PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

 

MARINE FISH
of Belize
Honduras, and 
eastern Mexico
including the Yucatan Peninsula
and Cozumel Island


A list compiled by Armas Hill,
with fish to be found 
in coral reefs and otherwise 

Noting those seen during 
Focus On Nature Tours
and pelagic trips with an (*)


PHOTO AT UPPER RIGHT: Some fish travel in SCHOOLS. as do these GRUNTS


Codes:


BZ  Belize
CZ  Cozumel Island (where the Caribbean Sea & the Gulf of Mexico meet)
HN  Honduras
YP  in the area of the Yucatan Peninsula, including coastal & offshore Caribbean & Gulf of Mexico waters 


Classifications as designated by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) relating to threatened species:
(t1):  critically endangered
(t2):  endangered
(t3):  vulnerable
(nt):  near-threatened  

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website


Relating to Illustrations in Books: 

(ASC:xxx)    refers to plate numbers in the "National Audubon Society Field Guide to Seashore Creatures"
(ATMF:xxx)  refers to plate number of photo in the "National Audubon Society Field Guide to Tropical Marine Fishes"
(FGCF:xxx)  refers to page with an illustration in the book "A Field Guide to Coastal Fishes from Maine to Texas" by Val Kells & Kent Carpenter   


Links:

A Listing of scheduled Focus On Nature Tours

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in Central America (including Mexico)

FONT Past Tour Highlights
  

Other Marine Life in Belize & eastern Mexico  
(incl. Sea Turtles, Corals, Jellyfish, Mollusks, Arthropods, & creatures in caves)  

Mammals, including Marine Mammals, in:  Central America    Mexico

Directory of Photos in this Website



Porcupinefish
There are 2 photos of this species in the list below.



Links, in the following list, to:


Sharks & Rays    Sawfishes    Guitarfish    Ocean Sunfish    Sea Catfishes
    
Toadfishes & Frogfishes    Needlefishes    Trumpetfishes    Cornetfishes    Pipefishes & Seahorses

Scorpionfishes
    Sea Robins    Sea Basses & Groupers (inc. Hamlets)    Jacks & Pompanos

Pomfrets    Snappers    Mojarras    Grunts    Goatfishes    Porgies    Drums & Croakers    

Angelfishes
    Butterflyfishes    Damselfishes    Wrasses    Parrotfishes    Cardinalfishes    

Squirrelfishes
   
Bigeyes    Bluefish    Cobia    Remoras    Driftfishes    Butterfishes    Tilefishes

Flatfishes (Flounders)    Tonguefishes    Surgeons & Tangs    Triggerfishes    Filefishes

Boxfishes    Eels    Tarpon    Snook    Barracuda    Mullets    Puffers     Porcupinefish    Dolphinfish    

Cutlassfish
   
Tunas & Mackerels    Billfishes  



Some information is in this list about regional seafood specialties in the Yucatan & Belize,
shared with us by Chef David Sterling. For more info, click this link:

http://www.los-dos.com

An excellent new book has been published, in 2014, by David Sterling, "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition".
In this list references are made to that book.
   

 

       PLANKTON-FEEDING SHARKS & RAYS  

         WHALE SHARK  (Family Rhinocodontidae)

  1. Whale Shark  (t3) (ph)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:29) (FGCF:65)
    Rhincodon typus

    The Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus, is the largest known fish in the world, and the largest known cold-blooded vertebrate.. It can reach up to 14 meters (42 feet) in length, but typical adults are between 7 meters (21 feet) and 10 meters (30 feet) long.
    It has an enormous head, that is wedge-shaped in side profile, flat-fronted, and squarish from above, and it has small barbets, and a cavernous mouth-opening 1.5 meters (almost 6 feet) wide. (See photo above.)
    There are hundreds of tiny, hook-like teeth in each jaw.
    Its eyes are inconspicuous, closed by retracting and rotating the eyeball backwards in its socket.
    The tail-fin of the fish is huge, about one-third of the total body length.    

    Another name for the fish is the Domino Shark, coming from its distinctive black skin covered in rows of white dots.

    The lifespan of the Whale Shark is long. It can typically live into its 70s.

    The Whale Shark is a true shark. Its name, of course, is due to its large size. Unlike vicious Great White Sharks, Whale Sharks are gentle filter-feeders. Plankton is its primary food. When feeding, Whale Sharks glide in circles, as they simply suck up whatever small sea-life is front of them.

    Often seen accompanying Whale Sharks are young Golden Trevally, Gnathanodon speciosus.  

    Although Whale Sharks populate the tropical zone around the globe, the shallow waters off the north coast of the Mexican province of Quintana Roo, on the Yucatan Peninsula, is the ONLY PLACE in the world where a very large population gathers. They occur, there, in pods of ten or twenty, and it has been estimated that total number there, in the waters, is MORE THAN 200. This apparently is due to the swirling waters where the Gulf of Mexico meets the Atlantic Ocean. Those waters teem with plankton, noted as the Whale Shark's favored food.

    The highest number of Whale Sharks off the northern Yucatan Peninsula is said to be in the summer, although it does occur at other times.














    A mouth of a Whale Shark photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

    Another photo of a
    Whale Shark is later in this list with Pilotfish (in the Jacks & Pompanos grouping). 
       

    Other sharks follow the rays in this list.



    EAGLE RAYS  (Family Myliobatidae)

  2. Giant Manta  (nt)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:64) (FGCF:95)
    Manta birostris


  3. Spotted Eagle Ray  (ph)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:62) (FGCF:93)
    Aetobatus narinari



    Spotted Eagle Ray

  4. Southern Eagle Ray  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (FGCF:93)z
    Myliobatis goodei


    AMERICAN ROUND STINGRAYS  (Family Urotrygonidae)

  5. Yellow Stingray  (ph)  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:61) (FGCF:89)
    Urobatis jamaicensis 



    Yellow Stingray


    WHIPTAIL STINGRAYS  (Family Dasyatidae)

  6. Southern Stingray ______   BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:59,60) (FGCF:91)
    Dasyatis americana

    The Southern Stingray was 1 of 3 species of rays found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006.  



    A Southern Stingray photographed in the sand under the sea along the coast of Belize
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet) 

  7. Longnose Stingray ______  BZ(south)  HN
    Dasyatis guttata

    The Longnose Stingray was 1 of 3 species of rays found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006.  

  8. Atlantic Stingray  ______  YP  (FGCF:91) (FGCF:91)
    Dasyatis sabina

  9. Chupare Stingray  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (another name is Caribbean Whiptail Ray)
    Himantura schmardae   

    The Chupare Stingray was 1 of 3 species of rays found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006. 


    BUTTERFLY RAYS
      (Family Gymnuridae)

  10. Smooth Butterfly Ray  ______  YP(west) (FGCF:93)
    Gymnura micrura 



    SOME COMMENTARY REGARDING SHARKS  (22 species follow in this list):

    The shark fin trade has contributed to catastrophic declines of shark populations worldwide. It threatens to disrupt ocean ecosystems and encourages the proliferation of other predators, which in turn diminishes stocks of fish for human consumption.
    Finning is the cutting off the fins of sharks and then throwing the fish back into the ocean, often while still alive.
    The fins are used in the preparation of shark fin soup, which has been considered a Chinese delicacy.

    Countries that currently have shark finning regulations include: American Samoa, Argentina, Australia (most states & territories), the Bahamas, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, the European Union, India, Mexico, Namibia, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, South Africa, and the United States.

    Something special for shark conservation happened on June 24, 2011 when Honduras issued a permanent ban on the fishing of sharks in its waters. That followed a moratorium on shark fishing established in that country in 2010. The ban represents a sanctuary of 240,000 square kilometers of the country's Pacific and Caribbean waters where sharks may not be fished commercially.

    Overall, 2011 was a key year for shark conservation. Hopefully, the realization will continue of the value of a healthy shark population for ecosystems and economies, supporting a policy of protecting sharks in the waters of the world.

    A good and informative book about sharks is "The Shark Watcher's Handbook", by Mark Carwardine & Ken Watterson, published in 2002.     


    SAND TIGER SHARKS  (Family Odontaspididae)

  11. Smalltooth Sand Tiger Shark  (t3)  ______  YP  (also called the Bumpytail Ragged-tooth Shark)
    Odontaspis ferox   



    NURSE SHARKS  (Family Ginglymostomatidae)

  12. Nurse Shark ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:30) (FGCF:63)
    Ginglymostoma cirratum  

    During shark & ray surveys In waters off southern Belize in 2006, the Nurse Shark was the most-commonly found shark. 

    The Nurse Shark grows up to 10.5 feet in length.

      

    A Nurse Shark off the Caribbean coast of Central America
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet) 


    REQUIEM or GRAY SHARKS  (Family Carcharhinidae) 

  13. Blacknose Shark  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:45) (FGCF:71)
    Carcharhinus acronotus

    The Blacknose Shark grows up to 4.6 feet in length.

  14. Bignose Shark  ______  (FGCF:71)  (species described in 1950)
    Carchahinus altimus

    The Bignose Shark occurs worldwide, in deep water. It grows up to 9.8 feet in length.

  15. Silky Shark  ______  HN  YP  (AMTF:40) (FGCF:71)
    Carchahinus falciformis

    The Silky Shark grows up to 10.8 feet in length.  

  16. Bull Shark ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:44) (FGCF:71)
    Carcharhinus leucas

    The Bull Shark was 1 of 8 species of sharks found during shark & ray surveys off southern Belize in 2006.

    The Bull Shark oddly survives in both saltwater and freshwater. It is found as far as 2,300 miles up the Amazon River into Peru, and it has also been known to be in freshwater in North America, Guatemala, and in lakes in Nicaragua, and in the Panama Canal.
    The shark's ability to move freely between waters of such wide-ranging salinity is an impressive feat. It probably is not a permanent freshwater resident, but rather migrates between saltwater and freshwater, which is actually even more astounding.
    The individuals living in Lake Nicaragua were once thought to be a separate species, but are now known to be Bull Sharks.  

    The Bull Shark grows up to 11 feet in length. It is said to be a potentially high risk danger to divers. The Bull Shark is considered one of four sharks responsible for the most attacks on humans. 
    The others are the Great White Shark, Oceanic Whitetip Shark, and the Tiger Shark. 
    Carchahinus leucas is one of the most dangerous of sharks in subtropical and tropical waters, as it is large and powerful, very common, and it has a willingness to enter murky water giving it ample opportunity to encounter people. 
    Now the Bull Shark is thought to be the culprit in some attacks that have been attributed to other species.       

  17. Blacktip Shark  ______  BZ  HN  (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinus limbatus

    The Blacktip Shark was 1 of 8 species of sharks found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006.

    The Blacktip Shark is found in warm temperate to tropical waters. Generally it is further offshore than the similar Blacktip Reef Shark, Carcharhinus melanopterus. Carcharhinus limbatus occurs over the continental shelf.

    The Blacktip Shark is well known for leaping out of the water and spinning longitudinally before dropping back into the sea.

    Compared with the Blacktip Reef Shark, the Blacktip Shark is slightly larger, but it has a smaller black tip on its first dorsal fin. That black tip may be lacking altogether in some adults.       

    The Blacktip Shark grows up to 8.4 feet in length.

  18. Oceanic Whitetip Shark  (t3)  ______  HN  YP  (AMTF:39) (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinus longimanus

    The Oceanic Whitetip Shark roams the open ocean, usually far from shore. It may be the most numerous large shark in the world. Some large schools have been observed, but lone individuals seem to be more common.

    Oceanic Whitetip Sharks are often seen in association with other creatures at sea including Dolphin Fish and tuna. 
    They are also known to follow several species of whales. 
    When they are with a pod of Short-finned Pilot Whales, the sharks perhaps take advantage of the whales' remarkable ability to find squid by echolocation, or they may feed on injured individuals.

    Oceanic Whitetip Sharks can sometimes be seen cruising at the surface of the water, with their large pectoral fins conspicuously outspread, and they have been observed raising their snouts high into the air.
    Scientists have determined that by sniffing the air the sharks can respond to the smell of food more quickly, and from a grater distance than if they relied only on the odor reaching them underwater.
    Once they have found food, Oceanic Whitetip Sharks can be very aggressive and will dominate other shark species at the feast. 

    The Oceanic Whitetip Shark grows up to 13 feet in length. It is said to be a potentially high risk danger to divers. 

  19. Caribbean Reef Shark  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:42) (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinus perezi

    The Caribbean Reed Shark was 1 of 8 species of sharks found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006. 

    Carcharhinus perezi is a common species around coral reefs in tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. It is familiar to divers in shallow waters close to shore.

    Caribbean Reef Sharks are well known for napping on the seabed. This behavior was first observed near the Isla Mujeres, off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The sharks were in caves some 66 feet (20 meters) down, completely motionless and apparently so tranquil that they could be lifted and handled. 
    Resting Caribbean Reef Sharks have since been observed throughout their range. Lying in caves or under ledges, usually during the day, they do appear to be resting. 

    The Caribbean Reef Shark can be difficult to distinguish from a number of other species, particularly Bull Sharks which occasionally visit the same waters, 
    But the Bull Shark tends to be larger, with a stockier body, a slightly broader and more rounded snout, and a more sharply pointed first dorsal fin. Read the paragraph above relating to potential danger with the Bull Shark. 

    The Caribbean Reef Shark grows up to 9.7 feet in length. It is said to be a minimal risk to divers.   



    Caribbean Reef Shark

  20. Sandbar Shark  (t3)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:43) (FGCF:73)
    Carcharhinus plumbeus

    The Sandbar Shark grows up to 7.8 feet in length.

  21. Tiger Shark  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:35) (FGCF:75)
    Galeocerdo cuvieri

    The Tiger Shark was 1 of 8 species of sharks found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006.  

    The Tiger Shark grows up to 18 feet in length.

  22. Lemon Shark  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:36) (FGCF:75)
    Negaprion brevirostris

    The Lemon Shark was 1 of 8 species of sharks found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006.

    The Lemon Shark grows up to 11 feet in length.

  23. Blue Shark  (nt)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:38) (FGCF:75)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Prionace glauca

    The Blue Shark is one of the most widely distributed of all sharks, occurring in all of the tropical and warm temperate seas. It prefers shallow, sunlit, open-ocean habitat. 

    The Blue Shark grows up to 12.5 feet in length. 


  24. Atlantic Sharpnose Shark  ______  YP  (AMTF:37) (FGCF:75)
    Rhizoprionodon terraenovae

    The Atlantic Sharpnose Shark grows up to 3.6 feet in length.   

  25. Caribbean Sharpnose Shark  ______  BZ(south)  
    Rhizoprionodon porosus

    The Caribbean Sharpnose Shark was 1 of 8 species of sharks found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006.


    HOUND SHARKS  (Family Triakidae)

  26. Smooth Dogfish Shark  ______  YP  (AMTF:46) (FGCF:69)
    Mustelis canis

    The Smooth Dogfish Shark grows up to 5 feet in length.

    A REGIONAL FOOD SPECIALTY:
    "Pan de cazon",
    a pie made of a stack of tortillas layered with black bean puree and shredded DOGFISH. This dish is popular throughout the Yucatan peninsula. 

  27. Florida Smoothound Shark ______  HN  (FGCF:69)  (species described in 1939)
    Mustelis norrisi

    The range of the Florida Smoothhound Shark includes the western Caribbean. It grows up to 3 feet in length.


    HAMMERHEAD SHARKS  (Family Sphyrnidae)

  28. Scalloped Hammerhead Shark  (t2)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:48,49) (FGCF:77)
    Sphyrna lewini

    The Scalloped Hammerhead Shark grows up to 13.8 feet in length.

  29. Great Hammerhead Shark  (t2)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:47) (FGCF:77) 
    Sphyrna mokarran

    The Great Hammerhead Shark was 1 of 8 species of sharks found during shark & ray surveys in waters off southern Belize in 2006. 

    The Great Hammerhead Shark grows to 19.7 feet in length.  

  30. Bonnethead Shark ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:50) (FGCF:77)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Sphyrna tiburo

    The Bonnethead Shark grows up to 5 feet in length. 


    COW SHARKS  (Family Hexanchidae) 

  31. Bigeyed Six-gill Shark  ______
    Hexanchus vitulus  

    In the western Caribbean, the Bigeyed Six-gill Shark has been recorded in waters off Nicaragua and Costa Rica. 


    MACKEREL SHARKS  (Family Lamnidae)

  32. Shortfin Mako Shark ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:33) (FGCF:67)
    Isurus oxyrhynchus

    Not as much is known about the biology and natural history of the Shortfin Mako Shark as there could be, but it is a pursuit predator that chases it fleeing prey, and it is among the fastest of all sharks.
    Determining how fast a shark, or any fish, can swim is difficult, and so exaggerations are written, but the Shortfin Mako can probably reach a speed of from 22 to 35 miles per hour. It is also a spectacular jumper, and has been known to launch itself more than 20 feet (6 meters) into the air when hooked.

    The Shortfin Mako Shark grows up to 8 feet in length. It is said to be a potentially high risk danger to divers, but it is predominantly out in the open ocean, thus limiting contact with people.     


    CATSHARKS  (Family Scyliorhinidae)

  33. Chain Dogfish Shark  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:33) (FGCF:69)
    Scyliorbinus retifer 

    The Chain Dogfish Shark grows up to 23 inches in length.


    SAWFISHES  (Family Pristidae)

  34. Smalltooth Sawfish  (t1)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:53) (FGCF:83)
    Pristis pectinata

    The Smalltooth Sawfish has been found up to 18 feet in length.

  35. Largetooth Sawfish  (t1)  ______  BZ   HN YP  (FGCF:83)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pristis pristis

    The Largetooth Sawfish has been found up to 20 feet in length.

    The coastally-restricted Largetooth Sawfish was formerly at least common throughout Belize. 

    But during a survey conducted in 2006, during which over 150 fishermen were interviewed, neither the Largetooth Sawfish nor the more-broadly distributed Smalltooth Sawfish were found to have been sighted in Belize during the previous 17 years, suggesting extinction - that is except however for one instance when some sawfish were encountered and captured, 3 years previously near Spanish Point. They were apparently young of the year and adults.
    So it is hoped that the northern coast and lagoons of Belize and the Corozal Bay may be a final refuge for a remnant population of Sawfish, either the Smalltooth or the Largetooth.

    Based on interviews with fishermen in Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, both Sawfish species are longer found in those areas of the Mesoamerican Reef Region.   

       

    Largetooth Sawfish  


    GUITARFISH  (Family Rhinobatidae)

  36. Atlantic Guitarfish  ______  YP(west)  (ATMF:55) (FGCF:85)
    Rhinobatos lentiginosus

    Atlantic Guitarfish
    bury themselves in bottom sediment. They prey on crustaceans and mollusks. The fish is sluggish and harmless. 


    OCEAN SUNFISHES  (Family Molidae)

    Large fish with disc-like bodies, lacking a tail. 

  37. Ocean Sunfish  (ph)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:417) (FGCF:427)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mola mola

    The Oceanic Sunfsh can weigh up to 2 tons. 



    An Oceanic Sunfish photographed during a FONT pelagic trip


    SEA CATFISHES  (Family Ariidae)

  38. Hardhead Catfish  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:86) (FGCF:115)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Ariopsis (or Arius) felis

  39. Mayan Sea Catfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP
    Arius assimilis  

  40. Gafftopsail Catfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:85) (FGCF:115)
    Bagre marinus 

  41. Madmango Sea Catfish  ______  BZ  HN
    Cathorops spixii 


    TOADFISHES  (Family Batrachoididae)  

    TOADFISHES
    and FROGFISHES are collectively known as ANGLERFISHES.  

  42. Gulf Toadfish  ______  HN  YP  (ATMF:93) (FGCF:135)
    Opsanus beta

  43. Splendid Toadfish  ______  Cozumel Is.  (ATMF:94)  (also called Coral Toadfish)
    Sanopus splendidus

    The spectacular Splendid Toadfish seems to be endemic to Cozumel Island, Mexico. The flattened head is especially striking with its densely packed black and white stripes. The ventril fins are entirely yellow, while the rest of the fins have an attractive yellow yellow border. There are very prominent barbels around the mouth.
    This is a shy species, most likely to be found in crevices and other dark recesses, where it is supported by its pectoral fins.

  44. White-spotted Toadfish  ______  BZ  HN  (species described in 1965)
    Sanopus astrifer

    Sanopus astrifer has been thought to be endemic to Belize (where it occurs in the Turneffe Islands, at Glovers Reef), but it has been found in Honduras. 

  45. Sanopus greenfieldorum  ______  BZ

    Sanopus greenfieldorum
    is endemic to Belize.

  46. Sanopus johnsoni  ______  Cozumel Is.

  47. Sanopus reticulatus  ______  YP

    Sanopus reticulatus
    occurs in the Gulf of Mexico at Progreso on the Yucatan Peninsula.

  48. Batrachoides giberti ______  BZ

    The range of Batrachoides gilberti is from Belize to Panama. 


    FROGFISHES  (Family Antennariidae)

  49. Longlure Frogfish  ______  BZ  (ATMF:95) (FGCF:137)
    Antennarius multiocellatus

  50. Ocellated Frogfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP(east)  (ATMF:96) (FGCF:137)
    Antennarius ocellatus

  51. Striated Frogfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:98) (FGCF:137)  (another name is Split-lure Frogfish
    Antennarius striatus


    LIZARDFISHES  (Family Synodontidae)


  52. Sand Diver ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:87) (FGCF:119)
    Synodus intermedius 

    The Sand Diver is a common reef inhabitant that belongs to the lizardfish family. It often lies half buried in the sand, which along with its camouflaged coloration, both protects it from predators and allows it to dart out and grab unwary prey. Sand Divers have a mottled reddish coloration but can change hue to blend with the background.  

  53. Red Lizardfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:88) (FGCF:119) (other names are Red-barred Lizardfish, or Diamond Lizardfish)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Synodus synodus

  54. Snakefish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:89) (FGCF:119)
    Trachinocephalus myops


    PEARLFISHES  (Family Carapidae) 

  55. Pearlfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:92) (FGCF:129)
    Carapus bermudensis


    BROTULA  (Family Ophidiidae)

  56. Atlantic Bearded Brotula  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:129)
    Brotula barbata


    BATFISHES  (Family Ogcocephalidae)

  57. Shortnose Batfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:100) (FGCF:141)
    Ogcocephalus nasutus


    SILVERSIDES  (Family Atherinidae)

  58. Hardhead Silverside  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:107) (FGCF:145)
    Atherinomorus stipes

  59. Reef Silverside  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:106) (FGCF:145)
    Hypoatherina harringtonensis 


    HALFBEAKS  (Family Hemiramphidae)

  60. Ballyhoo  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:108) (FGCF:151)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hemiraamphus brasiliensis  

  61. Hardhead Halfbeak  ______  YP  (FGCF:151)
    Chriodorus atherinoides


    NEEDLEFISHES  (Family Belonidae)

  62. Flat Needlefish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:109) (FGCF:153)
    Ablennes hians

  63. Atlantic Needlefish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:110) (FGCF:153)
    Strongylura marina

  64. Timucu  ______  HN  YP  (FGCF:153)
    Strongylura timucu

  65. Houndfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:111) (FGCF:153)
    Tylosurus crocodiles


    FLYING FISHES  (Family Exocoetidae)

  66. Spotfin Flyingfish  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:104,105)
    Cypselurus furcatus

  67. Atlantic Flying Fish  (ph) (*) ______  YP  CZ  (FGCF:147)
    Cypselurus melanurus


    FLYING GURNARDS  (Family Dactylopteridae)

    FLYING GURNARDS
    are distinctive, spectacular fishes, but their relationships to other fish are not clear. 
    Some ichthyologists consider them to be related to the SEAHORSES and PIPEFISHES. 
    Others believe that they are related to the SCORPIONFISHES because, like them, they are mail-cheeked fishes, so-called because one of the bones surrounding he eye has an extension that crosses the cheek and connects with the preopercle.
    Because there is no firm evidence supporting their relationship to other mail-cheeked fishes, they are placed in a separate order containing only one family.         

  68. Flying Gurnard  (ph)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:133,134) (FGCF:177)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Dactylopterus volitans

    Flying Gurnards are easily recognized by their huge pectoral fins and heavily armored heads. Contrary to their name, they do not fly, although the big pectoral fins look like wings. 
    Juveniles are pelagic, drifting in the open sea. Adults are bottom-dwellers.

    With its enlarged pectoral fins, the Flying Gurnard sometimes resembles a ray when seen underwater. Some searobins also have enlarged pectoral fins, but they do not have keeled scales as the Flying Gurnard does.
    Flyingfishes have enlarged pectoral fins, but also have abdominal pelvic fins.

     

    Flying Gurnard   


    NEW WORLD RIVULINES  (Family Rivulidae)

  69. Mangrove Rivulus  ______  BZ  (ATMF:112) (FGCF:155)
    Kryptolebias
    (or Rivulus) marmoratus


    PUPFISHES (OR KILLIFISHES)  (Family Cyprinodontidae

  70. Fundulus grandissimus  ______  YP  (similar to the Gulf Killifish

  71. Sheepshead Minnow  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:114) (FGCF:159)
    Cyprinodon variegatus

  72. Gold-spotted Killifish  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:159)
    Floridichthys carpio

  73. Jordanella pulchra  ______  BZ  YP


    LIVEBEARERS  (Family Poeciliidae)

  74. Gambusia yucatana  ______  YP

  75. Sailfin Molly  ______  YP  (FGCF:161)
    Poecilia latipinna


    TRUMPETFISHES  (Family Aulostomidae)

  76. Atlantic Trumpetfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:131) (FGCF:175)
    Aulostomus maculatus

    Atlantic Trumpetfish grow to 3 feet in length. The fish often hovers and drifts vertically. It darts toward and sucks in its prey, feeding on crustaceans and fishes.


    CORNETFISHES  (Family Fistulariidae)

  77. Blue-spotted Cornetfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:132) (FGCF:177)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Fistularia tabacaria

    The Blue-spotted Cornetfish grows to 6 feet in length, minus the filament. It is found over seagrass beds and reefs. 


    PIPEFISHES & SEAHORSES  (Family Syngnathidae)

    A very good book about SEAHORSES, and an enjoyable read, is "Poseidon's Steed, the Story of Seahorses, from Myth to Reality", by Helen Scales, Gotham Books, 2009. 

  78. Lined Seahorse  (t3) (ph)  ______  YP(west)  (ATMF:130) (FGCF:171)
    Hippocampus erectus



    Lined Seahorse

  79. Dusky Pipefish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:126) (FGCF:173)
    Syngnathus floridae

  80. Sargassum  Pipefish  (ph)  ______  YP  (ATMF:128) (FGCF:175)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Synganthus pelagicus

    The Sargassum Pipefish is in floating sargassum weed in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.

  81. Gulf Pipefish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:127) (FGCF:175)
    Syngnathus scovelli

  82. Fringed Pipefish  ______  YP  (FGCF:171)
    Anarchopterus criniger

  83. Ocellated Pipefish  ______  BZ
    Bryx randalli

  84. Banded Pipefish  ______  HN  YP  (FGCF:173)
    Halicampus
    (or Micrognathus) crinitus 


    SCORPIONFISHES  (Family Scorpaenidae)

  85. Barbfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:135) (FGCF:181)
    Scorpaena brasiliensis

  86. Mushroom Scorpionfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:136) (FGCF:181)
    Scorpaena inermis

  87. Spotted Scorpionfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:137,138) (FGCF:183)
    Scorpaena plumieri

  88. Reef Scorpionfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:139) (FGCF:183)
    Scorpaenodes caribbaeus


    SEAROBINS  (Family Triglidae)

  89. Horned Searobin  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:140) (FGCF:185)
    Bellator militaris

  90. Spiny Searobin  ______  YP  (FGCF:185)
    Prionotus alatus

  91. Bandtail Searobin  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:185)
    Prionotus ophryas

  92. Bluewing Searobin  ______  BZ  HN
    Prionotus punctatus

  93. Blue-spotted Searobin  ______  YP  (FGCF:187)
    Prionotus roseus  


    SEA BASSES & GROUPERS  (Family Serranidae)  including HAMLETS


    REGIONAL FOOD SPECIALTIES:
    "Pescado en tikin 'xik",
    a grilled GROUPER (or snapper) marinated in achiote and sour orange. It is typically wrapped in banana leaves and grilled over a wood or charcoal fire.

    "Makkum",
    with similar ingredients as "tikin 'xik", but baked instead in a clay cazuela.


    SEA BASS
    and GROUPER are among the white fish used in Yucatan Style CEVICHE, a seafood dish that is popular in coastal regions of Central America, including Belize and the Yucatan.
    Ceviche is typically made with fresh raw fish marinated in citrus juices, such as lemon and lime, and spiced with aji or chili peppers.
    Additional seasonings, such as chopped onions, salt, and coriander, may also be added (also noted in the next paragraph).
    Ceviche is often accompanied by side dishes that complement its flavors, such as sweet potato, lettuce, corn, avocado, or plantain.
    As ceviche is not cooked with heat, it must be prepared fresh to minimize the risk of food poisoning. It can be safer to prepare it with frozen or blast-frozen fish, due to Anisakis parasites.

    Ceviche is said to have originated in South America, in Peru. The dish, however, has been part of the traditional Mexican coastal cuisine has centuries. 
    Mexican ceviche has developed its own distinct styles that make it unique from other variations.
    In Mexico and Central America, it is served in cocktail cups with tostadas, or as a tostada topping and taco filling.
    Shrimp, octopus squid, tuna, and mackerel are popular bases for Mexican ceviche.
    The marinade ingredients include: salt, lime, onion, chili peppers, avocado, and coriander leaves (known as "cilantro" in the Americas). Tomatoes are often added to the preparation. 

    Following is a recipe for YUCATAN STYLE FISH CERVICHE:

    Ingredients: 1 and 1/2 pounds of sea bass, 3/4 pound large shrimp, 1 large sweet onion, 3 medium Habanero peppers, 1 cup fresh lime juice, 1/2 cup fresh orange juice, 1/4 cup chopped cilantro, 1/2 cup seeded and diced tomato.

    Cut the fish in 1/4 inch slice, remove any bones as you go. Place the fish in a glass or glazed ceramic dish large enough to hold one in full layer. Shell and devain the shrimp, rinsing them only if necessary to rid them of grit. Slice the shrimp in half lengthwise or butterfly them. Layer the shrimp over the fish. Slice the onion in half lengthwise, then crosswise in thin slices  Layer the onion over the fish and shrimp.
    Toast the habaneros fro 3 to 5 minutes in a dry skillet to release the oil from the cells. Wearing rubber gloves, stem, seed and sliver the habaneros and scatter them over the onions.
    Season the dish with salt and pour in the lime and orange juices. Cover and marinate in the refrigerator for 5 hours or overnight, or until the fish and shrimp are opaque. Pour off most of the marinade to reduce the carbs from the fruit juice.
    Add cilantro and diced tomato, stir and serve at cool room temperature. Serve with tortilla chips.


  94. Bank Sea Bass  ______  YP  (FGCF:199)
    Centropristis ocyurus

  95. Sand Perch  ______  YP  (ATMF:143) (FGCF:203)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766) 
    Diplectrum formosum

  96. Rock Hind  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:158) (FGCF:203)
    Epinephelus adscensionis

  97. Speckled Hind  (t1)  ______  YP  (FGCF:203)
    Epinephelus drummondhayi

  98. Red Hind  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:159) (FGCF:203)  (another name is Strawberry Grouper) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Epinephelus guttatus

  99. Marbled Grouper  (nt)  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:157) (FGCF:201)
    Dermatolepis
    (or Epinephelus) inermis

  100. Goliath Grouper (t1)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:160) (FGCF:205)  (also called Jewfish)
    Epinephelus itajara

  101. Red Grouper  (nt)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:161) (FGCF:205)
    Epinephelus morio

  102. Misty Grouper  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:162) (FGCF:205)
    Epinephelus mystacinus

  103. Snowy Grouper  (t3)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:163) (FGCF:205)
    Epinephelus niveatus

  104. Nassau Grouper  (t2) ______  BZ  HN  YP  (AMTF:164) (FGCF:207)
    Epinephelus striatus

    The Nassau Grouper forms large, complex spawning aggregations. Spawning correlates to phases of the Moon.
     
  105. Graysby ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:155) (FGCF:201)
    Epinephelus
    (or Cephalopholis) cruentatus

  106. Coney ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:154) (FGCF:201)  (described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Epinephelus (or Cephalopholis) fulvus 

  107. Black Grouper  (nt)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:166) (FGCF:213)
    Mycteroperca bonaci

  108. Gag  ______  YP  (FGCF:215)
    Mycteroprca microlepis

  109. Tiger Grouper  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:169) (FGCF:215)
    Mycteroperca tigris

  110. Yellowfin Grouper  (nt) (ph)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:168) (FGCF:215)
    Mycteroperca venenosa



    Yellowfin Grouper, and to the left of it in this photo, a Green Moray 

  111. Reef Bass  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:171) (FGCF:217)
    Pseudogramma gregoryi 

  112. Lantern Bass  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:149) (FGCF:221)
    Serranus baldwini

  113. Snow Bass  ______  HN  (FGCF:221)
    Serranus chionaraia


  114. Tobaccofish ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:151) (FGCF:223)
    Serranus tabacarius

  115. Harlequin Bass  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:152) (FGCF:223)
    Serranus tigrinus

  116. Chalk Bass  ______  BZ  HN  YP(east)  (ATMF:153) (FGCF:223)
    Serranus tortugarum

  117. Golden Hamlet ______  HN  (FGCF:209)
    Hypoplectrus gummigutta

  118. Black Hamlet  ______  BZ  HN  (ATMF:148) (FGCF:211)
    Hypoplectrus nigricans

    The Black Hamlet is said to mimic the Dusky Damselfish.

  119. Barred Hamlet  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:146) (FGCF:211)
    Hypoplectrus puella

  120. Tan Hamlet  ______  BZ  (FGCF:211)  (species described in 2011, but it has been recognized in literature for decades, since about 1960) 
    Hypoplectrus randallorum 

    The Tan Hamlet occurs widely in the Caribbean, including the Florida Keys, Puerto Rico, other West Indian islands, and Belize. 

  121. Maya Hamlet  ______  BZ  (species described in 2011, after being first found in 1993)
    Hypoplectrus maya   

    The Maya Hamlet occurs only in one restricted locality in Belize, in the vicinities of the Pelican and Laughing Bird Cays. 
    It is distinguished by its having no black markings whatsoever. 

  122. Greater Soapfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP(east)  (ATMF:173) (FGCF:219)
    Rypticus saponaceus

  123. Spotted Soapfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:174) (FGCF:219)
    Rypticus subbifrenatus

  124. Atlantic Creole-fish  ______  YP(west)  (ATMF:165) (FGCF:215)
    Paranthias furcider

  125. Peppermint Basslet  (ph)  ______  BZ  (ATMF:170) (FGCF:213)  (another name is Swissguard Basslet)
    Liopropoma rubre



    Peppermint Basslet


    BASSLETS  (Family Grammatidae)

  126. Fairy Basslet  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:175) (FGCF:223)  (also called Royal Gramma)
    Gramma loreto

  127. Blackcap Basslet  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:176)
    Gramma melacara 


    JACKS, POMPANOS, PERMITS, SCAD  (Family Carangidae)

  128. Round Scad  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:252) (FGCF:245)
    Decapterus punctatus

  129. Bigeye Scad  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMH:253) (FGCF:249)
    Selar crumenophthalmus

  130. Yellow Jack  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:254) (FGCF:243)
    Caranx bartholomaei

  131. Blue Runner  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:255) (FGCF:243)
    Caranx crysos 

  132. Crevalle Jack  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:256) (FGCF:243)  (described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Caranx hippos

  133. Horse-eye Jack  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:257) (FGCF:243) (also called Bigeye Jack or Horse-eye Trevally
    Caranx latus

  134. Black Jack  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:258) (FGCF:245)
    Caranx lugubris 

  135. Bar Jack  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:259) (FGCF:245)  (also called Skipjack)
    Caranx ruber

  136. Atlantic Bumper  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:260) (FGCF:245)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Chloroscombrus chryurus

  137. African Pompano  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:261) (FGCF:243)
    Alectis ciliaris

  138. Atlantic Moonfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:262) (FGCF:249)
    Selene setapinnis

  139. Lookdown  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:263,264) (FGCF:249)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Selene vomer



    A Lookdown, looking down

  140. Rainbow Runner  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:265) (FGCF:247)
    Elagatis bipinnulata

  141. Yellowtail Amberjack  ______  not in Caribbean or Atlantic waters, but sold in YP as "Jurel"  (native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans) 
    Seriola dorsalis lalandi
    Spanish name: Jurel

    The Jurel, as it is known on the Yucatan, is one of the many members of the large amberjack family.
    It is characterized by its long, aerodynamic body, pointed snout, a blue upper back, silver-white sides and belly, yellow fins and tail, and a distinguishing thin bronze stripe along the middle of the body that turns yellow toward the tail.
    The meat of the Yellowtail Amberjack is rich, fatty, and full-flavored.
    It is a favorite in Asian countries for sushi and sashimi.

  142. Greater Amberjack  (*) ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:266) (FGCF:249)
    Seriola dumerili

    A roving offshore predator, the Greater Amberjack is the largest and most common of the Atlantic amberjacks.

  143. Leatherjack  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:267) (FGCF:247)
    Oligoplites saurus

  144. Pilotfish  (ph)  ______  HN  (FGCF:247)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Naucrates ductor

    Adult Pilotfish follow large sharks, rays, and sea turtles.



    Above: Pilot Fish;  Below: Pilot Fish with a Whale Shark 




  145. Florida Pompano  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:268) (FGCF:251)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Trachinotus carolinus
    Spanish name: Pampano 

    Lone fishermen of Campeche, Mexico catch Pampano, as it called there, from piers, small launches, and jetties, since its habitat in the Gulf of Mexico is along sandy beaches with calm waters.
    The fish also makes an attractive target for Brown Pelicans, which can be seen dive-bombing to catch it from heights of two or three stories into the waters along the coast.

    The Florida Pomano's distinctive oval shape, compressed body, with greenish-silver color - to say nothing of its delicious lean meat - make it one of the most attractive fish in the market, where it commands a higher price per kilo than most other fish.
    The Florida Pompano is a firm-textured, lean, and mild fish. 
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)       

  146. Permit  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:269) (FGCF:251)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Trachinotus falcatus

  147. Palometa  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:270) (FGCF:253)  
    Trachinotus goodei 


    POMFRETS  (Family Bramidae)

  148. Atlantic Pomfret  ______  BZ  (FGCF:253)
    Brama brama

  149. Caribbean Pomfret  ______  (FGCF:253)  (species described in 1972)
    Brama caribbea 


    SNAPPERS  (Family Lutjanidae)

    REGIONAL FOOD SPECIALTIES:
    "Pescado en tikin 'xik",
    a grilled SNAPPER (or grouper) marinated in achiote and sour orange. It is typically wrapped in banana leaves and grilled over a wood or charcoal fire.

    "Makkum",
    with similar ingredients as "tikin 'xik", but baked instead in a clay cazuela.  


  150. Mutton Snapper  (t3)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:205) (FGCF:257)
    Lutjanus analis

  151. Schoolmaster  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:206) (FGCF:257)
    Lutjanus apodus

  152. Red Snapper  ______  BZ  YP(north)  (ATMF:210) (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus campechanus    
    Spanish name: Huachinango

    Red Snapper ranges throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Its characteristic red skin and red eyes make it easy to spot in the Yucatan market, although several other species may be sold under the name "Huachinango".
    In the US, the only species that can legally be sold as "red snapper" is Lutjanus campechanus.

    The Red Snapper has lean, moist meat with a firm texture and a slightly sweet, nutty flavor adaptable to a variety of seasonings - from delicate to strong - making it a great choice for the Yucatan's pungent achiote.
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)   

  153. Cubera Snapper  (t3)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:209) (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus cyanoopterus

  154. Gray Snapper  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:208) (FGCF:259)  (another name is Mangrove Snapper) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  
    Lutjanus griseus

    Gray Snapper spawning occurs during full moon phases.   

  155. Dog Snapper  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:207) (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus jocu

  156. Mahogony Snapper ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:204) (FGCF:259)
    Lutjanus mahogoni

  157. Lane Snapper  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:203) (FGCF:261)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Lutjanus synagris

  158. Yellowtail Snapper ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:211) (FGCF:261)
    Ocyurus chrysurus

  159. Vermilion Snapper  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:212) (FGCF:261)
    Rhomboplites aurorubens 


    TRIPLETAILS  (Family Lobotidae)

  160. Atlantic Tripletail  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:193)  (FGCF:262)
    Lobotes surinamensis 


    MOJARRAS  (Family Gerrreidae)

  161. Spotfin Mojarra  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:213) (FGCF:263)
    Eucinostomus argenteus

  162. Yellowfin Mojarra  ______  BZ  HN  YP(east)  (ATMF:215) (FGCF:265)
    Gerres cinereus

  163. Mojarra del Brasil  ______  BZ 
    Eugerres brasilianus 


    GRUNTS  (Family Haemulidae)

  164. Tomtate  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:219) (FGCF:267)
    Haemulon aurolineatum

  165. Caesar Grunt  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:220) (FGCF:269)
    Haemulon carbonarium

  166. Smallmouth Grunt  ______ BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:221) (FGCF:269)
    Haemulon chrysargyreum 

  167. French Grunt ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:222) (FGCF:269)
    Haemulon flavolineatum



    A school of French Grunts in Elkhorn Coral in the reef off the coast of Belize
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  168. Spanish Grunt  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:223) (FGCF:269)
    Haemulon macrostomum

  169. Cottonwick  ______  BZ  HN  YP(east)  (ATMF:224) (FGCF:269)
    Haemulon melanurum

  170. Sailor's Choice  ______  BZ  HN  YP(east)  (ATMF:225) (FGCF:271)
    Haemulon parva

  171. White Grunt ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:226) (FGCF:271)
    Haemulon plumieri

  172. Blue-striped Grunt ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:227) (FGCF:271)
    Haemulon sciurus

  173. Striped Grunt  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:228) (FGCF:271)
    Haemulon striatum

  174. Black Margate  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:216) (FGCF:267)
    Anisotremus surinamensis

  175. Porkfish ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:217) (FGCF:267)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Anisotremus virginicus

  176. Pigfish  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:229) (FGCF:271)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Orthopristis chrysoptera


    GOATFISHES  (Family Mullidae) 

  177. Yellow Goatfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:281) (FGCF:289)
    Mulloidichthys martinicus

  178. Spotted Goatfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:283,284) (FGCF:291)
    Pseudupeneus maculatus

  179. Dwarf Goatfish  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:282) (FGCF:291)
    Upeneus parvus


    BONNETMOUTHS  (Family Inermiidae)

  180. Boga  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:231)
    Inermia vittata


    PORGIES & SEA BREAM  (Family Sparidae)

  181. Sheepshead  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:232) (FGCF:273)
    Archosargus probatocephalus

  182. Sea Bream  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:233) (FGCF:273)  (another name is Western Atlantic Sea Bream) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Archosargus rhomboidalis 

  183. Pinfish  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:234) (FGCF:277)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Lagodon rhomboides

  184. Jolthead Porgy  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:238) (FGCF:275)
    Calamus bajonado

  185. Saucereye Porgy  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:236) (FGCF:275)
    Calamus calamus

  186. Whitebone Porgy  ______  YP(west)  (FGCF:275)
    Calamus leucosteus

  187. Knobbed Porgy  ______  YP(west)  (ATMF:237) (FGCF:275)
    Calamus nodosus

  188. Littlehead Porgy  ______  YP  (FGCF:277)
    Calamus proridens  

  189. Longspine Porgy  ______  YP  (FGCF:279)
    Stenotomus caprinus


    THREADFINS  (Family Polynemidae)

  190. Atlantic Threadfin  ______  YP  (FGCF:279)
    Polydactylus octonemus

  191. Barbu  ______  YP  (FGCF:279)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Polydactylus virginicus 


    DRUMS, CROAKERS  (Family Sciaenidae)

  192. Blue Croaker  ______  Bay of Campeche  (FGCF:281)
    Corvula batabana

  193. Jackknife-fish  (ph)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:194) (FGCF:283)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Equetus lanceolatus



    Jackknife-fish

  194. Spotted Drum  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:195) (FGCF:283)
    Equetus punctatus

  195. High-hat  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:197) (FGCF:287)
    Pareques acuminatus

  196. Cubbyu  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:196) (FGCF:287)
    Pareques umbrosus

  197. Gulf Kingfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:198) (FGCF:285)  (other names are Gulf Whiting and Sea Mullet)
    Menticirrhus littoralis

  198. Atlantic Croaker  ______  YP  (ATMF:199) (FGCF:285) (also called simply Croaker) (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Micropogonias undulatus


    SWEEPERS  

  199. Glassy Sweeper  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:277) (FGCF:291)
    Pempheris schomburgki


    SEA CHUBS  (Family Kyphosidae)

  200. Bermuda Sea Chub  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:312) (FGCF:291)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Kyphosus sectatrix


    SPADEFISHES

  201. Atlantic Spadefish  (ph)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:313) (FGCF:371)
    Chaetodipterus faber



    Atlantic Spadefish


    ANGELFISHES  (Family Pomacanthidae)

    Closely related to the BUTTERFLYFISHES  

  202. Blue Angelfish  ______  YP(west & north)  (AMTF:321) (FGCF:295)
    Holacanthus bermudensis

    The Blue Angelfish is known to hybridize with the Queen Angelfish. The resulting fish is known as the Townsend Angelfish and has several features of each.

  203. Queen Angelfish  (ph)  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:322) (FGCF:297)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Holocanthus ciliaris 



    Queen Angelfish

  204. Rock Beauty  (ph)  ______  Cozumel Is.  (ATMF:323) (FGCF:296)
    Holacanthus tricolor



    Rock Beauty

  205. Gray Angelfish  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:325) (FGCF:297)
    Pomacanthus arcuatus



    A Gray Angelfish photographed in the reef off the coast of Belize
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  206. French Angelfish  (*) ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:324) (FGCF:297)
    Pomacanthus paru

    The French Angelfish is a wonderful fish to see on the reef, up to one and a quarter feet in length.

  207. Cherubfish  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:320) (FGCF:295)  (species described in 1951)
    Centropyge argi


    BUTTERFLYFISHES  (Family Chaetodontidae)

    Much like marine butterflies, butterfly fish flash in yellow and black-banded beauty around West Atlantic coral reefs.

  208. Longsnout Butterflyfish  (ph)  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:314) (FGCF:295)
    Prognathodes
    (formerly Chaetodon) aculeatus



    Longsnout Butterflyfish

  209. Bank Butterflyfish  ______  YP  (ATMF:315) (FGCF:295)
    Prognathodes
    (formerly Chaetodon) aya

  210. Foureye Butterflyfish  (*)  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:316) (FGCF:293)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Chaetodon capistratus 

    The Foureye Butterflyfish is the most common butterfly fish in the West Atlantic. 

  211. Spotfin Butterflyfish ______ BZ  YP  (AMTF:317) (FGCF:293)
    Chaetodon ocellatus

  212. Reef Butterflyfish  ______  BZ  YP  (AMTF:318) (FGCF:293)
    Chaetodon sedentarius

  213. Banded Butterflyfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:319) (FGCF:293)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Chaetodon striatus


    DAMSELFISHES  (Family Pomacentridae)

  214. Longfin Damselfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:247) (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes diencaeus

  215. Dusky Damselfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:246) (FGCF:301)
    Stegastes fuscus

  216. Beaugregory  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:250) (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes leucostictus

  217. Bicolor Damselfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:251) (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes partitus

  218. Threespot Damselfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:248) (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes planifrons

  219. Cocoa Damselfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:249) (FGCF:303)
    Stegastes variabilis

  220. Yellowtail Damselfish  (ph) (*) ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:241) (FGCF:301)
    Microspathodon chrysurus

    The Yellowtail Damselfish is common on coral reefs; both adults & juveniles are splendid with their bright blue or white spots set like rhinestones across their bodies. 



    A juvenile Yellow-tail Damselfish


  221. Sergeant Major ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:242) (FGCF:299)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Abudefduf saxatilis

  222. Night Sergeant  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:243) (FGCF:299)
    Abudefduf taurus

  223. Blue Chromis ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:244) (FGCF:299)
    Chromis cyanea

  224. Brown Chromis  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:245) (FGCF:301)  (also called Yellow-edge Chromis) 
    Chromis multilineata

  225. Purple Chromis  ______  BZ  (FGCF:301)   (also called Purple Reeffish) 
    Chromis scotti  


    HAWKFISHES  (Family Cirrhitidae)

  226. Red-spotted Hawkfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:240) (FGCF:299)
    Amblycirrhitus pinos


    JAWFISHES  (Family Opistognathidae) 

  227. Yellowhead Jawfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:349) (FGCF:225)
    Opistognathus aurifrons


    WRASSES  (Family Labridae)

  228. Hogfish  (t3)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:287) (FGCF:311)
    Lachnolaimus maximus

  229. Spotfin Hogfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:286)
    Bodianus pulchellus

  230. Spanish Hogfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:285) (FGCF:305)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Bodianus rufus

  231. Creole Wrasse ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:288) (FGCF:305)
    Clepticus parrae

  232. Slippery Dick  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:290) (FGCF:307)
    Halicentrus bivittatus

  233. Yellowcheek Wrasse  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:291) (FGCF:307)
    Halichoeres cyanocephalus

  234. Yellowhead Wrasse ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:292) (FGCF:309)
    Halichoeres garnoti

  235. Rainbow Wrasse  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:294) (FGCF:309)
    Halichoeres pictus

  236. Blackear Wrasse  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:295) (FGCF:309)
    Halichoeres poeyi

  237. Puddingwife  (ph)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:296) (FGCF:309) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Halichoeres radiatus   



    Puddingwife 

  238. Clown Wrasse  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:293)
    Halichoeres maculipinna

  239. Bluehead Wrasse  (*) ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:289)
    Thalassoma bifasciatum

    The Bluehead is one of the most successful fish in the tropical West Atlantic, with representatives of the species seemingly "everywhere". 
    The name "bluehead" is a misnomer, since only the terminal phase male, constituting about 4% of the population, has a blue head. Adult females, adult males, and juveniles are yellow-jacketed with a midlateral stripe or bar.    


    PARROTFISHES  (Family Scaridae)

  240. Bluelip Parrotfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:300)
    Cryptotomus roseus

  241. Blue Parrotfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:304)
    Scarus coeruleus

  242. Midnight Parrotfish ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:306)
    Scarus coelestinus

    The Midnight Parrotfish is the only large black or blue-black parrotfish in the area. It sometimes schools with surgeonfishes.

  243. Rainbow Parrotfish  (ph) (*) ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:305)
    Scarus guacamaia 

    The Rainbow Parrotfish is one of the largest and most impressive of West Atlantic parrotfishes, up to 4 feet long.  



    Rainbow Parrotfish

  244. Striped Parrotfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:303)
    Scarus iserti

  245. Princess Parrotfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:301,302)
    Scarus taeniopterus

  246. Queen Parrotfish  (*) ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:298,299)  
    Scarus vetula

    So different are the male & female Queen Parrotfishes that earlier fish experts assumed they were two different species; this fish has been seen to occur in "harems" of 3 or 4 females to 1 supermale, grazing together like cows & a bull. 

  247. Stoplight Parrotfish  (ph) (*) ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:310,311)
    Sparisoma viride 

    The harlequin-garbed red-bellied female and immature male Spotlight Parrotfishes are lovely creatures to see on the reef; the supermales are distinguished from the others by their lunate, flowing tails.



    Spotlight Parrotfish

  248. Redband Parrotfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:308)
    Sparisoma aurofrenatum

  249. Redtail Parrotfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:309)
    Sparisoma chrysopterum

  250. Bucktooth Parrotfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:307)
    Sparisoma radians
     


    CARDINALFISHES  (Family Apogonidae)

  251. Barred Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:185) (FGCF:229)
    Apogon binotatus  

  252. Oddscale Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:182)
    Apogon evermanni

  253. Whitestar Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:184) (FGCF:231)  (species described in 1959)
    Apogon lachneri

  254. Flamefish  ______   BZ  YP  (ATMF:183) (FGCF:231)
    Apogon maculatus

  255. Pale Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:187) (FGCF:233)
    Apogon planifrons

  256. Sawcheek Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:188) (FGCF:233)
    Apogon quadrisquamatus 

  257. Belted Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:186) (FGCF:233)
    Apogon townsendi

  258. Freckled Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:189) (FGCF:235)
    Phaeoptyx conklini

  259. Dusky Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:190) (FGCF:235)
    Phaecoptyx pigmentaria

  260. Blackfin Cardinalfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:192) (FGCF:235)
    Astrapogon puncticulatus

  261. Conchfinch  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:191) (FGCF:235)
    Astrapogon stellatus

    Conchfish live commensally in the mantle cavity of the Queen Conch, Strombus gigas, and in the Stiff Penshell, Atrina rigida. 


    SQUIRRELFISHES & SOLDIERFISHES  (Family Holocentridae)

  262. Squirrelfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:119) (FGCF:163)
    Holocentrus adscensionis

  263. Longspine Squirrelfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:120) (FGCF:165)
    Holocentrus rufus

  264. Reef Squirrelfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:123) (FGCF:167)
    Sargocentron coruscus

  265. Dusky Squirrelfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:122) (FGCF:167)
    Sargocentron vexillarius

  266. Blackbar Soldierfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:125) (FGCF:165)
    Myripristis jacobis

  267. Cardinal Soldierfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:124) (FGCF:165)
    Plectrypops retrospinis


    BIGEYES  (Family Priacanthidae)

  268. Short Bigeye  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:178) (FGCF:229)
    Pristigenys alta

  269. Glasseye ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:180) (FGCF:227)  (also called Glasseye Snapper)
    Heteropriacanthus (was Priacanthus) cruentatus  (also formerly Cookeolus boops)

  270. Bigeye  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:181) (FGCF:229)
    Priacanthus arenatus


    BLUEFISH  (Family Pomatomidae) 

  271. Bluefish  ______  YP(north)  (ATMF:271) (FGCF:239)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Pomatomus saltatus 

    Pomatomus saltatus is the single member in its family.

    The Bluefish grows up to 3.8 feet in length.


    COBIA  (Family Rachycentridae)

  272. Cobia  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:272) (FGCF:239)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766)
    Rachycentrum canadum

    The Cobia grows up to 6.5 feet in length.


    REMORAS  (Family Echeneidae)

  273. Sharksucker  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:273) (FGCF:241)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Echeneis naucrates

  274. Slender Suckerfish  ______  BZ  YP  
    Phtheirichtys lineatus

    The Slender Suckerfish is often attached to the Great Barracuda.

  275. Remora  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:274) (FGCF:241)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Remora remora


    DRIFTFISHES  (Family Nomeidae)

  276. Man-of-war Fish  ______  (ATMF:384) (FGCF:389)
    Nomeus gronovii

    Juveniles of Nomeus gronovii associate with the Portuguese Man-of-war.

    The Man-of-war Fish grows up to 15 inches in length. 

  277. Bigeye Cigarfish  ______  (FGCF:389)
    Cubiceps pauciradiatus

    The Bigeye Cigarfish grows up to 7 inches in length.

  278. Freckled Driftfish  ______  (FGCF:389)
    Psenes cyanophyrs

    Psenes cyanophyrs may actually comprise several species.

  279. Silver Driftfish  ______ 
    Psenes maculatus

  280. Bluefin Driftfish  ______  (FGCF:391)
    Psenes pellucidus

    The Bluefin Driftfish grows up to 2.6 feet in length.


    ARIOMMATIDS  (Family Ariommatidae)

  281. Silver-rag  ______  (FGCF:391)  (species descried in 1930) 
    Ariomma bondi

  282. Spotted Driftfish  ______  (FGCF:391)
    Ariomma regulus


    BUTTERFISHES  (Family Stromateidae)

  283. Gulf Butterfish  ______  (FGCF:393)
    Peprilus burti

    Juveniles of Peprilus burti associate with jellyfish and floating seaweeds.

  284. Butterfish  ______  (FGCF:393)
    Peprilus triacanthus

    Butterfish
    form large schools.

  285. Harvestfish  ______  (FGCF:393)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Peprilus alepidotus


    BOARFISHES  (Family Caproidae)

  286. Deepbody Boarfish  ______  (FGCF:393)
    Antigonia capros


    TILEFISHES  (Family Malacanthidae)

  287. Sand Tilefish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:275) (FGCF:237)
    Malacanthus plumieri

  288. Goldface Tilefish  ______  (FGCF:237)
    Cauoloatilus chrysops

    The Goldface Tilefish grows to 21 inches in length. 

  289. Blackline Tilefish  ______  (FGCF:237)
    Caulolatilus cyanops

  290. Anchor Tilefish  ______  (FGCF:237)  (species described in 1936)
    Caulolatius intermedius

    The Anchor Tilefish grows up to 12 inches in length.

  291. Blueline Tilefish  ______  (FGCF:237)
    Caulolatilus microps


    FLATFISHES

    LEFTEYE FLOUNDERS  (Family Bothidae)

  292. Peacock Flounder ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:385)  (FGCF:405)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Bothus lunatus

  293. Eyed Flounder  ______    (ATMF:386) (FGCF:407)
    Bothus ocellatus

  294. Twospot Flounder  ______  (FGCF:407)  (species described in 1972) 
    Bothus robinsi

  295. Gulf Flounder  ______  (ATMF:388)
    Paralichthys albigutta

  296. Gulf Stream Flounder  ______
    Citharichthys arctifons

  297. Fringed Flounder  ______
    Etropus crossotus

  298. Mexican Flounder  ______
    Cyclopsetta chittendeni

  299. Spotfin Flounder  ______
    Cyclopsetta fimbriata

  300. Deepwater Flounder  ______  (FGCF:407)
    Monolene sessilicauda

  301. Shoal Flounder  ______
    Syacium gunteri

  302. Dusky Flounder  ______
    Syacium papillosum


    AMERICAN SOLES  (Family Achiridae)

  303. Lined Sole  ______  (FGCF:409)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Achirus lineatus

  304. Hogchoker  ______  (ATMF:389) (FGCF:409)
    Trinectes maculatus

  305. Fringed Sole  ______  (FGCF:409)  (species described in 1936)
    Gymnachirus melas


    TONGUEFISHES  (Family Cynoglossidae)

  306. Offshore Tonguefish  ______  (FGCF:411)  (species described in 1951)
    Symphurus civitatus

  307. Spottedfin Tonguefish  ______  HN  (FGCF:411)
    Symphurus diomedianus

  308. Longtail Tonguefish  ______
    Symphurus minor

  309. Ocellated Tonguefish  ______  
    Symphurus ommopilus 

  310. Blackcheek Tonguefish ______  YP  HN  (FGCF:411)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766) 
    Symphurus plagiusa

  311. Spottail Tonguefish  ______  YP(west)  (FGCF:411)  (species described in 1951)
    Symphurus urospilus


    SURGEONS, TANGS  (Family Acanthuridae)

  312. Ocean Surgeonfish ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:326) (FGCF:373)
    Acanthurus bahianus

  313. Doctorfish  (ph)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:327) (FGCF:373)
    Acanthurus chirurgus



    Doctorfish

  314. Blue Tang  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:328) (FGCF:373)
    Acanthurus coeruleus  


    TRIGGERFISHES  (Family Balistidae)

  315. Gray Triggerfish  ______  HN  (FGCF:413)
    Balistes capriscus

  316. Queen Triggerfish  (or "Old Wife")  (*) ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:392) (FGCF:413) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Balistes vetula

    Unmistakable, the Queen Triggerfish is a mostly-yellow fish with a blue-striped head and long, trailing fin filaments. It has a special fondness for sea urchins. This fish is a reef dweller, but it also ventures into sand, seagrass, and rubble habitats. A good food fish, it's called "Turbot" in the West Indies due to its resemblance to the flatfish when skinned.



    A Queen Triggerfish in the reef off the coast of Belize
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)

  317. Rough Triggerfish  ______  HN  (FGCF:413)
    Canthidermis maculata 

  318. Ocean Triggerfish ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:395) (FGCF:413)
    Canthidermis sufflamen

  319. Sargassum Triggerfish  ______  (ATMF:394) (FGCF:415)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Xanthichthys vingens

  320. Black Durgeon ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:393) (FGCF:415)
    Melichthys niger


    FILEFISHES  (Family Monacanthidae)

  321. Dotterel Filefish  ______  (FGCF:415)
    Aluterus heudelotii

  322. Unicorn Filefish  ______  HN  (FGCF:415)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Aluterus monoceros

  323. Orange Filefish  ______  HN  (FGCF:415)  
    Aluterus schoepfi

  324. Scrawled Filefish ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:402) (FGCF:415)
    Aluterus scriptus



    A Scrawled Filefish among the coral in the reef off the coast of Belize
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet) 

  325. White-spotted Filefish  ______  HN  (ATMF:396) (FGCF:417)
    Cantherhines macrocerus

  326. Orange-spotted Filefish  ______  HN  (ATMF:397) (FGCF:417)
    Cantherhines pullus

  327. Fringed Filefish  ______  HN  (ATMF:398) (FGCF:417)
    Monacanthus ciliatus

  328. Slender Filefish  ______  (ATMF:399) (FGCF:417)
    Monacanthus tuckeri

  329. Planehead Filefish  ______  HN  (ATMF:400)  (FGCF:417)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766) 
    Stephanolepis hispidus

  330. Pygmy Filefish  ______  (ATMF:401) (FGCF:417)
    Stephanolopis setifer 



    BOXFISHES  (Family Ostraciidae)

  331. Honeycomb Cowfish  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:404) (FGCF:419)
    Acanthostracion polygonius  

    The Honeycomb Cowfish occurs primarily over coral reefs.

  332. Scrawled Cowfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:403) (FGCF:419)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Acanthostracion quadricornis

    The Scrawled Cowfish is found primarily over shallow seagrass beds. It feeds on soft corals, sponges, tunicates, and shrimps.

  333. Spotted Trunkfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:406) (FGCF:419)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Rhinesomus (formerly Lactophrys) bicaudalis

  334. Trunkfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:407) (FGCF:419)  (also called Buffalo Trunkfish)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Lactophrys trigonus

  335. Smooth Trunkfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:405) (FGCF:419)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Rhinesomus (formerly Lactophrys) triqueter


    COMBTOOTH BLENNIES  (Family Blenniidae)

  336. Redlip Blenny  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:342)
    Ophioblennius atlanticus

  337. Seaweed Blenny  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:343)
    Parablennius marmoreus

  338. Molly Miller  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:344) 
    Scartella cristata


    DRAGONETS  (Family Callionymidae)

  339. Lancer Dragonet  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:348)
    Paradiplogrammus bairdi


    GOBIES  (Family Gobiidae)            

  340. Frillfin Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:351) (FGCF:353)
    Bathygobius soporator

  341. Notchtongue Goby  ______  (FGCF:353)
    Bathygobius curacao

  342. Colon Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:352) (FGCF:355)  (species described in 1960)
    Coryphopterus dicrus

  343. Bridled Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:353) (FGCF:355)
    Coryphopterus glaucofraenum

  344. Kuna Goby  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (FGCF:357)  (species described in 2007)
    Coryphopterus kuna

  345. Peppermint Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:357)  (species described in 1962)
    Coryphopterus lipernes

  346. Masked Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:355) (FGCF:357)
    Coryphopterus personatus

  347. Darter Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:359)
    Ctenogobius
    (formerly Gobionellus) boleosoma

  348. Slashcheek Goby  ______  BZ  (FGCF:359)
    Ctenogobius pseudofasciatus 

  349. Cleaning Goby ______  BZ  YP
    Gobiosoma genie

  350. Yellowline Goby  ______  BZ  (FGCF:361)
    Elacatinus horsti

  351. Neon Goby  (ph)   ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:363) (FGCF:361)
    Elacatinus
    (formerly Gobiosoma) oceanops

    The Neon Goby grows to 2 inches in length.



    A Neon Goby swimming by Common Star Coral

  352. Leopard Goby  ______  BZ  (FGCF:361)
    Elacatinus saucrus

  353. Lyre Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:363)
    Evorthodus lyricus

  354. Goldspot Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:367) (FGCF:363)
    Gnatholepis thompsoni

  355. Violet Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:368) (FGCF:363)
    Gobioides broussonnetii

  356. Orange-spotted Goby  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:369)
    Nes longus

  357. Rusty Goby ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:371)   
    Priolepis (or Quisquilius) hipoliti

  358. Hovering Goby  ______  BZ  YP(east)  (ATMF:372)
    Ptereleotris helenae


    MORAY EELS  (Family Muraenidae)

  359. Chain Moray  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:68) (FGCF:99)
    Echidna catenata

  360. Viper Moray  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:69) (FGCF:99)  (other names are Mullato and Mottled Conger)
    Enchelycore nigricans

  361. Green Moray ______  BZ YP  (ATMF:71) (FGCF:99)
    Gymnothorax funebris 

    The coloring of the Green Moray is a result of yellow mucus overlying gray-blue skin. The species may be defensive or aggressive.

    The Green Moray grows to 6.2 feet in length.   

  362. Goldentail Moray  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:70) (FGCF:101)
    Gymnothorax miliaris

    The Goldentail Moray grows to 22 inches in length.

  363. Spotted Moray  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:72) (FGCF:101)
    Gymnothorax moringa

    The Spotted Moray grows to 3.3 feet in length. 

  364. Blackedge Moray  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:101)
    Gymnothorax nigromarginatus

  365. Purplemouth Moray  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:73) (FGCF:103)
    Gymnothorax vicinus

  366. Reticulate Moray  ______  YP  (FGCF:103)
    Muraena retifera

  367. Redface Eel  ______  Cozumel Is.
    Monopenchelys acuta 

  368. Broadbanded Moray  ______  YP
    Channomuraena vittata


    FALSE MORAYS  (Family Chlopsidae)

  369. Collared Eel  ______  YP(north) 
    Kaupichthys nuchalis

    Although the Collared Eel is common around coral reefs, it is seldom seen. Apparently it sometimes lives in tubular sponges, and it has been suggested that this is its primary habitat. Nothing is known of its life history.      

  370. Bicolor Eel  ______  YP
    Chlopsis bicolor

  371. Seagrass Eel  ______  BZ  YP
    Chilorhinus suensoni  


    SPAGHETTI  EELS  (Family Moringuidae) 

  372. Spaghetti Eel  ______  BZ  YP(east)
    Moringua edwardsi   


    WORM EELS & SNAKE EELS  (Family Ophichthidae)

  373. Spotted Spoon-nosed Eel  ______  YP  (FGCF:103)
    Echiophis intertinctus

  374. Speckled Worm Eel  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:103)
    Myrophis punctatus


    CONGOR EELS  (Family Congridae) 

  375. Brown Garden Eel  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:80)
    Heteroconger longissimus

    Brown Garden Eels live in dense colonies, which are spectacular sights for divers. The eels spend daylight hours partly our of their burrows, feeding on plankton and detritus drifting by. As the diver approaches, the eels slowly withdraw into burrows in the sand. 

  376. Margintail Eel  ______  YP
    Paraconger caudilimbatus


    SWAMP EELS  (Family Synbranchidae)

  377. Fatlips Swamp Eel  ______  BZ  YP
    Ophisternon aenigmaticum

    A specimen of swamp eel was taken in a soil sample of peat around mangrove roots at Twin Cays off Belize.  


    TENPOUNDERS  (Family Elopidae)

  378. Ladyfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:65) (FGCF:97)  (also called Tenpounder)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1766) 
    Elops saurus  


    TARPON  (Family Megalopidae)

  379. Tarpon  (*)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:66) (FGCF:97)
    Megalops atlantica 

    A number of 200-pound Tarpons have been taken by fishermen, but the record is an 8-foot giant that weighed 340 pounds. 


    BONEFISHES  (Family Albulidae)

  380. Bonefish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:67) (FGCF:97)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Albula vulpes


    SNOOK  (Family Centropomidae)

  381. Common Snook ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:142) (FGCF:197)
    Centropomus undecimalis
    Spanish name: Robalo

    Robalo, as it is called in Mexico, is found along the Yucatan coastline, where spawn and juveniles seek protection in the plentiful sea-grass beds there.
    It is fished year-round, but principal catches happen May to October.

    The Common Snook has a long, slender body, silvery-yellow skin, and a yellow tail with an unmistakable black lateral line. 
    The adult can grow to over 40 inches long, and live an average of 13.5 years.

    In addition to its value in sport fishing, the Common Snook is caught for its delicious meat, which is soft and mild-flavored with a low-to-medium oil content.
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)   

  382. Swordspine Snook  ______  BZ  (FGCF:195)
    Centropomus ensiferus

  383. Smallscale Fat Snook  ______  BZ  (FGCF:195)
    Centropomus parallelus

  384. Tarpon Snook  ______  BZ  (FGCF:195)
    Centropomus pectinatus

  385. Mexican Snook  ______  BZ  YP
    Centropomus poeyi 


    BARRACUDA  (Family Sphyraenidae)

  386. Great Barracuda  (ph) (*)  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:278) (FGCF:375)
    Sphyraena barracuda  

    The Great Barracuda occurs up to 10 feet in length, but is rare over 5 feet. Larger fish can carry ciguatera toxin. 

     


    MULLETS  (Family Mugilidae)

  387. Striped Mullet  ______  YP(west)  (ATMF:279) (FGCF:143)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Mugil cephalus  

    Mullets
    are dark blue-green on the top with some brown along the spine and silvery on the sides. Conspicuous stripes along both sides are formed by dark spots located at the base of the scales.
    Mullets range in size from 10 to 14 inches, and can reach 3 pounds.

    The Striped Mullet is a firm-textured, lean fish with both light and dark meat. It has a somewhat nutty flavor, making it a popular fish in many Yucatan markets.
    Particularly prized is the roe, which is salted and dried and used as a specialty food in Asia, in Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and in Italy.
    In Campeche, Mexico, the fish meat of mullet is consumed year-round, but during the primary spawning months of November and December, the roe is the favored delicacy and appears on the menus of restaurants. 
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling)      

  388. White Mullet ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:280) (FGCF:143)
    Mugil curema

  389. Mugil liza  ______  YP(north)

    While Mugil cephalus (above) can be found in many oceans of the world, Mugil liza has so far been discovered ranging only from the north coast of the Yucatan to northwestern Cuba.
    (from the book: "Yucatan, Recipes from a Culinary Expedition" by David Sterling) 


    PUFFERS  (Family Tetraodontidae)

  390. Sharpnose Puffer  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:408,409) (FGCF:421)
    Canthigaster rostrata

    The Sharpnose Puffer is a very common reef fish.

  391. Southern Puffer  ______  BZ  YP  (FGCF:423)
    Sphoeroides nephelus

  392. Least Puffer  ______  YP  (FGCF:423)
    Sphoeroides parvus

  393. Bandtail Puffer  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:411) (FGCF:423)
    Sphoeroides spengleri 

  394. Checkered Puffer  (ph) (*) ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:412) (FGCF:423)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Sphoeroides testudineus

    The Checkered Puffer is conspicuous in grass flats in very shallow water. No other puffer has the greenish color pattern. 



    Checkered Puffer
    (photo by Marie Gardner during the March 2009 FONT tour in the Yucatan of Mexico)

  395. Speckled Puffer  ______  BZ
    Sphoeroides yergeri


    PORCUPINEFISHES & BURRFISHES  (Family Diodontidae)

  396. Balloonfish  ______  BZ  YP  (ATMF:413) (FGCF:427)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Diodon holocanthus

  397. Porcupinefish ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:414) (FGCF:427)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Diodon hystrix

    The Porcupinefish commonly occurs in caves and holes in shallow reefs. It grows to 2.5 feet in length. 



    Above & below: Porcupinefish
    Above in a coral reef along the Caribbean coast of Central America
    (photo by Marie Grenouillet)  




  398. Bridled Burrfish  ______  HN   (FGCF:425)
    Chilomycterus antennatus

  399. Spotted Burrfish  ______  HN  (FGCF:425)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Chilomycterus reticulatus

  400. Striped Burrfish  ______  (FGCF:425)
    Chilomycterus schoepfii

  401. Pelagic Porcupinefish  ______  (FGCF:425)
    Diodon eydousii


    DOLPHIN FISHES  (Family Coryphaenidae)

  402. Pompano Dolphinfish  ______  HN  (FGCF:239)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Coryphaena equiselis

    The Pompano Dolphinfish grows to 2.5 feet in length. 

  403. Dolphinfish  (ph)  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:276) (FGCF:239)  (other names are Dorado and Mahi-mahi)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Coryphaena hippurus 

    The Dolphinfish grows to 6.5 feet in length. 



    Dolphinfish


    CUTLASSFISHES  (Family Trichiuridae)

  404. Atlantic Cutlassfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (FGCF:379)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Trichiurus lepturus

    The Atlantic Cutlassfish grows up to 4 feet in length.


    TUNAS & MACKERELS  (Family Scombridae)

  405. Bullet Mackerel  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:380) (FGCF:379)  (also called Bullet Tuna)
    Auxis rochei

    The Bull Mackerel grows up to 20 inches in length.

  406. Little Tunny  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:381) (FGCF:379)  (also called False Albacore)
    Euthynnus alletteratus  

    The Little Tunny grows up to 3.5 feet in length.

  407. Yellowfin Tuna  ______  YP(offshore) (ATMF:383) (FGCF:383)
    Thunnus albacares

    The Yellowfin Tuna grows up to 7.2 feet in length.

  408. Blackfin Tuna  ______  BZ  HN  YP(offshore)  (FGCF:383)
    Thunnus atlanticus

    The Blackfin Tuna grows up to 3.5 feet in length.

  409. Skipjack Tuna ______   YP(offshore)  (ATMF:382) (FGCF:381)  (described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Katsuwonus pelamis

    The Skipjack Tuna grows up to 3.8 feet in length.

  410. Spanish Mackerel  ______  YP(west)  (ATMF:378) (FGCF:383)
    Scomberomorus maculatus

    The Spanish Mackerel grows up to 2.8 feet in length.

  411. Cero  ______  YP  (ATMF:379) (FGCF:383)
    Scomberomorus regalis

    The Cero grows up to 3 feet in length.

  412. Wahoo  ______  BZ  HN  YP(offshore)  (ATMF:377) (FGCF:379)
    Acanthocybium solandri 

    The Wahoo grows up to 7.3 feet in length.


    SWORDFISH  (Family Xiphiidae)

  413. Swordfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP(offshore)  (FGCF:385)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Xiphias gladius

    The Swordfish grows up to 14.7 feet in length.


    BILLFISHES  (Family Istiophoridae)

  414. Atlantic Sailfish  ______  BZ  HN  YP(offshore)  (ATMF:375) (FGCF:385)
    Istiophorus platypterus (formerly albicans)

    The Atlantic Sailfish grows up to 11 feet in length.

  415. Atlantic White Marlin ______  HN   (FGCF:387)
    Kajikia
    (or Tetrapturus) albidus

    The Atlantic White Marlin grows up to 9 feet in length. 

  416. Atlantic Blue Marlin  ______  BZ  HN  YP  (ATMF:376) (FGCF:385)   
    Makaira nigricans 

    The Blue Marlin grows up to 14.7 feet in length. It can weigh as much as 1,400 pounds.


References include:

"Sea Life - A Complete Guide to the Marine Environment", edited by Geoffrey Waller, with principal contributors Marc Dando & Michael Burchett, 1996.  

"Fishes of the Atlantic Coast: Canada to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the Caribbean", by Gar Goodson, 1976.