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Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-888-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876


BIRDS
of the
Canary Islands


noting those
during Focus On Nature Tours 
with an (*)

thru 2014


during the months of June & July




A List of Birds of the Canary Islands compiled by Armas Hill.

UPPER RIGHT PHOTO: BULWER'S PETREL,
seen at sea from the ferry in the Canaries 




Spanish bird names follow English names in the first line.
Scientific names in the second line.


Codes:

Found during FONT tours on the islands of:

FV:   Fuerteventura
LG:   La Gomera 
LZ:    Lanzarote
TE:    Tenerife


(t): a globally threatened or rare species.
  (t1): critical
  (t2): endangered
  (t3): vulnerable
(nt): near-threatened species
(cd): conservation dependent species
(Ee): endangered in Europe
(Ev): vulnerable in Europe

(Er): rare in Europe
(Ed): has declined in Europe
(El): localized in Europe
All of above designations by Birdlife International.

(i): an introduced species in the Canaries

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website


Links:

Upcoming Birding & Nature Tours in Spain & the Canary Islands

Narrative of a Previous FONT Canary Islands Tour

A List & Photo Gallery of European Birds, in 2 parts

Birds of Spain during Previous FONT Tours

Mammals & Marine Life of the Canary Islands     Butterflies of the Canary Islands     

Amphibians & Reptiles of the Canary Islands
     Interesting Plants of the Canary Islands

Directory of Photos in this Website



Bird-List:

  1. Barbary Partridge  (Perdiz Moruna)  (Ee)  (*)  ______  LZ(*)
    Alectoris barbara koenigi

  2. Red-legged Partridge  ______
    Alectoris rufa

  3. Common Quail  ______
    Coturnix coturnix


  4. White-faced Whistling Duck  (ph)  ______
    Dendrocygna viduata

  5. Mute Swan  (ph)  ______
    Cygnus olor

  6. Pink-footed Goose (ph)  ______
    Anser brachyrhynchus

  7. Greater White-fronted Goose  ______
    Anser albifrons

  8. Greylag Goose  (ph)  ______
    Anser anser

  9. Barnacle Goose  (ph)  ______
    Branta leucopsis

  10. Brant (or Brent Goose(ph)  ______
    Branta bernicla 

  11. Ruddy Shelduck  (Ev)  (*)  ______  FV(*)
    Tadorna ferruginea

  12. Common Shelduck  ______
    Tadorna tadorna

  13. Wood Duck  (ph)  ______
    Aix sponsa

  14. Eurasian Wigeon  (ph)  ______
    Anas penelope

  15. American Wigeon  (ph)  ______  
    Anas americana

  16. Gadwall  (ph)  ______
    Anas strepera

  17. Eurasian Teal  ______
    Anas crecca

  18. Green-winged Teal  (ph)  ______
    Anas carolinensis

  19. Mallard  (ph)  ______
    Anas platyrhynchos

  20. American Black Duck  (ph)  ______
    Anas rubripes

  21. Northern Pintail  (ph)  ______
    Anas acuta

  22. Garganey  ______
    Anas querquedula

  23. Blue-winged Teal  (ph)  ______
    Anas discors

  24. Northern Shoveler  (ph)  ______
    Anas clypeata

  25. Marbled Duck  (or Marbled Teal)  ______
    Marmaronetta angustirostris

  26. Common Pochard  (ph)  ______
    Aythya ferina

  27. Ring-necked Duck  (ph)  ______
    Aythya collaris

  28. Ferruginous Duck  ______
    Aythya nyroca

  29. Tufted Duck  ______
    Aythya fuligula

  30. Greater Scaup  ______
    Aythya marila

  31. Lesser Scaup  (ph)  ______
    Aythya affinis

  32. Long-tailed Duck  (ph)  ______
    Clangula hyemalis

  33. Common Scoter  ______
    Melanitta nigra

  34. Bufflehead  (ph)  ______
    Bucephala albeola

  35. Smew  ______
    Mergellus albellus

  36. Hooded Merganser  (ph)  ______
    Mergus cucullatus

  37. Red-breasted Merganser  (ph)  ______  
    Mergus serrator


  38. Red-throated Diver (or Loon (ph)  ______  FV  TE
    Gavia stellata 

  39. Black-throated Diver (or Arctic Loon)  ______  TE
    Gavia arctica

  40. Great Northern Diver (or Common Loon ______  TE
    Gavia immer  

  41. Northern Fulmar  (ph)  ______  TE
    Fulmarus glacialis 

  42. Fea's Petrel  (ph)  ______  LG   LP  TE
    Pterodroma feae   


  43. Cory's Shearwater  (Pardela Cenicienta)  (Ev)  (*) ______ ferry FV-LZ(*), TE(*), ferry TE-LG(*)
    Calonectris diomedea borealis  

    The Cory's Shearwater is the most abundant shearwater of the Canary Islands. It is migratory, arriving in February, and leaving October/November. Seen at sea or from coasts.  

  44. Cape Verde Shearwater  ______
    Calonectris edwardsii

  45. Macaronesian Shearwater  (Pardela Chica)  (Ev)  (*)  ______  TE(*), ferry TE-LG(*)   (was included in the former, more wide-ranging Little Shearwater; now said to be more closely related to the Audubon's Shearwater. There is a race of the Audubon's Shearwater in the eastern Atlantic, breeding on Cape Verde Island. With new taxonomy, the Little Shearwater now has a range restricted to the Indian and southwestern Pacific Oceans, near Australia & New Zealand.) 
    Puffinus baroli 
    (monotypic)

    The population of the Macaronesian Shearwater in the Canaries probably does not exceed 400 pairs. It nests in isolated caves and crevices of coastal cliffs on Tenerife.
    Nesting, throughout the Canaries, is in small, loose colonies. The breeding season, throughout the islands, seems to vary: from February to late May on Tenerife and Graciosa; from March/April thru June on Montana Clara.
    The species is not commonly observedc at sea, but there have been reports of "many" off Garachico in May, and off the east coast of La Gomera in June.  

  46. Great Shearwater  (ph)  ______
    Puffinus gravis

  47. Sooty Shearwater  (ph)  ______
    Puffinus griseus

  48. Balearic Shearwater  ______
    Puffinus mauretanicus

  49. Manx Shearwater  ______
    Puffinus puffinus

  50. Bulwer's Petrel  (Petrel de Bulwer)  (Ev) (ph) (*) ______ LZ(*), ferry TE-LG(*)
    Bulweria b. bulwerii

    The most significant colony of the Bulwer's Petrel in the Canaries, containing about 300 pairs, is on Roques de Anaga, off Tenerife. The species also breeds on the islands of La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro, and on islets by northern Lanzarote. The breeding season is from May thru August/September. Birds by the colonies can be difficult to detect as they generally do not concentrate there before darkness. 

  51. Wilson's Storm Petrel  (ph)  ______
    Oceanites oceanicus

  52. White-faced Storm Petrel  (ph)  ______
    Pelagodroma marina

  53. European Storm Petrel  ______
    Hydrobates pelagicus

  54. Leach's Storm Petrel  ______
    Oceanodroma leucorhoa

  55. Band-rumped (or Madeiran) Storm Petrel  ______
    Oceanodroma castro  

  56. Pied-billed Grebe  (ph)  ______  TE
    Podilymbus podiceps

  57. Little Grebe  (ph)  ______  TE
    Tachybaptus ruficollis

  58. Great Crested Grebe  ______  GC
    Podiceps cristatus

  59. Black-necked (or Eared) Grebe  (ph)  ______  
    Podiceps nigricollis

  60. Grey Heron  (Garza Real)  (*)  ______  TE(*)
    Ardea c. cinerea

    Apparently non-breeding Grey Herons occur in the Canaries throughout the year. 

  61. Western Cattle Egret  (Garcilla Bueyera)  (ph) (*) ______ LZ(*)
    Bubulcus ibis

  62. Great Bittern  ______  FV  GC  LP  LZ  TE  
    Botaurus stellaris


  63. American Bittern  (ph)  ______  TE
    Botaurus lentiginosus

  64. Little Bittern  ______  
    Ixobrychus minutus

  65. Dwarf Bittern  ______
    Ardeirallus sturmii

  66. Black-crowned Night Heron  ______
    Nycticorax nycticorax
     

  67. Squacco Heron  ______
    Ardeola ralloides

  68. Western Reef Heron  ______
    Egretta gularis

  69. Little Egret  (ph)  ______
    Egretta garzetta

  70. Great Egret (or Great White Heron) (ph)  ______ 
    Ardea alba

  71. Great Blue Heron  ______
    Ardea herodius

  72. Purple Heron  ______
    Ardea purpurea  

  73. Glossy Ibis  (ph)  ______    
    Plegadis falcinellus

  74. Sacred Ibis  ______
    Threskiornis acthiopicus


  75. Eurasian Spoonbill  (Espatula)  (Ee) (ph) (*) ______  TE(*)
    Platalea l. leucorodia

    The Eurasian Spoonbill is an infrequent visitor to the Canaries. We've seen it, during FONT tours, at a small body of water in southern Tenerife.  

  76. Black Stork  (ph)  ______
    Ciconia nigra

  77. White Stork  (ph)  ______
    Ciconia ciconia

  78. Greater Flamingo  (ph)  ______
    Phoenicopterus minor

  79. Lesser Flamingo  ______
    Phoenicopterus minor

  80. Red-billed Tropicbird  (ph)  ______  FV  LG
    Phaethon aethereus

  81. "Frigatebird" species  ______  TE
    Fregata sp.

  82. Pink-backed Pelican  ______  TE
    Pelecanus rufescens

  83. Northern Gannet  (Alcatraz Comun)  (ph) (*)  ______  TE(*)
    Morus
    (formerly Sula) bassena

  84. Brown Booby  (ph)  ______  TE
    Sula leucogaster

  85. Great Cormorant  ______  EH  FV  GC  LZ  TE
    Phalacrocorax carbo

  86. European Shag  (ph)  ______  GC
    Leucocarbo aristotelis  

  87. Honey Buzzard  ______
    Pernis apivorus

  88. Swallow-tailed Kite  (ph)  ______
    Elanoides forficatus

  89. Black-shouldered Kite  ______
    Elanus caeruleus

  90. Black Kite  ______
    Milvus migrans

  91. Red Kite  (ph)  ______
    Milvus milvus

  92. White-tailed Eagle  (ph)  ______
    Haliaeetus albicilla    

  93. Osprey  (Aguila Pescadora)  (ph) (*)  ______  LZ(*)
    Pandion h. haliaetus

  94. Egyptian Vulture  (Alimoche)  (Ee)  (*)  ______ FV(*)
    Neophron p. percnopterus

    The Egyptian Vulture, or "Alimoche" has declined considerably in the Canaries in recent years, during which time it has disappeared from La Gomera, Tenerife, and Gran Canaria. The decrease of the population may be attributed to the general reduction of livestock (and therefore dead livestock), and an increased use of pesticides. the species can be found on Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, and the islwts of Alegranza and Montana Clara. Outside the breeding season, the birds leave the Canaries for Africa.   

  95. Short-toed (Snake) Eagle  ______
    Ciraetus gallicus

  96. Western Marsh Harrier  ______
    Circus aeruginosus

  97. Hen Harrier  ______
    Circus cyaneus

  98. Pallid Harrier  ______
    Circus macrourus

  99. Montagu's Harrier  ______
    Circus pygargus 

  100. Eurasian Sparrowhawk  (Gavilan) (*)  ______ TE(*)
    Accipiter nisus granti  (in Canary Islands, an endemic subspecies) 

    The Eurasian Sparrowhawk is a scarce inhabitant of the Canaries, in laurel forests and pine woods of Tenerife, La Palma, La Gomera, and El Hierro.

  101. Northern Goshawk  ______
    Accipiter gentilis

  102. Common Buzzard  (Ratonero Comun)  (ph) (*)  ______  FV(*)  TE(*)
    Buteo buteo insularum  (in Canary Islands, an endemic subspecies)

    The Common Buzzard is the second most common raptor on the Canaries (after the Kestrel). It is a year-round resident. Its population in the islands probably does not exceed 400 pairs. Found on all islands except Lanzarote. 

  103. Long-legged Buzzard  ______
    Buteo rufinus

  104. Golden Eagle  ______
    Aquila chrysaetos

  105. Booted Eagle  ______
    Aquila pennata

  106. Bonelli's Eagle  ______
    Aquila fasciata

  107. Barbary Falcon  (Halcon de Berberia)  (Er)  (*) ______ TE(*)
    Falco p. pelegrinoides

    The Barbary Falcon is the rarest bird of prey in the Canaries, with only about a half dozen pairs. Inhabits coastal cliffs, where it feeds on Rock Doves. Occurs (or has occurred) on Tenerife, La Gomera, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, and its adjacent islets. Watching these birds flying so quickly by the cliffs, above the sea, has been a thrill for us during all of our FONT tours in the Canaries!  

  108. Eleonora's Falcon  (Falcon de Eleonora)  (Er) (ph) (*)  ______  LZ(*)  TE(*)
    Falco eleonorae  (monotypic)

  109. Eurasian Kestrel  (Cernicalo vulgar (Ed)  (*)  ______  LZ(*)  TE(*)
    Falco tinnunculus canariensis  (in western Canary Is., endemic)
    Falco tinnunculus dacotiae 
    (in eastern Canary Is. inc. Fuerteventura, endemic)


  110. Lesser Kestrel  ______
    Falco naumanni

  111. Red-footed Falcon  ______
    Falco vespertinus

  112. Merlin  (ph)  ______
    Falco columbarius

  113. Eurasian Hobby  ______
    Falco subbuteo

  114. Peregrine Falcon  (ph)  ______
    Falco peregrinus

  115. Water Rail  ______
    Rallus aquaticus

  116. Spotted Crake  (ph)  ______
    Porzana porzana

  117. Little Crake  ______
    Porzana parva

  118. Baillon's Crake  ______
    Porzana pusilla

  119. African Crake  ______
    Crex egregia

  120. Corn Crake  (ph)  ______
    Crex crex

  121. Common Moorhen  ______
    Gallinula chloropus

  122. Lesser Moorhen  ______
    Gallinula angulata

  123. Allen's Gallinule  ______
    Porphyrula alleni

  124. (American) Purple Gallinule  (ph)  ______
    Porphyrula martinica

  125. Eurasian Coot  (Focha Comun)  (*)  ______ TE(*)
    Fulica a. atra

    The Eurasian Coot is more common in the Canaries in the winter, but it can be found throughout the year on ponds and artificial (even very small) bodies of water. Nesting has recently been confirmed on Tenerife and Gran Canaria.

  126. Red-knobbed (or Crested) Coot  ______
    Fulica cristata

  127. Common Crane  (ph)  ______
    Grus grus

  128. Houbara Bustard  (Hubara)  (nt) (Ee)  (*)  ______  FV(*)  LZ(*)
    Chamydotis undulata fuertaventurae 
    (an endemic subspecies on a single island in the Canaries; the other subspecies in North Africa) (The MacQueen's Bustard of southern Asia was formerly considered conspecific.)

    An endemic, distinctive subspecies of the Houbara Bustard has been seen during our tours in the Canaries. The bird occurs on dry, eastern Canarian islands, in arid desert and stony plain habitats. Its population is estimated at 200-300 birds on Fuerteventura and 15-20 on Lanzarote. During recent years, on both islands, is numbers have declined. It was recorded, in the past, on Gran Canaria.

    The Houbara Bustard in the Canary Islands are slightly smaller than those of the North African race (C. u. undulata), with upperparts much darker and dark areas of the wings blacker.
    Throughout its entire range, the species has declined over the years.

    It was as early as 1402 that Houbara Bustards were known to be on Fuerteventura. At that time, it's said that the island was not as arid as it is today. Therefore it's possible that bustard-habitat on Fuerteventura (although limited on the island) may have increased since that time, about 600 years ago.

    The preferred habitats of the Houbara Bustard on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote are arid gravelly plains and areas with low sand dunes where shrubby vegetation can provide cover and food.

    Throughout its known history on Fuerteventura, the shy Houbara Bustard has suffered under various pressures. 
    It was written in 1905 that during a single season over a hundred bustard eggs were purchased (representing at least 35 nests).
    In 1963, the most-eminent ornithologist of the Canaries, Mr. D. A. Bannerman, considered the bird to be nearly extinct on the islands.
    Recently, there have been some positive factors: the decrease in human rural population and an improved protection of both the bird and its areas of occurrence. 
    On Fuerteventura, it occurs throughout approximately 34,000 hectares in the north, and 4,500 hectares in the south (particularly in the region if the Jandia isthmus).

    Male Houbara Bustards defend display areas on territories usually about 500 to 1,000 meters apart. Both sexes tend to be solitary in the breeding season, meeting only to mate. In the Canaries, eggs are laid from January (rarely December) to April. The fledgling period is about 35 days. The young are said to stay with adult females until at least autumn. Males are probably polygamous, taking no part in the rearing of the young. Males, however, do have a dramatic display behavior, that's quite the sight for those lucky to observe it

  129. Little Bustard  ______
    Tetrax tetrax  

  130. Eurasian Oystercatcher  (Ostero)  (*)  ______  LZ(*)
    Haematopus o. ostralegus

  131. Canary Islands Black Oystercatcher  ______  (extinct)
    Haematopus meadewaldoi 

  132. Black-winged Stilt  (Giguenuela)  (*)  ______  FV(*)  LZ(*)
    Himantopus h. himantopus

  133. Pied Avocet  ______
    Recurvirostra avosetta


  134. Little Ringed Plover  (Chorlitejo Chico)  (*)  ______  TE
    Charadrius dubius curonicus

    A small population of the Little Ringed Plover nests in the Canaries on the islands of Fuerteventura, Tenerife, and Gran Canaria.

  135. Kentish Plover  (Chorlitejo Patinegro)  (*)  ______  LZ
    Charadrius a. alexandrinus

  136. Common Ringed Plover  ______
    Charadrius hiaticula

  137. Killdeer  (ph)  ______
    Charadrius vociferus

  138. Lesser Sand Plover  (ph)  ______  (has been called Mongolian Plover)
    Charadrius mongolus

  139. Eurasian Dotterel  (ph)  ______
    Charadrius morinellus

  140. American Golden Plover  (ph)  ______
    Pluvialis dominica

  141. Pacific Golden Plover  ______
    Pluvialis fulva 

  142. European Golden Plover  (ph)  ______
    Pluvialis apricaria

  143. Grey (or Black-bellied) Plover  (ph)  ______
    Pluvialis squatarola

  144. Sociable Lapwing (or Plover ______
    Vanellus gregarius

  145. White-tailed Lapwing (or Plover)  (ph)  ______
    Vanellus leucurus

  146. Northern Lapwing  (ph)  ______
    Vanellus vanellus  


  147. Egyptian Plover  ______
    Pluvianus aegyptius

  148. Eurasian Stone Curlew  (Alcaravan)  (Ev)  (*) ______ FV,LZ,TE
    Burhinus oedicnemus distinctus  (on the western Canaries)
    Burhinus oedicnemus insularum 
    (on the eastern Canaries) 
    (these 2 subspecies are endemic to the Canary Islands) 

    Two subspecies of the Eurasian Stone Curlew occur in the Canary Islands:
    B. o. distinctus on the western Canary Islands of Tenerife, Gran Canaria, La Palma, El Hierro (and possibly La Gomera), and B. o. insularum on the eastern Canary Islands of Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, and adjacent islets.
    The bird is found mainly on dry open terrain. It tends to be most active, and vocal, at dusk and after dark..    

  149. Cream-colored Courser  (Corredor)  (Ev)  (*)  ______  FV
    Cursorius cursor bannermani 
    (this subspecies of the Canary Islands now said to be merged into the widespread Cursorius c. cursor)

    The Cream-colored Courser occurs mostly in Africa, but there is a population in the Canary Islands. The species occurs in dry habitats across northern Africa, from Morocco east, and beyond, further east, in Arabia and northwest India. Birds in eastern and southern Africa have been said to be this same species, but now that population is considered as another species called Burchell's Courser.

    In the Canaries, the Cream-colored Courser occurs on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote in desert and semi-desert areas. It is relatively common only on Fuerteventura. There have been sightings, rarely, on Tenerife - on that island probably only as a migrant, or an "overshooter". Sometimes the bird does the same ("overshoots its range") into Europe.     

  150. Collared Pratincole  ______
    Glareola pratincola

  151. Black-tailed Godwit  ______
    Limosa limosa

  152. Bar-tailed Godwit  (ph)  ______
    Limosa lapponica

  153. Whimbrel  (ph)  ______
    Numenius phaeopus

  154. Eurasian Curlew  ______
    Numenius arquata

  155. Slender-billed Curlew  (t1)  ______
    Numenius tenuirostris

  156. Upland Sandpiper  ______
    Bartramia longicauda

  157. Spotted Redshank  ______
    Tringa erythropus

  158. Common Redshank  (ph)  ______
    Tringa totanus

  159. Marsh Sandpiper  ______
    Tringa stagnatilis

  160. Common Greenshank  ______
    Tringa nebularia

  161. Greater Yellowlegs  ______
    Tringa melanoleuca

  162. Lesser Yellowlegs  (ph)  ______
    Tringa flavipes

  163. Solitary Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Tringa solitaria

  164. Green Sandpiper  ______
    Tringa ochropus

  165. Wood Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Tringa glareola

  166. Terek Sandpiper  ______
    Xenus cinereus

  167. Common Sandpiper  ______
    Actitis hypoleucos

  168. Spotted Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Actitis macularius

  169. Ruddy Turnstone  (ph)  ______
    Arenaria interpres  

  170. Red Knot  (ph)  ______
    Calidris canutus

  171. Sanderling  (ph)   ______
    Calidris alba

  172. Semipalmated Sandpiper  ______
    Calidris pusilla

  173. Western Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris mauri

  174. Little Stint  ______
    Calidris minuta

  175. Temminck's Stint  ______
    Calidris temminckii

  176. Least Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris minutilla

  177. White-rumped Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris fuscicollis

  178. Baird's Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris bairdii

  179. Pectoral Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris melanotos

  180. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris acuminata

  181. Curlew Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris feruginea

  182. Dunlin  (ph)  ______
    Calidris alpina

  183. Purple Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Calidris himantopus

  184. Buff-breasted Sandpiper  (ph)  ______
    Tryngites subrificollis

  185. Ruff / Reeve  (ph)  ______
    Philomachus pugnax

  186. Jack Snipe  ______
    Lymnocryptes minimus

  187. Common Snipe  ______
    Gallinago gallinago

  188. Wilson's Snipe  (ph)  ______
    Gallinago delicata

  189. Great Snipe  ______
    Gallinago media

  190. Long-billed Dowitcher  ______
    Limnodromus scolopaceus

  191. Eurasian Woodcock  ______
    Scolopax rusticola   

  192. Wilson's Phalarope  ______
    Phalaropus tricolor

  193. Red-necked Phalarope  (ph)  ______
    Phalaropus lobatus

  194. Yellow-legged Gull  (Gaviota patiamarilla)  (ph) (*)  ______  FV,LZ,TE, ferry TE-LG
    Larus michahellis atlantis  (subspecies in the Canary Islands) 

    The Yellow-legged Gull is a very common and obvious bird in the Canaries. As with many species of gulls, there's been a dramatic population increase in recent years. It occurs on all Canarian islands, and generally nests on coastal cliffs and islets. 

  195. Pallas' Gull  ______
    Ichthyaetus
    (formerly Larus) ichthyatus

  196. Mediterranean Gull  ______
    Chroicocephalus
    (formerly Larus) melanocephalus

  197. Laughing Gull  (ph)  ______
    Leucophaeus
    (formerly Larus) atricilla

  198. Franklin's Gull  (ph)  ______
    Leucophaeus
    (formerly Larus) pipixcan

  199. Little Gull  (ph)  ______
    Hydrocoloeus
    (formerly Larus) minutus

  200. Bonaparte's Gull  (ph)  ______
    Chroicocephalus
    (formerly Larus) philadelphia

  201. Black-headed Gull  (ph)  ______
    Chroicocephalus
    (formerly Larus) ridibundus

  202. Slender-billed Gull  ______
    Chroicocephalus
    (formerly Larus) genei

  203. Audouin's Gull  ______
    Larus audouinii

  204. Ring-billed Gull  ______
    Larus delawarenis

  205. Common (or Mew) Gull  ______
    Larus canus

  206. Lesser Black-backed Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus fuscus

  207. Herring Gull  ______
    Larus argentatus

  208. Iceland Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus glaucoides

  209. Glaucous Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus hyperboreus

  210. Glaucous-winged Gull  ______
    Larus glaucescens

  211. Great Black-backed Gull  (ph)  ______
    Larus marinus

  212. Black-legged Kittiwake  (ph)  ______
    Rissa tridactyla

  213. Gull-billed Tern  ______
    Gelochelidon nilotica

  214. Caspian Tern  (ph)  ______
    Hydroprogne caspia

  215. Royal Tern  (ph)  ______
    Thalasseus
    (formerly Sterna) maxima

  216. Lesser Crested Tern  ______
    Thalasseus
    (formerly Sterna) bengalensis

  217. Sandwich Tern  (ph)  ______ 
    Thalasseus (formerly Sterna) sandvicensis

  218. Roseate Tern  (ph)  ______
    Sterna dougallii

  219. Common Tern  ______
    Sterna hirundo

  220. Arctic Tern  ______
    Sterna paradisaea

  221. Forster's Tern  (ph)  ______
    Sterna forsteri

  222. Little Tern  ______
    Sternula albifrons

  223. Sooty Tern  (ph)  ______
    Onychoprion fuscata

  224. Whiskered Tern  ______
    Chlidonias hybrida

  225. Black Tern  (ph)  ______
    Chlidonias niger

  226. White-winged Tern  (ph)  ______
    Chlidonias leucopterus

  227. South Polar Skua  (Pagalo Grande)  (ph) (*)  ______  ferry  TE-LG
    Stercorarius
    (formerly Catharacta) maccormicki  (monotypic)

    We've seen the South Polar Skua (one bird) from the ferry off the south coast of Tenerife, during a FONT tour in the month of July. The Great Skua occurs in Canarian waters during the winter months.  

  228. Great Skua  (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius (formerly Catharacta) skua

  229. Pomarine Skua (or Jaeger)  (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius pomarinus

  230. Arctic Skua  (or Parasitic Jaeger) (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius parasiticus

  231. Long-tailed Skua (or Jaeger) (ph)  ______
    Stercorarius longicaudus

  232. Common Murre  (ph)  ______  (in Europe called Common Guillemot)
    Uria aalge

  233. Razorbill  (ph)  ______
    Alca torda

  234. Dovekie  ______  (in Europe called Little Auk)
    Alle alle

  235. Atlantic Puffin  (ph)  ______
    Fratercula arctica 

  236. Black-bellied Sandgrouse  (Ortega)  (Ev)  (*)  ______ 
    Pterocles orientalis aragonica

    In the Canaries, the Black-bellied Sandgrouse is only on the desert plains of Fuerteventura.

  237. Pin-tailed Sandgrouse  ______
    Pterocles alchata

  238. Rock Pigeon  (Paloma Livia)  (*)  ______ FV,LZ,TE
    Columba l. canariensis   (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

    Not all the Rock Pigeons in the Canaries are feral pigeons. A number of them are "wild" birds, an endemic subspecies. In total, there are 14 subspecies throughout the bird's wild range, in western Europe, the Macaronesian islands of the Atlantic, parts of Africa, and parts of Asia.
    In the Canaries, native Rock Doves breed on coastal cliffs and the walls of gorges. 

  239. Feral Pigeon  (Paloma Livia)  (*)  ______  FV,LZ,TE
    Columba livia
     

  240. Eurasian Collared Dove  (Tortola Turca)  (*)  ______  FV,LZ,TE
    Streptopelia d. decaocto

    The Eurasian Collared Dove is a recent arrival (apparently on its own) in the Canaries. The bird has, during recent decades, made a westward spread across Europe from the east. 

  241. African Collared Dove  (Tortola de Cabeza Rosa)  (*)  ______  FV,LZ
    Streptopelia roseogrosea
       

  242. European Turtle Dove  (Tortola Comun)  (Ed) (*)  ______  FV,LZ,TE
    Streptopelia t. turtur

    European Turtle Doves
    in the Canaries are breeders, present only in the summer. They spend the winter in Africa, after departing the Canaries during October and November. When present, the species occurs throughout the Canarian archipelago.     

  243. Laughing Dove  ______  (also called Palm Dove)
    Streptopelia senegalensis 

  244. Bolle's Pigeon  (Paloma Turque)  (nt) (Ev)  (*)  ______  TE  (has also been called Dark-tailed Laurel Pigeon) (endemic to the western Canary Islands: Tenerife, Gomera, & La Palma)
    Columba bolli 
    (monotypic)

    The Bolle's Pigeon, like the Laurel Pigeon also in the Canaries (and the Long-toed Pigeon of the Madeira Islands), is an interesting endemism. 
    This pigeon, and the other two, are restricted to laurel forests, and considered relics of the Tertiary Period (that is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era, which is the beginning of the Age of Mammals, following the Mesozoic Era, the Age of Reptiles). 

    The Bolle's Pigeon is in the laurel forests of Tenerife, La Gomera, and La Palma. There is also a small population on El Hierro, but nesting has not yet been confirmed there. Formerly, the bird was on Gran Canaria, but it disappeared on that island as the laurel forest did.

    The population of the Bolle's Pigeon has recently been estimated as approximately 1,700 individuals. However, in actuality, the true population size is not really well known. There was a study of the numbers in the early 1980s, when it was thought that 350 to 400 birds existed on Tenerife (mostly in the Anaga Mountains), and that 550 to 600 birds were on La Gomera, and 250 to 300 on La Palma. The sum of those estimates, by island, is somewhat less than the supposed 1,700. That figure came about, at least partly, from a recent survey determining that 1,000 individuals are in the Garrajonay National Park on La Gomera.
    The range on the islands, and the population, have been reduced substantially since the 19th Century - for example, on Tenerife, to about 35 to 40 per cent of the original range. The species is now considered globally threatened.

    The Bolle's Pigeon, as would be expected, is frugivorous, eating fruits of laurel forest trees. The breeding season is long. Occupied nests have been found in nearly every month of the year. The clutch is invariably one egg only.      

  245. Laurel Pigeon  (Paloma Rabiche)  (t3) (Ev)  (*)  ______  TE  (has been called White-tailed Laurel Pigeon) (endemic to the western Canary Islands: Tenerife, Gomera, & La Palma) 
    Columba junoniae 
    (monotypic)

    As is the Bolle's Pigeon, the Laurel Pigeon is a relic of the Tertiary Period, that is endemic to the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, and la Palma), and restricted to laurel forests. 

    It is slightly more rare than the Bolle's Pigeon (although both are considered globally threatened by Birdlife International). 
    The Laurel Pigeon most typically occurs in areas of mature laurel forest with rocky gorges, steep slopes, and large escarpments.

    The population of the Laurel Pigeon has been estimated as ranging from 1,200 to 1,500 birds. Most of these (1,000 to 1,200) are on La Palma, with 120 to 160 in central La Gomera, and 80 to 120 on Tenerife. Some of these figures, however, may need revision, particularly relating to Tenerife, where the species was not recorded until the beginning of the 1970s. (Was it overlooked there?) (We've seen both the Laurel Pigeon and the Bolle's Pigeon during FONT tours on Tenerife.)

    There was a substantial reduction of laurel forest in the Canary Islands during the last 500 years. The population of the Laurel Pigeon, after a major decline, appears, however, to have been stable during the period from 1970 to 1990. It must be stated, though, that there's insufficient quantitative data to confirm this.

    The nest of the Laurel Pigeon is on the ground (on the negative side, enabling predation by rats and cats). But on the positive side, the nests are usually either on ledges or crevices (sometimes quite hard to reach), or beneath trunks or stones in the interior of the forest.
    The diet, in addition to fruit, includes buds and flower shoots of the laurel forest trees.
    A certain threat to the species, in addition to habitat destruction, over the years, has been hunting.
              
  246. Woodpigeon  ______
    Columba palumbus

  247. Monk Parakeet (i)  (*) ______  
    Myiopsitta monachus cotorra

    The Monk Parakeet is native to South America (Argentina & southern Brazil).

  248. Rose-ringed (or Ring-necked) Parakeet  ______
    Psittacula krameri

  249. Senegal Parrot  ______
    Poicephalus senegalus

  250. Great Spotted Cuckoo  ______
    Clamator glandarius

  251. Common Cuckoo  ______
    Cuculus canorus

  252. Barn Owl  (Lechuza Comun)  (Ed) (ph) (*)  ______  LZ,TE
    Tyto a. alba 
    (in Spain & western Canary Is.)
    Tyto alba gracilirostris
    , (in the eastern Canary Islands) 

    The subspecies of the Barn Owl that occurs on the western islands of the Canaries (Tenerife, Gran Canaria, and El Hierro) is the same as in Europe, T. a. alba.
    In the eastern islands (Fuerteventura, Lanzarote, and islets), a darker subspecies occurs, T. a. gracilirostris, which is endemic to those islands of the Canaries.
    The species is scarce on Gran Canaria and El Hierro. It is not common on Tenerife, but not as rare as it is on the two (other western) islands just mentioned. On Tenerife, the Barn Owl is not as common as the Long-eared Owl

  253. European Scops Owl  ______
    Otus scops

  254. Tawny Owl  ______
    Strix aluco

  255. Northern Long-eared Owl  (ph)  ______
    Asio otus

  256. Short-eared Owl  (ph)  ______
    Asio flammeus

  257. Marsh Owl  ______
    Asio capensis

  258. European Nightjar  ______
    Caprimulgus europacus

  259. Red-necked Nightjar  ______
    Caprimulgus ruficollis

  260. Common Nighthawk  ______
    Chordeiles minor 

  261. Common Swift  (Vencejo Comun) (*)  ______  LZ
    Apus a. apus 

  262. Pallid Swift  (Vencejo Palido)  (*) _______  TE  
    Apus pallidus brehmorum 
    (in Spain & Canary Is.)

    The Pallid Swift has not been well known on the Canaries. Some breed in lower zones throughout the islands. Apparently, Pallid Swifts leave the islands after breeding. 
    The subspecies in the Canaries also occurs in southwestern Europe and the Sahara.  

  263. Plain Swift  (Vencejo Unicolor)  (*)  ______  TE  (a Macaronesian endemic breeder)
    Apus unicolor 
    (monotypic)

    The Plain, or Unicolored, Swift is a species that's endemic (as a nester) to the Canary and Madiera Islands. 
    Flocks of these "andorinas", as they're locally called, are a common sight on the islands. They nest on cliffs and buildings.
    Most leave the islands after breeding. (They have been found in winter along the coast of Morocco.) Some stay throughout the year in the Canaries.   

  264. Alpine Swift  ______
    Apus melba

  265. Little Swift  ______
    Apus affinis

  266. White-rumped Swift  ______
    Apus caffer

  267. Common Kingfisher  (ph)  ______
    Alcedo atthis

  268. Blue-cheeked Bee-eater  ______
    Merops persicus

  269. European Bee-eater  (ph)  ______
    Merops apiaster

  270. European Roller  ______
    Coracias garrulus

  271. Eurasian Hoopoe  (Abubilla)  (*)  ______  FV,LZ
    Upupa e. epops

  272. Great Spotted Woodpecker  (Pico Picapinos)  (*)  ______  TE
    Dendrocopos major canariensis 
    (1 of 2 endemic subspecies in the Canary Islands)   

  273. Eurasian Wryneck  ______
    Jynx torquilla

  274. Lesser Short-toed Lark  (Terrera Marismena)  (Ev)  (*) ______ FV,TE
    Calandrella rufescens polatzeki  (in Canary Is., endemic)

    The Lesser Short-toed Lark is common only on the dry islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, where the subspecies is endemic.
    On Tenerife, however, there appears to be two subspecies: the aforementioned in dry habitat, and C. r. rufescens in moist habitat. On that island (Tenerife), the two subspecies do not occur together - one northerly (where humid), and one southerly (where dry).
    The same situation (with the two segregated subspecies) may also occur on Gran Canaria. 

  275. Greater Short-toed Lark  ______
    Calandrella brachydactyla

  276. Bar-tailed (Desert) Sparrow  ______
    Ammomanes cincturus

  277. (Greater) Hoopoe Lark  ______
    Alaemon alaudipes

  278. Dupont's Lark  ______
    Chersophilus duponti

  279. Calandra Lark  ______
    Melanocorypha calandra

  280. Crested Lark  ______
    Galerida cristata

  281. Eurasian Skylark  ______
    Alauda arvensis

  282. Barn Swallow  (Golondrina Comun)  (*)  ______  FV,LZ
    Hirundo r. rustica

    The Swallow (as its known in Europe) is a common migrant (in season) in the Canaries.

  283. Common House Martin  (Avion Comun (*) ______ FV
    Delichon u. urbicum

    The Common House Martin (in English), or the Avion Comun (in Spanish), is aptly named in both languages, as it is that - a common migrant (in season) in the Canaries.    

  284. Sand Martin  ______  (also called Bank Swallow)
    Riparia riparia

  285. Plain Martin  ______  (has also been called Brown-throated Sand Martin)
    Riparia paludicola

  286. Eurasian Crag Martin  ______
    Ptyonoprogne rupestris

  287. Red-rumped Swallow  ______
    Cecropis daurica

  288. American Cliff Swallow  ______
    Petrochelidon pyrrhonota 

  289. Berthelot's Pipit  (Bisbita Caminero)  (*) ______  FV,LZ,TE  (a Macaronesian endemic)
    Anthus b. berthelotii

    The Berthelot's Pipit is common in open habitats, from sea level to high altitudes. It is on all of the Canary Islands, and it is the only resident pipit.    

  290. Richard's Pipit  ______
    Anthus richardi

  291. Tawny Pipit  ______
    Anthus campestris

  292. Olive-backed Pipit  (ph)  ______
    Anthus hodgsoni

  293. Tree Pipit  ______
    Anthus trivialis

  294. Meadow Pipit  ______
    Anthus pratensis

  295. Red-throated Pipit  ______
    Anthus cervinus

  296. Rock Pipit  ______
    Anthus petrosus

  297. Water Pipit  ______
    Anthus spinoletta 

  298. Grey Wagtail  (Lavandera Cascadena)  (*) ______ TE
    Motacilla cinerea canariensis  (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

    The Grey Wagtail on the Canary Islands is an endemic subspecies to the islands: Tenerife, Gran Canaria, La Gomera, and La Palma. It is found where there's fresh water. It favors ravines.   

  299. Yellow Wagtail  ______
    Motacilla flava

  300. Citrine Wagtail  ______
    Motacilla citreola

  301. White Wagtail  (ph)  ______
    Motacilla alba

  302. Eurasian Wren  ______
    Troglodytes troglodytes

  303. Gray Catbird  (ph)  ______
    Dumetella carolinensis

  304. Dunnock  ______  (also called Hedge Sparrow)
    Prunella modularis

  305. Alpine Accentor  ______
    Prunella collaris

  306. Rufous Bush Robin  ______  (also called Rufous-tailed Bush Chat)
    Cercotrichas galactotes

  307. Canary Islands Bushchat   (Tarabilla Canaria)  (nt) (Ev)  (*)  ______ FV  (endemic to the Canary Is.) (has also been called Fuerteventura, or Canarian, Chat)  
    Saxicola d. dacotiae

    (Another endemic subspecies of Canarian islets, A. d. murielae, is now extinct.
    ) 

    The Canary Islands Bush Chat is endemic to just one island, Fuerteventura, where it occurs mostly in one part of the island, the northern portion. It is usually in areas of ravines and rocky slopes.
    The other subspecies, now extinct, was on the islets of Alegranza and Montana Clara, off Lanzarote.    

  308. Whinchat  ______
    Saxicola rubetra

  309. Common Stonechat  ______
    Saxicola torquatus

  310. Northern Wheatear  (ph)  ______
    Oenanthe oenanthe

  311. Black-eared Wheatear  ______
    Oenanthe hispanica

  312. Isabelline Wheatear  ______
    Oenanthe isabellina

  313. Desert Wheatear  (ph)  ______
    Oenanthe deserti

  314. Mourning Wheatear  ______
    Oenanthe lugens

  315. White-crowned (Black) Wheatear  ______
    Oenanthe leucopyga

  316. European Robin  (Petirrojo)  (*) ______ TE
    Erithacus rubecula superbus  (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

    The endemic subspecies of the European Robin, E. r. superbus, inhabits Tenerife and Gran Canaria. 
    Another subspecies occurs in the Canaries. It was said to be E. r. microhynchus, and was considered also to be a Canarian endemic. More recently, however, that subspecies has been merged with that of continental Europe, the nominate, E. r. rubecula. It resides on the islands of La Palma, la Gomera, and El Hierro. 
    The European Robin on the Canaries lives mainly in woodlands, including pine groves, and in cultivated areas.    

  317. Thrush Nightingale  ______
    Luscinia luscinia

  318. Common Nightingale  ______
    Luscinia megahynchos

  319. Bluethroat  (ph)  ______
    Luscinia svecica

  320. Black Redstart  (ph)  ______
    Phoenicurus ochruros

  321. Common Redstart  ______
    Phoenicurus phoenicurus

  322. Rufous-tailed Rock Thrush  ______
    Monticola saxatilis

  323. Blue Rock Thrush  ______
    Monticola solitarius

  324. Common Blackbird  (Mirlo Comun)  (*) ______ TE
    Turdus m. merula
    Turdus merula cabrerae
     
    (in the Canary Is., a Macaronesian endemic subspecies)

    The subspecies of the Common Blackbird, T. m. cabrerae, is endemic to the Madeira and Canary Islands. In the Canaries, it occurs on the western and central islands in wooded and cultivated areas. 

  325. Ring Ouzel  (ph)  ______
    Turdus torquatus

  326. Fieldfare  ______
    Turdus pilaris

  327. Song Thrush  ______
    Turdus philomelos

  328. Mistle Thrush  ______
    Turdus viscivorus

  329. Redwing  (ph)  ______
    Turdus iliacus

  330. Zitting Cisticola  ______
    Cisticola juncidis

  331. Grasshopper Warbler  ______
    Locustella naevia

  332. Savi's Warbler  ______
    Locustella luscinioides

  333. Aquatic Warbler  ______
    Acrocephalus paludicola

  334. Sedge Warbler  ______
    Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

  335. European Reed Warbler  ______
    Acrocephalus scirpaceus

  336. Great Reed Warbler  ______
    Acrocephalus arundinaceus

  337. Eastern Olivaceous Warbler  ______
    Hippolais pallida

  338. Western Olivaceous Warbler  ______
    Hippolais opaca

  339. Icterine Warbler  ______
    Hippolais icterina

  340. Melodious Warbler  ______
    Hippolais polyglotta

  341. Eurasian Blackcap  (Curruca Capirotada)  (*) ______ TE
    Sylvia atricapilla obscura  (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

    The endemic subspecies of the Eurasian Blackcap on the Canaries is in scrub, brambles, and cultivated areas. It is found on Tenerife, Gran Canaria, La Gomera, El Hierro, and La Palma, throughout the year.  

  342. Sardinian Warbler  (Curruca Cabecinegra)  (*) ______  LZ,TE
    Sylvia melanocephala leucogastra 
    (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies; 1 of 2 subspecies there)

    The endemic subspecies of the Sardinian Warbler on the Canaries is found in scrub, brambles, and cultivated areas (as is the Blackcap), and in various dry habitats (as is the Spectacled Warbler). It is distributed on all of the Canarian islands. 

  343. Spectacled Warbler  (Curruca Tomillera)  (*) ______ FV,LZ,TR
    Sylvia conspicillata orbitalis 
    (in Canary Is., a Macaronesian endemic subspecies)

    The subspecies of the Spectacled Warbler on the Canary Islands also occurs on the more-southerly Cape Verde Islands. In the Canaries, on all islands, it is generally in dry zones with low vegetation.    

  344. Tristram's Warbler  ______
    Sylvia deserticola

  345. Subalpine Warbler  ______
    Sylvia cantillans

  346. Menetries' Warbler  ______
    Sylvia mystacea

  347. African Desert Warbler  ______
    Sylvia deserti

  348. (Western) Orphean Warbler  ______
    Sylvia hortensis

  349. Common Whitethroat  ______
    Sylvia communis

  350. Lesser Whitethroat  ______
    Sylvia curruca

  351. Garden Warbler  ______
    Sylvia borin

  352. Canary Islands Chiffchaff  (Mosquitero Canaria)  (*) ______  TE   (was considered conspecific with the Common Chiffchaff; endemic to Canary Is.)
    Phylloscopus c. canariensis 
    (the other Canarian subspecies extinct since the beginning of the 20th Century)

    The subspecies of the Canary Islands Chiffchaff, P. c. canariensis, occurs on Tenerife and other islands from Gran Canaria westward.
    Another subspecies, P. c. exsul, was recorded on the eastern Canary Island, Lanzarote, in the Valle de Haria, but apparently it has been extinct since the early 1900s. 
    The subspecies that still exists of the Canarian endemic is common on the western islands, where it is widely distributed in various habitats. 
    It was formerly considered conspecific with (that is, it was a subspecies of) the Common Chiffchaff of Europe, Phylloscopus collybita. That bird occurs in the Canary Islands as a migrant and a winter visitor.        

  353. Common Chiffchaff  ______
    Phylloscopus collybita

  354. Yellow-browed Warbler  (ph)  ______
    Phylloscopus inornatus

  355. Hume's Warbler  ______
    Phylloscopus humei

  356. Western Bonelli's Warbler  ______
    Phylloscopus bonelli

  357. Wood Warbler  ______
    Phylloscopus sibilatrix 

  358. Willow Warbler  ______
    Phylloscopus trochilus

  359. "Canary Islands Goldcrest"  (Reyezuelo Tenerife)  (*) ______  TE  (endemic to the western Canary Is.) (this subspecies of the Goldcrest has also been called the "Tenerife, or Canarian, Kinglet")  
    Regulus (regulus) teneriffae  

    The "Canary Islands Goldcrest" is now (again) considered a subspecies of the Goldcrest (the smallest European bird). It inhabits forests on Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, and El Hierro. 

  360. Spotted Flycatcher  ______
    Muscicapa striata

  361. Red-breasted Flycatcher  ______
    Ficedula parva

  362. Collared Flycatcher  ______
    Ficedula albicollis

  363. Pied Flycatcher  ______
    Ficedula hypoleuca

  364. African Blue Tit  (Herrerillo Comun)  (*) ______  TE
    Cyanistes (formerly Parus) ultramarinus degener (in eastern Canary Is. inc. Fuerteventura, endemic)
    Cyanistes
    (formerly Parus) ultramarinus teneriffae (in central Canary Is. inc. Tenerife, endemic) 
    (Two other endemic subspecies occur in the Canary Islands, both on western islands, C.u. palmensis on La Palma and C.u. ombriosus on El Hierro.

    The African Blue Tit has differentiated into the most races (or subspecies) of any Canarian bird: 4.
    C. u. teneriffe is on Tenerife, Gran Canaria, and La Gomera.
    C. u. ombriosus is only on El Hierro.
    C. u. palmensis is only on La Palma.
    C. u. degener is on the dry, eastern islands of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote.
    On each of these island, these birds occupy a variety of habitats.
      
  365. Northern Great Tit  (ph)  ______
    Parus major

  366. Eurasian Nuthatch  (ph)  ______ 
    Sitta europaea

  367. Eurasian Penduline Tit  ______
    Remiz pendulinus

  368. Golden Oriole  ______
    Oriolus oriolus

  369. Southern Grey Shrike  (Alcaudon Real)  (Ed) (*)  ______  FV,LZ  (was conspecific with the Northern, or Great, Grey Shrike, that's been called Northern Shrike in North America)
    Lanius meridionalis koenigi  (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

    The Southern Grey Shrike was formerly conspecific with the Great Grey Shrike, as it's called in the Old World. 

    The Southern Grey Shrike ranges in Spain, Africa, Arabia, India, and elsewhere in south-central Asia. (In the last of these areas, it is referred to as the "Steppe Shrike".)       

  370. Isabelline Shrike  ______
    Lanius isabellinus

  371. Red-backed Shrike  ______
    Lanius collurio

  372. Woodchat Shrike  ______
    Lanius senator

  373. Northern Raven  (Cuervo)  (ph) (*) ______  FV,LZ,TE
    Corvus corax tingitanus  (a rare subspecies in the Canary Is.)

    The subspecies of the Northern Raven in the Canaries also occurs in northern Africa. The bird is scarce to uncommon in the Canaries, having declined in recent years.  

  374. Western Jackdaw  (ph)  ______
    Corvus monedula

  375. Red-billed Chough  ______
    Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax

  376. Spotted Nutcracker  ______
    Nucifraga caryocatactes

  377. Common Starling  (Estornino Pinto)  (ph) (*)  ______  TE 
    Sturnus v. vulgaris

  378. Spotless Starling  ______
    Sturnus unicolor

  379. Rosy Starling  ______  (has been called Rose-colored Starling)
    Sturnus roseus

  380. Common Myna (i)  (Mina Comun) (*) ______  TE  
    Acridotheres tristis

    The Common Myna is native to southern Asia. During a FONT tour in the Canaries, one was seen in an arid portion of southern Tenerife during the month of July.  

  381. Spanish Sparrow  (Gorrion moruno)  (*) ______  FV,LZ,TE
    Passer h. hispaniolensis

    The Spanish Sparrow is a relatively recent immigrant (on its own) to the Canaries, having spread from the eastern islands west to El Hierro during the last two centuries. It is found in cities, towns, gardens, and parks. 

  382. Eurasian Tree Sparrow  (ph)  ______
    Passer montanus

  383. Rock Petronia  (Gorrion chillon)  (*) ______  TE  (has also been called Rock Sparrow)
    Petronia petronia 
    (the single member of its genus)
    Petronia p. madeirensis 
    (in the Canary Is., a Macaronesian endemic subspecies)

    The Rock Sparrow in the Canaries is said to have declined during the last couple centuries as the Spanish Sparrow has spread (having been displaced from towns and cities). 
    Usually, now, the Rock Sparrow is mostly found in ravines and areas of rocky terrain in lower and mid elevation on all Canarian islands, except Fuerteventura and Lanzarote.   

  384. Common Waxbill  (i) (ph)  ______
    Estrilda astrild

  385. Common Chaffinch  (Pinzon vulgar)  (*) ______  TE
    Fringilla coelebs canariensis (formerly F. c. tintillon)  (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

    There are 3 distinctive subspecies of the Common Chaffinch in the Canaries: 
    F. c. canariensis on Tenerife, La Gomera, and Gran Canaria,
    F. c. palmae on La Palma, and
    F. c. ombriosa on El Hierro.
    Each is found in woodland habitats. 

  386. Blue Chaffinch  (Pinzon azul)  (cd) (Ev)  (*) ______  TE   (endemic to Canary Is.)  (has also been called Teydefinch)
    Fringilla t. teydea  (1 of 2 subspecies in the Canary Islands)

    The Blue Chaffinch is one of the most attractive of the Canarian endemic birds. There are two subspecies: F. t. teydea on Tenerife, and F. t. polatzeki on Gran Canaria. The latter is scarce and localized.
    The bird is associated with forests of Canary Pine, where it feeds on pine kernels, laburnum and broom seeds, as well as beetle larvae, which it extracts from pine bark.  

  387. Brambling  (ph)  ______
    Fringilla montifringilla

  388. European Goldfinch  (Jilguero)  (*) ______  TE
    Carduelis carduelis parva  (subspecies in the Canary Islands)

    The subspecies of the European Goldfinch in the Canaries and Azores is also that of the western Mediterranean region. In the Canaries, it can be found on all islands, but usually it is scarce.  

  389. European Greenfinch  (Verderon comun)  (*) ______ TE
    Carduelis chloris auratilyuentris

    The subspecies of the European Greenfinch in the Canaries is also that of southern Europe and northern Africa. The species is said to have colonized in the Canaries recently. 

  390. Common Linnet  (Pardillo comun)  (*) ______ FV,TE
    Carduelis cannabina meadewaldoi  (in Canary Is., an endemic subspecies)

    There are two endemic subspecies of the Common Linnet in the Canaries:
    A. c. harterti on Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, and
    A. c. meadewaldoi on the other islands to the west.

  391. Eurasian Siskin  (ph)  ______
    Carduelis spinus 

  392. Atlantic Canary  (Canario)  (*) ______  TE  (species endemic to Canary Is.)  (has been called Island Canary
    Serinus canaria 
    (monotypic)

    The Atlantic Canary is endemic to the Macaronesian islands of the eastern Atlantic, in the Canaries, Madeira, and the Azores. In the Canaries, it is most frequent in areas of cultivated fields, pine groves, and forest edges in the central and western islands.

  393. European Serin  ______
    Serinus serinus

  394. Common (or Red) Crossbill  (ph)  ______
    Loxia curvirostra

  395. Trumpeter Finch  (Camachuelo trompetero)  (Er) (*)  ______ FV,LZ
    Bucanetes githagineus amantum 
    (subspecies endemic to Canary Is.)

    The Canarian subspecies of the Trumpeter Finch, B. g. amamtum, inhabits deserts and stony places on all islands except La Palma and El Hierro. (On the latter island, however, it has been recorded recently, but nesting there has not been confirmed.)

  396. "Myrtle" Yellow-rumped Warbler  (ph)  ______   
    Dendroica c. coronata

  397. Blackpoll Warbler  (ph)  ______
    Dendroica striata

  398. Louisiana Waterthrush  ______
    Seiurus motacilla

  399. Lapland Bunting (or Longspur)  (ph)  ______
    Calcarius lapponicus

  400. Snow Bunting  (ph)  ______
    Calcarius
    (formerly Plectrophenax) nivalis

  401. Cirl Bunting  ______  
    Emberiza cirlus

  402. House Bunting  ______
    Emberiza striolata

  403. Ortolan Bunting  ______
    Emberiza hortulana

  404. Cretzschmar's Bunting  ______
    Emberiza caesia

  405. Little Bunting  ______
    Emberiza pusilla

  406. Reed Bunting  ______
    Emberiza schoeniclus

  407. Corn Bunting  (Triguero)  (*) ______  TE
    Emberiza (was the monotypic genus Miliaria) calandria thanneri  (subspecies in Canary Is.)

    The Corn Bunting is found on all Canarian islands in areas of grassy fields, grain crops, and pastures. It is apparently migratory.



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