia, but has not been seen there for decades. 


  137. Common Five-lined Skink  ______ DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 5 to 8 inches)
    Eumeces fasciatus

  138. Southeastern Five-lined Skink  ______ NC  SC  VA  (Length: 5.5 to 8.5 inches)
    Eumeces inexpectatus

  139. Broad-headed Skink  ______ MD  NC  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 6.5 to 13 inches)
    Eumeces laticeps

    There is no record of Eumeces laticeps in Delaware (according to "Amphibians & Reptiles of Delmarva" by James & Amy White, 2002).

  140. Coal Skink  ______  (Length: 5 to 7 inches)
    Eumeces anthracinus anthracinus  Northern Coal Skink  ______  MD  NC  PA  VA
    Eumeces anthracinus pluvialis  Southern Coal Skink  ______ 

  141. Little Brown Skink  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  SC  VA  (another name is Ground Skink(Length: 3 to 5 inches)
    Scincella lateralis 
    (formerly Leiolopisma laterale)

    Scincella lateralis rarely climbs, spending all of its active time on the ground in or on top of leafy layers, in thick grass, or under logs and other debris. Thus, observation of the species can be difficult.

  142. Mole Skink  ______
    Eumeces egregius similis  Northern Mole Skink  ______  FL
    Eumeces egregius onocrepis 
    Peninsula Mole Skink  ______  FL
    Eumeces egregius egregius 
    Florida Keys Mole Skink  ______  FL

  143. Sand Skink  ______  FL
    Neoseps reynoldsi  

    Family TEIIDAE

  144. Six-lined Racerunner  ______ MD  NC  SC  VA  (conspecific with the more-westerly Prairie Racerunenr)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 6 to 9.5 inches)
    (or Cnemidophorus) sexlineatus sexlineatus

    Family ANGUIDAE

  145. Slender Glass Lizard ______   (Length: 22 to 46.5 inches)
    Ophisaurus attenuatus longicaudus  Eastern Slender Glass Lizard  ______  FL  NC  SC  VA

  146. Eastern Glass Lizard  (*)  ______ NC  SC  (Length: 18 to 42 inches)
    Ophisaurus ventralis

  147. Mimic Glass Lizard  ______  NC
    Ophisaurus mimicus

  148. Island Glass Lizard  ______  FL  SC  (Length: 15 to 24 inches)
    Ophisaurus compressus

    Family AMPHISBAENIDAE  (in the suborder AMPHISBAENIA)

  149. Florida Worm Lizard  ______  FL
    Rhineura floridanus 



  150. Eastern Worm Snake ______ NC  SC  (Length: 7.5 to 12.5 inches)
    Carphophis amoenus 
    Carphophis amoenus amoenus 
    ______  DE  MD  NJ  PA  VA

  151. Pine Woods Snake  ______  NC  SC  (Length: 10 to 15 inches)
    Rhadinaea flavilata

  152. Scarlet Snake ______  (Length: 14 to 26 inches)
    Cemophora coccinea 
    Cemophora coccinea copei 
    Northern Scarlet Snake  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  SC  VA
    Cemophora coccinea coccinea 
    Florida Scarlet Snake  ______  FL 

  153. Short-tailed Snake  ______  FL
    Stilosoma extennaatum

  154. Black Racer  (*)  ______  SC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 36 to 66 inches)
    Coluber constrictor
    Coluber constrictor constrictor 
    Northern Black Racer  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Coluber constrictor priapus 
    Southern Black Racer  ______
    Coluber constrictor paludicola 
    Everglades Racer  ______  FL   

    As its English name implies, the Black Racer is a fast-moving snake, but contrary to the scientific name (constrictor), it does not use constriction to subdue its prey.  

  155. Ringneck Snake  ______  DE  MD  VA  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 10 to 20 inches)
    Diadophis punctatus
    Diadophis punctatus edwardsii 
    Northern Ringneck Snake  ______ MD  NJ  PA
    Diadophis punctatus punctatus 
    Southern Ringneck Snake  ______  NC  NJ  SC

    Most Ringneck Snakes found on the Delmarva Peninsula are believed to be intergrades between the two subspecies above,    

  156. Corn Snake ______  NC  SC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 30 to 72 inches)
    Elaphe guttata
    Elaphe guttata guttata 
    ______  DE
    (rare)  MD  NJ  VA

    The Cornsnake can be confused with several other snakes, notably the Milk Snake, the Black Rat Snake, and the Copperhead.   

    Elaphe guttata guttata
    is classified as endangered on Delaware & New Jersey.

  157. Rat Snake  ______  (Length: 42 to 85 inches)
    Elaphe obseleta 
    Elaphe obseleta obseleta 
    Black Rat Snake  ______  DE MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Elaphe obselata quadrivitata 
    Yellow Rat Snake  ______  NC
    Elaphe obsoleta rossalleni 
    Everglades Rat Snake  ______  FL 

  158. Eastern Mud Snake  ______  NC  SC  VA(southeast)  (Length: 40 to 73 inches)
    Farancia a. abacura

  159. Rainbow Snake  ______ MD  NC  SC  VA(east)  (Length: 36 to 66 inches)
    Farancia erytrogramma
    Farancia erytrogramma seminola 
    South Florida Rainbow Snake  ______  FL

  160. Eastern Hognose Snake  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (nicknames have included "Puff Adder", "Hissing Adder", "Spreading  Adder")  (Length: 20 to 47 inches)
    Heterodon platyrhinos

    Heterodon platyrhinos
    is typically found in sandy habitats, occurring in fields, dunes, and on beaches.

    Heterodon platyrhinos has the formidable-sounding nicknames noted above arising from a behavior that it has of scaring off would-be attackers. 
    When disturbed, the Hognose Snake widens its neck to take on a hood-like appearance. Its does so by flattening the head and neck, spreading long rib-bones outward. Then, inflating the body with air, hissing and striking out, it suddenly resembles a fearsome-looking creature. But it is harmless, and if awards in various categories were given to snakes, Heterodon platyrhinos would win hands-down for "most dramatic performance".  

  161. Southern Hognose Snake ______  NC  SC  (Length: 13 to 22 inches)
    Heterodon simus

  162. Pine Snake  ______  NC  SC  (Length: 42 to 72 inches)
    Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus  Northern Pine Snake  ______  NJ  VA
    Pituophis melanoleucos mugitus  Florida Pine Snake  ______  FL 

    Pituophis melanoleucus
    is a large "black and white" snake with a loud hiss. The species is classified as threatened in New Jersey.

  163. Prairie Kingsnake  ______  (Length: 30 to 46 inches)
    Lampropeltis calligaster    
    Lampropeltis calligaster rhombomaculata  Mole Kingsnake  ______  MD  NC  SC  VA

  164. Kingsnake  ______  SC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 36 to 69 inches)
    Lampropeltis getulus getulus  Eastern Kingsnake  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Lampropeltis getulus sticticeps 
    Outer Banks Kingsnake  ______  NC
    Lampropeltis getulus floridana 
    Florida Kingsnake  ______  FL

  165. Scarlet Kingsnake, Eastern Milk Snake ______   (Length: 24 to 45 inches)
    These 2 forms, that appear so different from each other, were long thought to be 2 species, but are actually conspecific. There's a zone of intergradation, with snakes having intermediate characteristics.

    Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum  Eastern Milk Snake  ______  DE  MD  NC
    (west)  NJ  PA  SC(northwest)  VA(west)
    Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides 
    Scarlet Kingsnake  ______  FL  NC  SC  VA

  166. Eastern Coachwhip ______ NC  SC  (Length: 48 to 94 inches)
    Masticophis flagellum flagellum

    The Eastern Coachwhip is probably the longest snake in North Carolina. 

  167. Red-bellied Water Snake ______  DE(where rare)  MD  NC  SC  VA(southeast)  (Length: 30 to 60 inches)
    Nerodia erythrogaster

  168. Banded Water Snake  ______ NC  SC  (Length: 24 to 55 inches)
    Nerodia fasciata fasciata
    Nerodia fasciata pictiventris 
    Florida Water Snake  ______  FL

  169. Brown Water Snake ______  NC  SC  VA(southeast)  (Length: 32 to 64 inches)
    Nerodia taxispilota

  170. Green Water Snake  ______ SC  (Length: 30 to 74 inches)
    Nerodia cyclopion

  171. Common Water Snake  (ph) (*)  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 24 to 50 inches)
    (formerly Natrix) sipedon 
    Nerodia sipedon sipedon 
    Northern Water Snake  ______  DE  MD  NJ  PA  VA
    Nerodia sipedon pleuralis 
    Midland Water Snake  ______  NC  SC

    The Common Water Snake is a common resident of swamps, marshes, bogs, streams, and pond and lake borders. 
    Quiet waters are preferred, but it can occur by swift-flowing streams and in the environs of waterfalls. It can be in any of these wet places where it has not been exterminated by people or pollution.

    Two Photographs of the Northern Water Snake
    (photos by Howard Eskin)

    Below: Two more photos of a Northern Water Snake,
    this one photographed in Delaware on December 2, 2014
    (photos by Marie Gardner)

  172. Florida Green Water Snake  ______  NC
    Nerodia floridana

  173. Salt Marsh Snake  ______
    Nerodia clarkii clarkii  Gulf Salt Marsh Snake  ______  FL
    Nerodia clarkii compressicauda  Mangrove Salt Marsh Snake  ______  FL  

  174. Rough Green Snake  ______  NC  SC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 22 to 36 inches)
    Opheodrys aestivus
    Opheodrys aestivus aestivus 
    Northern Rough Greensnake  ______  DE  MD  NJ  PA  VA

    Opheodrys aestivus
    is classified as threatened in Pennsylvania.

  175. Smooth Green Snake  ______  (Length: 14 to 24 inches)
    Opheodrys vernalis
    Opheodrys vernalis vernalis 
    Eastern Smooth Green Snake  ______  MD  NJ  PA  VA

  176. Eastern Indigo Snake  ______
    Drymarchon corais couperi 

  177. Glossy Crayfish Snake ______  NC  SC  VA  (Length: 14 to 30.5 inches)
    Regina rigida

    There is a disjunct population of Regina rigida in New Kent County, Virginia. 

  178. Queen Snake  ______  DE  MD  NC(west)  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (Length: 15 to 34 inches)
    (formerly Natrix) septemvittata

    Regina septemvittata is rarely found far from the water's edge. Its principal food has been said to be crayfish that have recently molted.  

  179. Striped Crayfish Snake  ______  FL
    Regina alleni

  180. Kirtland's Snake  ______  PA  (Length: 14 to 18 inches)
    Clonophis kirtlandii

    Clonophis kirtlandii
    is classified as endangered in Pennsylvania.

  181. Black Swamp Snake ______  NC  SC  (Length: 10 to 19 inches)
    Seminatrix pygaea

  182. Brown Snake  ______   (Length: 9 to 18 inches)
    Storeia dekayi dekayi  Northern Brown Snake  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA
    Storeia dekayi victa 
    Florida Brown Snake  ______  FL

  183. Red-bellied Snake ______  NC  NJ  SC  VA  (Length: 6.5 to 12 inches)
    Storeria occipitomaculata
    Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata 
    Northern Red-bellied Snake  ______  DE  MD  PA

  184. Southeastern Crowned Snake ______ NC  SC  VA(local)  (Length: 8 to 12 inches)
    Tantilla coronata

  185. Peninsula Crowned Snake  ______  FL
    Tantilla relicta relicta
    Tantilla relicta neilli  Central Florida Crowned Snake  ______  FL
    Tantilla relicta paralica  Coastal Dunes Crowned Snake  ______  FL

  186. Rim Rock Crowned Snake  ______  FL
    Tantilla oolitica

  187. Garter Snake  (ph) (*)  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 18 to 42 inches)
    Thamnophis sirtalis 
    Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis 
    Eastern Garter Snake   ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA
    Thamnophis sirtalis pallidulus 
    Maritime Garter Snake  ______  


    Two photographs of the Eastern Garter Snake
    (above photo by Doris Potter; lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  188. Shorthead Garter Snake  ______  PA  (Length: 14 to 18 inches)
    Thamnophis brachystoma

  189. Common Ribbon Snake ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 18 to 38 inches) 
    Thamnophis sauritus  
    Thamnophis sauritus sauritus 
    Eastern Ribbon Snake  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA
    Thamnophis sauritus septentrionalis 
    Northern Ribbon Snake  ______  
    Thamnophis sauritus sackenii 
    Peninsula Ribbon Snake  ______  FL
    Thamnophis sauritus nitae 
    Bluestripe Ribbon Snake  ______  
  190. Rough Earth Snake ______  NC  SC  VA(southeast)  (Length: 7 to 12.5 inches)
    Virginia striatula

  191. Eastern Smooth Earth Snake ______  NC  SC  VA  (Length: 7 to 13 inches)
    Virginia valeriae 
    Virginia valeriae valeriae 
    ______  DE  MD  NJ  PA

    Family ELAPIDAE 

  192. Eastern Coral Snake  ______  FL  NC(south)  SC  (venomous)  (Length: 20 to 35 inches)
    Micrurus fulvius fulvius

    Family VIPERIDAE

  193. Copperhead ______   (venomous)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)  (Length: 24 to 45 inches)
    Agkistrodon contortrix
    Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen 
    Northern Copperhead  ______  DE  MD  NC  NJ  PA  VA
    Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix 
    Southern Copperhead  ______  FL  NC  SC

    Intergrades of the Northern and Southern Copperheads are often lighter-colored (sometimes pinkish) and have narrower crossbands, thus causing some confusion with some nonvenomous snakes with boldly-patterned backs such as the Corn Snake, Eastern Hognose Snake, and Milk Snake, 

  194. Cottonmouth  (ph) (*)  ______   (venomous)  (Length: 30 to 71 inches)
    Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus  Eastern Cottonmouth  ______  NC   SC  VA
    Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti 
    Florida Cottonmouth  ______  FL

    Cottonmouth, showing the open white mouth
    (photo courtesy of Michael Christopher)

  195. Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake  ______  NC  SC  (venomous)  (Length: 42 to 78 inches)
    Crotalus adamanteus

  196. Timber Rattlesnake  (ph) (*)   _____  MD  NC  NJ  PA  SC  VA  (venomous)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  (Length: 36 to 72 inches)
    Crotalus horridus

    In the Carolinas, Crotalus horridus is also called the "Canebrake Rattlesnake". 

    Crotalus horridus
    is classified as endangered in New Jersey.

    Timber Rattlesnake
    (photo by Fred Lesser)

  197. Pygmy Rattlesnake  ______   (venonmous)  (Length: 15 to 26 inches)
    Sistrurus m. miliarius 
    Carolina Pygmy Rattlesnake  ______  NC  SC
    Sistrurus miliarius barbouri 
    Dusky Pygmy Rattlesnake  ______  FL

  198. Eastern Massasauga  ______  (Length: 20 to 30 inches)
    Sistrurus catenatus catenatus  ______  PA

    Sistrurus catenatus catenatus is classified as endangered in Pennsylvania.


Some selected reference books regarding Amphibians & Reptiles:

"Amphibians & Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia", by Bernard Martof, William Palmer, Joseph Bailey, & Julian Harrison III, with photographs by Jack Dermid, 1980 

"Amphibians & Reptiles of Delmarva", by James White & Amy White, 2002 

"Pennsylvania Amphibians & Reptiles", by Larry Shaffer, 1995