PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
88-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

 

Part 4 of a List
with some Photos
of


South America
Butterflies
and Moths


Noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours

in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela


Fourth Part of a List of South America Butterflies in 5 Parts, 
compiled by Armas Hill


Here, in Part #4: Nymphalidae, the Brushfoots

Among Butterfly groupings in this list, links to:

Leaf Butterflies: Subfamily Charaxinae     Emperors: Genus Doxocopa

Snout: Subfamily Libytheinae     Crackers: Genus Hamadryas

Purplewings: Genus Eunica     Daggerwings: Genus Marpesia

Sailors: Genus Dynamine     "Eighty-Eight" Butterflies: Genus Diaethria

Banners: Genera Pyrrhogyra, Asterope, Temenis, Nica, Epiphile, Catonephele

Patches & Checkerspots: Genus Chlosyne    Sisters: Genus Adelpha

Crescents: Genera Phyciodes, Tegosa, Eresia, Castilia, Janatella,  Anthanassa 

Longwings: Subfamily Heliconiinae     Fritillaries: Genera Euptoieta, Yramea

Milkweed Butterflies: Subfamily Danainae 

Clearwings:  Subfamily Ithomiinae     Morphos: Subfamily Morphidae

Owl Butterflies: Subfamily Brassolidae     Satyrs:  Subfamily Satyrinae


Links to other South America Butterfly groupings in this list:

Part #1 - Swallowtails (Papilionidae)     

Part #2 - Whites, Yellows, Sulphurs  (Pieridae)

Part #3 - Hairstreaks, Blues (Lycaenidae) & Metalmarks (Riodinidae)

Part #5 - Skippers (Hesperiidae)      



An Orange Daggerwing photographed during 
the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
(photo by Marie Gardner)  


Codes relating to illustrations in various books:

Numbers noted as (AZ:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Arizona - A Photographic Guide", by Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin, & Hank Brodkin (with fine photographs).

Numbers noted as (BB:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Buenos Aires (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals

Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved

Numbers noted as (D1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries   

Numbers noted as (DV:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies Of South America", by Bernard D'Abrera    

Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell  

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman

Numbers noted as (MCA:xx) refer to pages in "A Swift Guide to the Butterflies of Mexico & Central America" by Jeffrey Glassberg

Numbers noted as (MM:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas (Butterflies) of Missiones (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals  

Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guides to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul, 1998 edition. Those noted as (PEp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.

Numbers noted as (PW:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies", by Paul Opler & illustrated by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1999 edition. Those noted as (PWp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph. 

Numbers noted as (RG:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of the Lower Rio Grande Valley" by Roland Wauer.

Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter.

Numbers noted as (WGC:xxx) refer to pages in "A Wildlife Guide to Chile", by Sharon Chester.


Country Codes:


AR: in Argentina
BR: in Brazil
CH: in Chile
EC: in Ecuador
VE: in Venezuela

Butterflies observed during FONT tours noted by an (*) after the 2-letter country code. 

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website


Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in South America in:

Brazil   Ecuador   Uruguay   Venezuela
     Argentina   Chile

Lists & Photo Galleries of BIRDS, including those during FONT Tours in South America

Lists & Photo Galleries of MAMMALS, relating to FONT Tours in South America

Lists of Photo Galleries of AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES, including those during FONT Tours in South America

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus of those with Photos in the FONT Website

Directory of Photos in this Website  




List of South American Butterflies, Part #4



        
 Family NYMPHALIDAE: BRUSHFOOTS
         
Cosmopolitan, with subfamilies range from 8 to 25, depending upon taxonomic treatment.

         
This is the most diverse family of butterflies, with approximately 6,000 known species worldwide. 
          Brushfoot butterflies appear 4 rather than 6-legged as their 2 front legs are much reduced.


          Genus AGRIAS

       
   Butterflies in AGRIAS spend most of their time in the forest canopy.
          They are attracted to rotting fruits, fish, and mammal dung.
          Agrius are strong fliers and very shy.
          Their main flying time seems to be between October and March to April.   

  1. Agrias aedon ______ (DV1:13) (MCA:118)
    GREAT AGRIAS 
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)  

  2. Agrias amydon ______ (DV1:13) (F:115) (MCA:118)
    Agrius amydon amydon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Agrius amydon frontina  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in western Colombia & northwest Ecuador)
    Agrius amydon athenais  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Agrius amydon zenedorus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Agrius amydon tryphon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)  
    Agrius amydon aristuxenus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Agrius amydon boliviensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    WHITE-SPOTTED AGRIAS
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

    Agrias amydon is a  powerful flier. It is a very variable species, with a number of subspecies.. It lives in the rainforest and visits fruit for sugar. 

  3. Agrias beatifica  ______
    Agrias beatifica beata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

  4. Agrias claudina  ______
    Agrias claudina sara  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Agrias claudina croesus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Agrias claudina lugens  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Agrias claudina sardanapalus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Venezuela)
    Agrias claudina lugina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Agrias claudina godmani  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil) 
    Agrias claudina claudianus  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil)

  5. Agrias hewitsonius  ______
    (Range: in Brazil, in Amazonas)

  6. Agrias narcissus  ______
    Agrias narcissus narcissus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    Agrias narcissus tapajonus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Amazonas)

    Females of Agrias narcissus tapajonus have both a red form & a yellow form.

  7. Agrias pericles  ______
    Agrias pericles aurantiaca  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, Venezuela)
    Agrias pericles eberti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, including Recife)
    Agrias pericles ferdinandi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil)
    Agrias pericles mauenesis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, Rio Maues)
    Agrias pericles pericles  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, Rio Tapajoz)
    Agrias pericles peruviana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

    Males of Agrias pericles mauensis have both a red form & a yellow form.

  8. Agrias phalcidon  ______
    Agrias phaicidon excelsior  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, including Para)
    Agrias phalcidon fournierae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, including in Amazonas, Parana)
    Agrias phalcidon phalcidon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, Rio Tapajoz)
    Agrias phalcidon xinguensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Para) 

  9. Agrias sahlkei  ______
    Agrias sahlkei sahlkei  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil including Para, & in the Guianas)  

  10. Agrias vanillae  (ph)  ______ 



    Agrias vanillae
    (photo by Sherry C. Nelson)


    Genus PREPONA

  11. Prepona omphale ______ (DV1:13)
    Prepona omphale omphale  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Prepona omphale amesia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Prepona omphale caucensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Prepona omphale caucensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil)
    an English name has been OMPHALE'S KING SHOEMAKER
     

  12. Prepona dexamenus ______ (DV1:13) (MCA:119)
    Prepona dexamenus dexamenus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to the Amazon basin)
    LEAST PREPONA
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

    In flight, Prepona meander makes a crackling sound. 

  13. Prepona pylene  ______
    Prepona pylene gnorima  ______  EC  (MCA:119) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia & northwest Ecuador)
    Prepona pylene miranda  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, Rio Vemelho)
    Prepona pylene pylene ______ ARne  (MM:259) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MOTTLED PREPONA
     
    AR common name: Pylene
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

  14. Prepona buckleyana  ______  
    (Range: in Bolivia)

  15. Prepona deiphile  ______
    Prepona deiphile lygia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to the Guianas)
    Prepona deiphile neoterpe  ______ 
    (subspecies from the Guianas to Peru)
    Prepona deiphile photidia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Prepona deiphile sphacteria  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Prepona deiphile xenagoras  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Prepona deiphile deiphile  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)   
    ORANGE-SPOTTED PREPONA
    (Range: in southeast Brazil)

  16. Prepona eugenes  ______
    Prepona eugenes eugenes  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  17. Prepona garleppiana  ______
    Prepona garleppiana garleppiana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  18. Prepona joiceyi  ______
    Prepona joiceyi poleti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil)

  19. Prepona laertes  ______  (MCA:119)
    Prepona laertes octavia  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Ecuador)
    Prepona laertes demodice  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies Costa Rica, the Guianas, Ecuador, south to Brazil & Bolivia)
    Prepona laertes louisa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, Venezuela, & Trinidad)
    Prepona laertes laertes  ______ 
    (subspecies in Paraguay) 
    YELLOW-TUFTED PREPONA 
    (other names are Feathered Prepona, Laertes Prepona, or Shaded Blue Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Paraguay & Brazil)

    What was Prepona philipponi is now included in Prepona laertes demodice.

  20. Prepona pheridamas  ______
    Prepona pheridamas pheridamas  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Para)

  21. Prepona praeneste  ______
    Prepona praeneste choroniensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)

  22. Prepona pseudomphale  ______
    Prepona pseudomphale pseudomphale  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Amazonas)

  23. Prepona werneri  ______
    (Range: in Colombia)

  24. Prepona xenagoras  ______
    (Range: in Bolivia)


    Genus ARCHAEOPREPONA

  25. Archaeoprepona amphimachus  ______
    Archaeoprepona amphimachus amphiktion  ______  ECnw  (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Ecuador)
    Archaeoprepona amphimachus amphimachus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Archaeoprepona amphimachus megacles  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil)
    WHITE-SPOTTED PREPONA   

  26. Archaeoprepona demophon  ______  (C:347) (DV1:14) (MCA:118)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Archaeoprepona demophon muson  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Archaeoprepona demophon thalpius  ______  ARne  (MM:256) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ONE-SPOTTED PREPONA
     
    AR common name: Demofonte  (who was a fortune-teller consulted by Alexander the Great)  
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 

    In 1814, the butterfly taxonomist Hubner made a blunder by giving a newly-described species the name Archaeoprepona demophoon (below), almost identical to the name given by Linnaeus 56 years earlier in 1758 to another species, Archaeoprepona demophon (above). To complicate matters further, both species often occur together, and their uppersides are virtually identical!
     
  27. Archaeoprepona demophoon  (ph)  ______ 
    Archaeoprepona demophoon gulina  ______  ECnw  (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon basin) 
    Archaeoprepona demophoon demophoon  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:257) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    TWO-SPOTTED PREPONA 
    (another name has been the Silver King Shoemaker)
    AR common name: Demophoon  (who, in mythology was Teseo's son)
    (Range: southern Mexico to Argentina)

    Archaeoprepona demophoon lives in the canopy of the rainforest. It is probably one of the fastest-flying butterflies in its range (the American tropics). It is said to have a smell like vanilla (maybe from its food source).

    A photographer's account: "I have observed and photographed it, but always from a great distance, and always as a solitary butterfly, sitting with its wings open in the sun, like a drop of metallic blue paint on the green foliage high in the trees."



    Two-spotted Prepona (or Demophoon) (also called Silver King Shoemaker)
    (photo courtesy of Junji Nakamura who sent us this picture of a butterfly that had been her mother's since the 1950s)

  28. Archaeoprepona meander ______ (DV1:14) (MCA:118) (S:119)
    Archaeoprepona meander megabates  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Bolivia)
    THREE-TONED PREPONA 
    (another name has been the Banded King Shoemaker
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    In flight, Archaeoprepona meander makes a crackling sound.

  29. Archaeoprepona camilla  ______
    Archaeoprepona camilla camilla  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Ecuador) 
    PALE PREPONA

  30. Archaeoprepona chalciope ______ ARne  (MM:258)
    Archaeoprepona chalciope domna  ______ 
    (subspecies in Minas Gerais, Brazil)
    AR common name: Calciope 
    (relating to the scientific name, that is mythological)

  31. Archaeoprepona licomedes  ______
    (Range: in Peru)


    Subfamily CHARAXINAE: LEAF BUTTERFLIES


    Genus SIDERONE: LEAFWINGS

  32. Siderone marthesis ______ (DV1:13)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  33. Siderone galanthis  ______
    Siderone galanthis galanthis  ______  (MCA:123) 
    (subspecies from Central America to the Amazon basin)
    Siderone galanthis angustifascia  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    RED-STRIPED LEAFWING 
    (or Red-and-black Leafwing


    Genus ZARETIS: LEAFWINGS

  34. Zaretis ellops (or anzuletta)  ______  (MCA:122)
    SEASONAL LEAFWING 
    (or Holey Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to northwest Venezuela)

  35. Zaretis isidora  (ph)  ______  ECnw  (MCA:122)
    ISIDORA LEAFWING 
    (or Cramer's Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)



    Above & below: the Isidora Leafwing,
    showing upperwings & underwings
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)





  36. Zaretis itys ______ 
    Zaretis itys itys  ______  (DV1:14) (MCA:122) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia and the Amazon basin)
    Zaretis itys itylus  ______  AR:ne  (MM:262) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ITYS LEAFWING 
    (or Skeletonized Leafwing) 
    AR common name: Itis  (refers to the scientific name; Itys in mythology was the daughter of Tereo and Procne.)  
    (Range: southern Mexico to Brazil)

  37. Zaretis pythagoras  ______  ECnw


    Genus HYPNA:  LEAFWINGS

  38. Hypna clytemnestra  ______  (MCA:123)
    Hypna clytemnestra negra  ______  ECnw  (DV1:15)
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Bolivia)
    Hypna clytemnestra huebneri ______ ARne  (MM:260) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    SILVER-STUDDED LEAFWING  ______ 
    (or Jazzy Leafwing)
    AR common name: Clitemnestra 
    (relating to the name: Clitemnestra was Agamenon's wife.)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus CONSUL:  LEAFWINGS

  39. Consul fabius  ______
    Consul fabius cecrops ______  ECnw  (DV1:15) (MCA:123)
    (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia)
    Consul fabius drurii ______ ARne  (MM:261) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    TIGER-STRIPED LEAFWING 
    (or Tiger Leafwing
    AR common name: Mbopi  (this name is Guarani word meaning "bat", referring to its peculiar shape when flying near the tops of trees)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  40. Consul panariste  ______
    Consul panariste pandrosa  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 


    Genus  MEMPHIS:  LEAFWINGS  

    About 100 species, which occur in Central America. They resemble the genus ANAEA, to which they are closely related. MEMPHIS was at one time said to be a subgenus of ANAEA.
    With crytic undersides that are leaf-like. They reside in the forest, and are powerful fliers.  

    Also included here is the Genus FOUNTAINEA, closely related to MEMPHIS:  

  41. Fountainea ryphea  (ph)  ______  (was Anaea ryphea)
    Fountainea ryphea ryphea  ______ (DV1:15) (MCA:120)
    (subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon basin)
    Fountainea ryphea ecuadorialis  ______  ECnw  (subspecies in Ecuador) 
    Fountainea ryphea phidile  ______  ARne  (MM:264) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    RYPHEA LEAFWING 
    (or BLUE-BARRED LEAFWING)
    AR common name: Purpurea  (translates to "Purple")



    Ryphea Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  42. Fountainea eurypyle ______ (DV1:15) (MCA:120)  (was Anaea eurypyle)
    POINTED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia) 

  43. Fountainea glycerium  ______  (MCA:121) (PE:25)  (was Anaea glycerium)
    Fountainea glycerium cratais  ______  ARne  (MM:263) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ANGLED LEAFWING
    AR common name: Purpurea Coluda 
    (translates to "Tailed Purple" 

  44. Fountainea nessus  (ph)  ______



    Fountainea nessus
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  45. Fountainea noblis  (ph)  ______  (MCA:121)  (was Anaea noblis)
    NOBLE LEAFWING
    (Range: southern Mexico to Venezuela & Peru)



    Noble Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson) 

  46. Memphis titan  ______  (DV1:15)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru) 

  47. Memphis anna  ______
    Memphis anna elina  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)  

  48. Memphis aulica  ______
    Memphis aulica gudrum  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)

  49. Memphis aureola  ______  ECnw  (MCA:128)
    AUREOLA LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  50. Memphis xenocles ______ (DV1:17) (MCA:127)
    CAROLINA LEAFWING 
    (or Corner-spotted Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  51. Memphis arginussa ______ (DV1:17) (MCA:125)
    MOTTLED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

  52. Memphis chaeronea  ______  ECnw

  53. Memphis cleomestra  ______
    Memphis cleomestra cleomestra  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)

  54. Memphis glauce  ______
    Memphis glauce centralis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)

  55. Memphis mora  ______
    Memphis mora annetta  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)

  56. Memphis moruus  ______  ECnw   

  57. Memphis moruus  (ph)  ______  (DV1:18) (MCA:126)
    Memphis moruus coerulescens ______ ARne  (MM:265) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    LAUREL LEAFWING 
    (or Blue Leaf)  
    AR common name: Hoja Azul  (translates to "Blue Leaf")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)   



    The Laurel Leafwing, or Blue Leaf
    photographed at Iguazu Falls, Argentina
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  58. Memphis lyceus ______ (DV1:18)
    LYCEUS LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  59. Memphis nenia  ______  ECnw

  60. Memphis oenomais ______ (DV1:18) (MCA:126)
    EDGE LEAFWING 
    (a northern race is called the BOISDUVAL'S LEAFWING)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)

  61. Memphis artacaena  ______  ECnw  (MCA:126)
    WHITE-PATCHED LEAFWING
    (Range: southeast Mexico to Colombia)

  62. Memphis pithyusa  ______  
    Memphis pithyusa pithyusa  ______ (DV1:19) (K:221) (MCA:125) (PE:25) 
    (subspecies from Texas to Bolivia) 
    PALE-SPOTTED LEAFWING 
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia)


    Genus DOXOCOPA:  EMPERORS

  63. Doxocopa pavon ______ (DV1:19) (K:225) (MCA:130) (PE:24)
    PAVON EMPEROR
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia)

  64. Doxocopa clothilda  ______  
    CLOTHILDA EMPEROR
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia) 

  65. Doxocopa cyane  (ph)  ______ (DV1:20) (MCA:130)
    CYAN EMPEROR 
    (or Mexican Emperor)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)



    Above & below: the Cyan Emperor
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)




  66. Doxocopa laure ______ (C:285) (DV1:20) (K:225) (MCA:130) (PE:24)
    SILVER EMPEROR 
    (also called Laure)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  67. Doxocopa linda  ______
    Doxocopa linda mileta ______ ARne  (MM:266) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    RARE EMPEROR
    AR common name: Linda 
    (translates to "Cute")

  68. Doxocopa agathina vacuna ______ ARne  (MM:267)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Turqui 
    (translates to "Turquoise")

  69. Doxocopa kallina ______ ARba,ne  (BB:239) (MM:268) 
    AR common name: Indigo

  70. Doxocopa laurentia  (ph)  ______  (MCA:130)
    Doxocopa laurentia laurentia  ______ ARba,ne  (BB:237) (MM:269) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    TURQUOISE EMPEROR

    AR common name: Zafiro  (translates to "Sapphire")



    A Turquoise Emperor, Doxocopa laurentia, photographed during a FONT tour
    at Iguazu Falls in August 2008


  71. Doxocopa zunilda  ______
    Doxocopa zunilda felderi  ______  (DV1:19) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Doxocopa zunilda zunilda ______ ARne  (MM:270) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ZINGY EMPEROR
    AR common name: Zunilda
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina)


    Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE: SNOUTS


    Genus LIBYTHEANA: SNOUTS

     
  72. Libytheana carinenta   ______  (C:281) (DV1:20) (F:175) (K:223) (MCA:79) (PE:18) (S:146) (WGC:101)
    Libytheana carinenta carinenta  ______  ARba,ne  CH  (BB:235) (MM:255) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)  
    AMERICAN SNOUT 
    AR common names: Picuda  (this and other common names refer to the size of the labial palpi)
    Mariposa Elefante, Trompa de Elefante, Trompuda
    BR common name: Bicuda  
    CH common name: Mariposa Comun del Tropico  

    (Range: southern US to Argentina. In Chile, locally in coastal Linares)  


    Genus TIGRIDIA

  73. Tigridia acesta  (ph)  ______ (DV1:21) (MCA:116)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    TIGER BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)



    Tiger Beauty
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus COLOBURA

  74. Colobura dirce  (ph)   ______  (C:291) (DV1:21) (MCA:116) (S:114)
    Colobura dirce dirce  _____  ARne  (MM:271) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DIRCE BEAUTY 
    (other names have been the Small Beauty and The Mosaic
    )
    AR common name: Cebrita  (this name & the English "Zebra Butterfly" refer to the pattern on the ventral side)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America, also the West Indies) 



    Colobura dirce, the Small Beauty

  75. Colebura annulata  ______  (MCA:116)  (species described in 2001)
    NEW BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to western Ecuador & Bolivia, and east to Venezuela, the Guianas, & Trinidad)  


    Genus HISTORIS

  76. Historis odius  (ph)  ______   
    Historis odius dious  ______  ARne  (DV1:21) (MCA:127) (MM:272) (PE:text) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Argentina)
    ORION CECROPIAN 
    (also called Stinky Leaf Wing
    AR common name: Popeno, this name a Guarani word meaning "gigantic" 
    (Range: throughout Central & South America; in North America, a rare stray to Florida) 



    Orion Cecropian

  77. Historis acheronta ______ (C:353) (DV1:21) (MCA:127)
    TAILED CECROPIAN
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin, also Greater Antilles)


    Genus SMYRNA

  78. Smyrna blomfildia  (ph)  ______  (DV1:21) (K:225) (MCA:115) (PE:26)
    Smyrna blomfildia blomfildia  ______  ARne  (MM:273) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    BLOMFILD'S BEAUTY
    AR common name: Dibujada
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 


    Genus BAEOTUS

     
  79. Baeotus beotus  ______ (DV1:21) (MCA:116) (F:122)
    GRAPHIC BEAUTY
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)

    Baeotus baeotus is an attractive and rare butterfly in virgin rainforest.


    Genus PYCINA

  80. Pycina zamba ______ (DV1:21) (MCA:115)
    CLOUD FOREST BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to Peru) 


    Genus BIBLIS

  81. Biblis hyperia  (ph)  ______  (C:319) (DV1:21) (F:124) (K:215) (MCA:107) (PE:25)
    Biblis hyperia nectanabis ______ ARba,ne  (BB:251) (MM:291) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    RED RIM

    AR common name: Alas Sangrantes  (translates to "Crimson-banded Black")
    (Range: Mexico to the Argentina, also the West Indies) 



    Red Rim


    Genus HAMADRYAS: CRACKERS:: species in this genus are called "CRACKERS" because of the noise the males make in flight. 

    In general CRACKERS are also called CALICOS

  82. Hamadryas februa  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:21) (F:158) (K:217) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas februa ferentina  ______  (MM:113) 
    (subspecies from Mexico south to Colombia, the Guianas & Trinidad, and the Amazon) 
    Hamadryas februa februa ______ ARba,ne  (BB:253) (MM:284) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    GRAY CRACKER
    (or some places called The Cracker) (also called Common Calico)  
    AR common name: Pororo Ocelos Rojos (translates to "Red eye-spotted Pororo") ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles".)  
    (Range: southern US to Argentina) 

    Hamadryas februa occurs along forest edges. Not at flowers, but at rotting fruit, dung, and mud. 



    A Gray Cracker photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  83. Hamadryas feronia  (ph)  ______  ECnw  (C:259) (DV1:21) (K:217) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas feronia farinulenta  ______   (MCA:114)
    (subspecies from Mexico to Peru and Venezuela & Trinidad)  
    VARIABLE CRACKER

    (Range: southern US to Brazil) 

    Hamadryas feronia was described by Linnaeus in 1758.



    A Variable Cracker photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


  84. Hamadryas arethusa ______ (S:132)
    QUEEN CRACKER  

    Hamadryas arethusa
    is considered conspecific with Hamadryas laodamia (below).   

  85. Hamadryas guatemalena ______ (DV1:21) (PE:26)
    GUATEMALAN CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  86. Hamadryas ipthime ______  (DV1:21) (MCA:113) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas ipthime ipthime ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia & southern Brazil) 
    BROWNISH CRACKER 
    (or RINGLESS BLUE CRACKER 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  87. Hamadryas fornax  ______  (DV1:21) (F:158)
    Hamadryas fornax fornacalia  ______  EC  (MCA:112) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia & Venezuela)
    Hamadryas fornax fornax ______ ARne  EC  (MM:287) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ORANGE CRACKER 
    (other names are Yellow Cracker, or Yellow-skirted Cracker
    AR common name: Pororo Mancha Ocre (translates to "Ochre-spotted Pororo") ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles".)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

    Hamadryas fornax is smaller than other crackers, and with a number of subspecies. It is  found In moist rainforest, occurring along trails and rivers.

  88. Hamadryas amphinome  (ph)  ______  (DV1:22) (F:157) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas amphinome mexicana  ______  (MCA:112) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    Hamadryas amphinome amphinome ______ ARba,ne  EC  (BB:255) (MM:286) 
    (widespread subspecies, in Argentina & eastern Ecuador)
    Hamadryas amphinome fumosa  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies in western Ecuador) 
    RED CRACKER
    AR common names: Pororo Mancha Roja 
    (translates to "Red-spotted Pororo") ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles".) or Clic Rojiza ("Reddish Click", referring to the peculiar noise made by the butterfly)
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, can occur in rainforests)

    Hamadryas amphinome was described by Linnaeus in 1767.



    Red Cracker  (the red is on the other side of the wings) 

  89. Hamadryas glauconome  ______
    Hamadryas glauconome amphichloe   ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Venezuela, Colombia, & Ecuador)
    GLAUCOUS CRACKER 

  90. Hamadryas arinome  ______
    Hamadryas arinome arienis ______  ECnw  (DV1:22)
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia; subspecies in western Ecuador)
    Hamadryas arinome arinome  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador)
    TURQUOISE CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)  

  91. Hamadryas laodamia  ______  (C:261) (F:159)
    Hamadryas laodamia saurites  ______  ECnw  (DV1:22) (MCA:112) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Colombia, northern Venezuela, Trinidad; subspecies in western Ecuador)  
    Hamadryas laodamia laodamia  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador)
    STARRY CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

    Hamadryas laodamia has delightful coloration completely different than its allies. It flies in the canopy and in sunny clearings in the rainforest.

  92. Hamadryas chloe  ______
    Hamadryas chloe chloe  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in eastern Ecuador)

  93. Hamadryas epinome ______ ARne  (MM:285)
    AR common name: Pororo 
    (this name is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles") 

  94. Hamadryas arete ______ ARne  (MM:288)
    AR common name: Pororo Azul 
    (translates to "Blue Pororo")  ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles")


    Genus ECTIMA

  95. Ectima thecla  ______ 
    Ectima thecla thecla  ______  ARne  (MM:289)
    AR common name: Pororo Mini 
    (referring to the similarity with the butterflies of the genus HAMADRYAS called "Pororo"; "Mini" relates to its smaller size.) 


    Genus PANACEA

  96. Panacea procilla ______ (DV1:22)
    (Range: Panama to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus EUNICA:  PURPLEWINGS
    60 species in Central & South America that live in primary forest

     
  97. Eunica tatila  (ph)  ______  (DV1:22) (K:215) (MCA:111) (PE:25)
    Eunica tatila bellaria  ______  ARne  (MM:317) 
    (subspecies from Panama to southern Brazil & Argentina)
    FLORIDA PURPLEWING 
    (or Large Purplewing, or simply Purplewing)
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, also West Indies) 
     



    Eunica tatila, the Florida Purplewing

  98. Eunica monima ______ (DV1:22) (K:215) (MCA:111) (PE:25)
    DINGY PURPLEWING
    (Range: southern US & Mexico thru Central America into South America to Venezuela, also the Greater Antilles) 

  99. Eunica malvina ______ (DV1:22) (MCA:110)
    RAYED PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  100. Eunica mygdonia ______ (DV1:22) (MCA:110)
    BLIND PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  101. Eunica alcmena  ______
    Eunica alcmena alcmena  ______  (DV1:23) (MCA:110) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia & western Venezuela)
    DARK PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)

  102. Eunica araucana  ______
    ARAUCANA PURPLEWING
    (Range: Panama, Colombia, western Venezuela, Ecuador)

  103. Eunica caelina  ______  (MCA:111)
    Eunica caelina olympias  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Peru & Venezuela)
    MOTTLED PURPLEWING

  104. Eunica caralis  ______
    Eunica caralis caralis  ______ 
    (subspecies known to be in Honduras, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela)
    CARALIS PURPLEWING

  105. Eunica carias  ______
    Eunica carias carias  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    CARIAS PURPLEWING

  106. Eunica chlororhoa  ______
    Eunica chlororhoa mira  ______ 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Colombia)
    ORANGE-STAINED PURPLEWING

  107. Eunica clytia  ______
    CLYTIA PURPLEWING
    (Range: western Panana to Peru & central Brazil) 

  108. Eunica alpais  ______  (DV1:23) (MCA:111)
    SHINING PURPLEWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

  109. Eunica norica  ______
    Eunica norica norica  ______  (DV1:22) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Venezuela & western Ecuador)
    MIDNIGHT PURPLEWING 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  110. Eunica pomona  ______ 
    Eunica pomona amata  ______  (DV1:23)
    ROUNDED PURPLEWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela) 

  111. Eunica pusilla  ______
    PUSILLA PURPLEWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia & southeast Brazil)

  112. Eunica sydonia  ______  (DV1:22) (MCA:110)
    PLAIN PURPLEWING
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru)  

  113. Eunica volumina  ______
    Eunica volumina venusia  ______  (MCA:111) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Chiapas)
    BLUE-CELLED PURPLEWING


  114. Eunica maja maja ______ ARne  (MM:316)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Maja

  115. Eunica eburnea ______ ARne  (MM:318)
    AR common name: Marfil 
    (translates to "Ivory") (The scientific name, eburnea, means "ivory", or like it.) 


    Genus MYSCELIA


  116. Myscelia cyaniris ______ (DV1:22) (MCA:108)
    WHITENED BLUEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru) 

  117. Myscelia leucocyna ______ (DV1:22)
    Myscelia leucocyna leucocyna  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Venezuela)
    PALE BLUEWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela) 

  118. Myscelia orsis  ______  AR:ne  (MM:315)
    AR common name: Yin-Yang 
    (This name is because the male & female are very different, but yet they are of course complimentary, as is the universal principle of the yin and the yang in Taoism.)  


    Genus NESSAEA

  119. Nessaea aglaura  ______  (MCA:107)
    Nessaea aglaura aglaura  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to western Ecuador)
    NORTHERN NESSAEA 
    (or Common Olivewing)


    Genus MARPESIA: DAGGERWINGS
    Mostly Central and South American butterflies, but also occurs in Africa. Called "DAGGERWING" after the long tail on each hindwing. 

  120. Marpesia zerynthia (or coresia)  (ph)  ______  (K:219) (MCA:117)
    Marpesia zerynthia dentigera  ______  (DV1:23) (PE:25) 
    (subspecies from Mexico, rarely Texas, to Peru)
    Marpesia zerynthia zerynthia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bahia, Brazil) 
    WAITER DAGGERWING
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America) 

    Marpesia coresia has been merged into Marpesia zerynthia.



    A Waiter Daggerwing photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


  121. Marpesia merops  ______  EC  (DV1:23) (MCA:117)
    SPOT-BANDED DAGGERWING 
    (or Dappled Daggerwing)
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil)

  122. Marpesia berania  (ph)  ______  ECnw  (C:275) (DV1:23) (MCA:117)
    Marpesia berania berania  ______ 
    (a subspecies in Ecuador)
    Marpesia berania fruhstorferi  ______ 
    (a subspecies in Ecuador)
    ORANGE DAGGERWING
      (another name is Guatemalan Daggerwing)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)



    Above & below: Orange Daggerwings photographed 
    during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photos by Marie Gardner) 





  123. Marpesia marcella  ______  EC    (DV1:23)
    Marpesia marcella marcella  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)    
    PURPLE-STAINED DAGGERWING
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru)

  124. Marpesia iole  ______  (DV1:23)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Bolivia)

  125. Marpesia petreus  (ph)  ______  (DV1:23) (F:177) (K:219) (MCA:117) (PE:25) (S:123)
    Marpesia petreus petreus ______ ARne  (MM:320) 
    (subspecies from the Guianas to Bolivia, Argentina)
    RUDDY DAGGERWING
    (also called Southern Daggertail, and in the West Indies, the Tailed Flambeau)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America) 

    Marpesia petreus visits flowers and mud-puddles.



    Ruddy Daggerwing

  126. Marpesia chiron  ______  ECnw  (C:273) (DV1:23) (K:219) (MCA:117) (PE:25)
    Marpesia chiron marius ______ ARne  (MM:319) 
    (was said to be a subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MANY-BANDED DAGGERWING
    AR common name:
    Mario  (refers to the scientific name; the only race found in Argentina)
    BR common name: Cambaxirra
    (Range: southern US, Central & South America, also West Indies) 

  127. Marpesia corinna  (ph)  ______  EC
    CORINNA DAGGERWING



    Corinna Daggerwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  128. Marpesia crethon  ______  EC

  129. Marpesia furcula  ______  EC
    Marpesia furcula violetta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Marpesia furcula oechalia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

  130. Marpesia livius  ______  EC
    Marpesia livius livius 
    ______  (subspecies in Ecuador)


    Genus DYNAMINE

  131. Dynamine agacles  ______ 
    Dynamine agacies core  ______ (DV1:24) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Dynamine agacies agacies ______ ARne  (MM:303) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    PALE SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota Ribeteada  (translates to "Edged Drop")
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina)  

  132. Dynamine theseus ______ (DV1:24) (MCA:103)
    WHITE SAILOR
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  133. Dynamine athemon  ______
    Dynamine athemon maeon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    GHOST SAILOR

  134. Dynamine colombiana  ______
    COLOMBIAN SAILOR
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia & northwest Venezuela) 

  135. Dynamine postverta (or mylitta)  ______  (DV1:24) (MCA:102)
    Dynamine postverta postverta  ______  ARne  (MM:306) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    FOUR-SPOTTED SAILOR 
    (another name is Mexican Sailor
    AR common name: Gota Ocelata  (translates to "Eye-spotted Drop")
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)  

  136. Dynamine artemisia  ______
    Dynamine artemisia glauce ______ (C:289) (DV1:24) (MCA:102) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    Dynamine artemisia artemisia ______ ARne  (MM:308) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    SMALL-EYED SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota de Monoculo
    (translates to "Drop with Monocle", has a large "eyespot" with a band, like a monocle)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

  137. Dynamine aerata  ______  ARne  (MM:307)
    AR common name: Gota de Anteokos 
    (translates to "Drop with Glasses")

  138. Dynamine chryseis ______ (DV1:24)
    THICK-RIMMED SAILOR
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)

  139. Dynamine myrrhina ______ ARba,ne  (BB:247) (MM:301)
    AR common name: Gota de Luz 
    (translates to "Drop Light")

  140. Dynamine coenus coenus ______ ARne  (MM:302)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Gota Blanca 
    (translates to "White Drop")

  141. Dynamine athemon athemaena ______ ARne  (MM:304)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Gota con Linea 
    (translates to "Drop with Line")

  142. Dynamine tithia  (ph)  ______
    Dynamine tithia salpensa  ______  (DV1:24) 
    (subspecies in the Andes and upper Amazon basin, from Colombia to Bolivia; was thought to be in Central America)  
    Dynamine tithia tithia  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:305) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BLUE SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota Ciega 
    (translates to "Blind Drop")



    Above & below: the Blue Sailor, photographed at Iguazu Falls
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)  



  143. Dynamine paulina  ______
    Dynamine paulina thalassina  ______  (MCA:102) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    DARK SAILOR 
    (or Paulina's Sailor)


    Genus PYRRHOGYRA

  144. Pyrrhogyra neaerea ______ (DV1:28) (MCA:103)
    Pyrrhogyra neaerea arge  ______  ARne  (MM:310) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BANDED BANNER 
    (or Leading Red-ring)
    AR common name: Pore Pyla
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)  

  145. Pyrrhogyra crameri ______ (DV1:28) (MCA:103)
    ROUNDED BANNER 
    (or Cramer's Red-ring)
    (Range: Belize to the Amazon Basin)

  146. Pyrrhogyra otolais  (ph)  ______  (DV1:28) (MCA:103)
    DOUBLE-BANDED BANNER 
    (or White-edged Red-ring)
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia) 



    Double-banded Banner
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


  147. Pyrrhogyra edocla ______ (DV1:28) (MCA:103)
    Pyrrhogyra edocia edocia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela) 
    GREEN-SPOTTED BANNER 
    (or Complete Red-ring)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)


    Genus ASTEROPE

    ASTEROPE butterflies occur primarily in undisturbed tropical forests in the Amazon basin.
    They spend most of their time in the forest canopy, but they are attracted to rotting fruits, fish, and mammal dung.
    During the day, they fly mostly between 10am & 2pm.       

  148. Asterope degandii  ______
    Asterope degandii degandii  ______ 
    (subspecies from western Panama to Ecuador)
    Asterope degandii adamsi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    RED-BASED BANNER

  149. Asterope buckleyi  ______
    (Range: in Peru)

  150. Asterope markii  ______
    Asterope markii ackeryi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Para)
    Asterope markii hewitsoni  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & Peru)
    Asterope markii markii  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Amazonas)
    Asterope markii werneri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, Rio Japura)

  151. Asterope whitelyi  ______
    Asterope whitelyi whitelyi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

  152. Asterope optima  ______
    Asterope optima optima  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, at Iquitos & the area of the Explorama Lodge)


    Genus CYBDELIS

  153. Cybdelis phaesyla  ______  ARne  (MM:309)
    AR common name: Abanderada 
    (translates to "Standard-bearer", alludes to the pattern on the upper forewings, like Argentina's flag)


    Genus TEMENIS

  154. Temenis laothoe  ______  (DV1:24) (MCA:107)
    Temenis laothoe hondurensis  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    Temenis laothoe santina  ______ ARne (MM:313) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ORANGE BANNER
    AR common name: Mocha 
    (translates to "Blunt")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 

  155. Temenis pulchra ______ (DV1:24)
    RED BANNER
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)


    Genus NICA

  156. Nica flavilla  ______  (MCA:107)
    Nica flavilla canthara  ______  (DV1:24) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to at least Venezuela) 
    Nica flavilla flavilla  ______  ARne  (MM:314) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    LITTLE BANNER
    AR common name: Aritos  (translates to "Small Rings")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 



    Genus EPIPHILE

  157. Epiphile adrasta  ______  (MCA:106)
    Epiphile adrasta bandusia  ______ 
    (subspecies from central Panama to western Ecuador)
    COMMON BANNER

  158. Epiphile eriopis  ______
    Epiphile eriopis devriesi  ______  (MCA:106) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia, described in 1986)
    WHITE-STRIPED BANNER 
    (or White-tipped Banner)

  159. Epiphile chrysites  (ph)  ______
    Epiphile chrysites chrysites  ______ 
    (subspecies from Venezuela to Bolivia)
    CHRYSITES BANNER   



    Chrysites Banner
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  160. Epiphile epimenes  (ph)  ______
    (Range: Colombia & Venezuela)



    Epiphile epimenes
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  161. Epiphile orea  ______  (DV1:24)
    Epiphile orea orea ______ ARne  (MM:311) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Marcada Azul 
    (translates to "Blue Marked")
    (Range: Costa Rica to northern Argentina)  

  162. Epiphile hubneri ______ ARne  (MM:312)
    AR common name: Marcada Anaranjada 
    (translates to "Orange Marked")


    Genus CATONEPHELE 

  163. Catonephele numilia  (ph)  ______  (MCA:109)
    Catonephele numilia esite ______  EC  (DV1:25) (S:139) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela & in northwest Ecuador; also Trinidad) 
    Catonephele numilia neogermanica  (ph)  ______  ARne  (MM:292)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BLUE-FROSTED BANNER 
    (other names are the Stoplight Catone and Grecian Shoemaker)
    AR common name: Terciopelo Manchado  (translates to "Spotted Velvet")
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil & Argentina) 



    Catonephele numilia, the Blue-frosted Banner 
    or Spotlight Catone or Grecian Shoemaker
    photographed during a FONT tour in southeast Brazil in August 2009 

  164. Catonephele chromis  (ph)  ______ (DV1:25) (MCA:109)
    SISTER-SPOTTED BANNER 
    (another name is Cloud Forest Catone
    (Range: Honduras to possibly Bolivia) 



    Catonephele chromis, the Sister-spotted Banner
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  165. Catonephele orites  ______  ECnw   (DV1:25)
    BROKEN BANNER
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

  166. Catonephele acontius caeruleus ______ ARne  (MM:293)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Terciopelo Fajado 
    (translates to "Banded Velvet") 


    Genus HAEMATERA

  167. Haematera pyrame  ______  (DV1:25)
    Haematera pyrame pyrame ______ ARne  (MM:290) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    BLIND EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Llamarada 
    (translates to "Blaze")
    (Range: Nicaragua to northern Argentina)  


    Genus DIAETHRIA

  168. Diaethria clymena  (ph)  ______  (C:317)
    Diaethria clymena marchalii  ______  EC  (DV1:25) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to northwest Ecuador)
    The above subspecies more like "68" than "88".  (see photo below of butterfly in Ecuador)  
    Diaethria clymena janeira  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:294) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina & southern Brazil)
    the WIDESPREAD EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (also known as the Cramer's Eighty-Eight)
    AR common name: Ochenta y Ocho  (translates to "Eighty-Eight Butterfly")
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil & Argentina) 



    Above: an "Eighty-eight Butterfly", Diaethria clymena,
    photographed during a FONT tour in southeast Brazil in August 2009 
    Below: the same species photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
    (both photos below by Marie Gardner)



    And below: the same butterfly, yes it is, showing
    the upperside. Diaethria clymena.





  169. Diaethria astala  ______
    Diaethria astala astala  ______  (MCA:105) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    ASTALA EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (or Navy Eighty-Eight

  170. Diaethria eluina  ______ 
    Diaethria eluina eluina ______  ARne  (MM:295) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Ochenta y Ocho Azul" 
    (translates to "Blue Eighty-Eight")

  171. Diaethria candrena  (ph)  ______
    Diaethria candrena candrena  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:245) (MM:296)
      (subspecies in Argentina)
    CANDRENA EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Ochenta 
    (translates to "Eighty")



    A Candrena Eighty-Eight, or more appropriately "Eighty" 
    Diaethria candrena
    (photo by Ismail Eren)


  172. Diaethria gabaza  ______
    Diaethria gabaza eupepla  ______  (MCA:105) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    SMUDGED EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (or Lipstick Eighty-Eight)


    Genus CALLICORE

  173. Callicore pitheas  ______ (DV1:25) (MCA:104)
    TWO-EYED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador)

  174. Callicore astarte  ______  (MCA:104) 
    Callicore astarte staudingeri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama, Colombia, Venezuela)
    BLUE-STITCHED EIGHTY-EIGHT 

  175. Callicore atacama ______ (DV1:25)
    YELLOW-BANDED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  176. Callicore brome ______ (DV1:25) (MCA:104)
    FOUR-SPOTTED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  177. Callicore pygas  (ph)  ______ 
    Callicore pygas thamyras  ______  ARne  (MM:297) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    PYGAS EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Para Guasu 
    (regarding the name: "Para" & "Guasu" are Guarani words meaning, respectively, "full of colors" and "big") 



    Pygas Eighty-eight, at Iguazu Falls
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  178. Callicore hydaspes  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:298)
    HYDASPES EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Para Mini 
    (regarding the name: "Para" & "Mini" are Guarani words meaning, respectively, "full of colors" and "small")



    A Hydaspes Eighty-eight at Iguazu Falls, on a person's thumb
    (photo by Sherry Nelson) 

  179. Callicore sorana sorana ______ ARne  (MM:299)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Para Zigzag  ("Zigzag Para")

  180. Callicore texa  ______ 
    Callicore texa titania  ______  (MCA:104) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    YELLOW-RIMMED EIGHTY-EIGHT

  181. Callicore tolima  ______
    Callicore tolima chimana  ______  EC
      (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    BLUE-AND-ORANGE EIGHTY-EIGHT 

  182. Callicore lyca  ______
    Callicore lyca odilia  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    SIX-SPOTTED EIGHTY-EIGHT


    Genus PAULOGRAMMA

  183. Paulogramma pyracmon  ______ 
    Paulogramma pyracmon pyracmon  ______  ARne  (MM:300)
    AR common name: Para Mediana  ("Medium Para")


    Subfamily LIMENITIDINAE:  ADMIRALS

    Adults are often characterized by flap-and-glide flight.


    Genus ADELPHA:  SISTERS

  184. Adelpha abia  (ph)  ______  ARne  (MM:278)
    ABIA SISTER
    AR common name: Abia



    Abia Sister

  185. Adelpha attica  ______
    Adelpha attica hemileuca  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador & western Colombia)
    ATTICA SISTER 

  186. Adelpha barnesia
    Adelpha barnesia leucas  ______  (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to northwest Venezuela & western Ecuador)
    BARNESIA SISTER 
    (or Barnes' Sister

  187. Adelpha boeotia  ______  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha boeotia boeotia  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Bolivia, southwest Brazil, & the Guianas)
    BOEOTIA SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  188. Adelpha boreas ______ (DV1:26) (MCA:100)
    Adelpha boreas boreas  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to Venezuela & Bolivia) 
    BOREAS SISTER 
    (or Felder's Sister
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  189. Adelpha cocala  ______  (C:227) (DV:26)
    Adelpha cocala lorzae  ______  (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to northwest Venezuela & western Ecuador) 
    ORANGE-WASHED SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon River)

  190. Adelpha cytherea  ______  (DV1:26) (MCA:98)
    Adelpha cytherea daguana  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to northwest Venezuela & western Ecuador) 
    CYTHEREA SISTER 
    (or Smooth-banded Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  191. Adelpha delinita  ______  (DV1:50) (MCA:100)
    DELINITA SISTER 
    (or Delineated Sister)
    (Range: Honduras to Ecuador)  

  192. Adelpha erotica  ______  (DV1:27) (MCA:100)
    Adelpha erotica erotica  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia, Amazonian Brazil, & the Guianas)
    EROTICA SISTER 
    (or Stitched Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia & Brazil)

  193. Adelpha falcipennis  ______  ARne  (MM:280)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Adelpha Ocre 
    (translates to "Ochre Adelpha", referring to coloring on the ventral side) 

  194. Adelpha heraclea ______ (DV1:26)
    Adelpha heraclea heraclea  ______ 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to southeast Peru, Brazil)
    HERACLEA SISTER
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela)

  195. Adelpha hesterbergi  ______ 
    HESTERBERG'S SISTER
    (Range: Costa Rica, northwestern Ecuador)

  196. Adelpha iphiclus  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)   
    Adelpha iphiclus iphiclus  ______  (DV1:27)
    (MCA:99)  (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia, and the Guianas & Trinidad)   
    IPHICLUS SISTER 
    (another name is Pointer Sister
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  197. Adelpha ixia  ______  (DV1:27)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  198. Adelpha justina  ______  (DV1:26)
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru)

  199. Adelpha lerna ______ (DV1:27)
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin) 

  200. Adelpha leucophthalma  ______  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha leucophthalma leucophthalma  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia)
    LEUCOPHTHALMA SISTER 
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia, possibly Peru)

  201. Adelpha lycorias  ______  (DV1:26) (MCA:101)
    Adelpha lycorias lycorias  ______  ARne  (MM:274) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    RAYED SISTER
    AR common name: Mancha Bermellon (translates to "vermilion spot")
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

    Adelpha melanthe now merged into Adelpha lycorias as a subspecies.

  202. Adelpha malea  ______
    Adelpha malea fundania  ______  (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from eastern Mexico to northwest Venezuela)
    Adelpha malea goyama  ______  AR:ne  (MM:277) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    FUNDANIA SISTER 
    (or Venezuelan Sister)
    AR common name: Goyama

  203. Adelpha melona
    Adelpha melona pseudarete  ______  ARne  (MM:283) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MELLONA SISTER
    AR common name: Melona

  204. Adelpha messana  ______
    Adelpha messana messana  ______
      (subspecies from Guatemala to northwest Ecuador & northwest Venezuela)
    MESSANA SISTER

  205. Adelpha mythra ______ ARne  (MM:276)
    AR common name: Mithra, 
    the name relating to Mithra who was a Persian god.

  206. Adelpha naxia ______   
    Adelpha naxia naxia  ______  (DV1:27) (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to the Guianas, the Brazilian Amazon, Bolivia)
    NAXIA SISTER 
    (or Two-part Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  207. Adelpha nea  ______  (MCA:98)
    Adelpha nea nea  _____
      (subspecies from Costa Rica to Venezuela & the Guianas, and to southern Peru & Amazonian Brazil)
    NEA SISTER 
    (or Scarce Sister)

  208. Adelpha paraena  ______  (MCA:97)
    Adelpha paraena lecromi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & northern Colombia) (subspecies described in 2003)
    LE CROM'S SISTER 
    (further north called Bates' Sister)

  209. Adelpha phylaca  ______  (DV1:27)
    Adelpha phylaca pseudaethalia  ______  (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to northwest Venezuela & western Ecuador)
    PHYLACA SISTER 
    (or Cecropia Sister)
    (Range: Guatemala to Bolivia)

  210. Adelpha radiata  ______
    Adelpha radiata aiellae  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to northwest Ecuador) (subspecies described in 1999)

  211. Adelpha salmoneus  ______  (DV1:26) (MCA:101)
    GOLD-BANDED SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  212. Adelpha syma  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:241) (MM:275)
    AR common name: Syma
    (referring to the scientific name)

  213. Adelpha serpa  ______
    Adelpha serpa celerio  ______  (DV1:27) (MCA:97) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia & Venezuela)
    Adelpha serpa serpa  ______  AR:ne  (MM:279) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    SERPA SISTER 
    (or Celadon Sister
    AR common name: Serpa
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

  214. Adelpha seriphia  ______
    Adelpha seriphia godmani  ______
      (MCA:97)  (subspecies to southern Mexico to western Ecuador)
    SERIPHIA SISTER 
    (or Dentate Sister)

  215. Adelpha thessalia indefecta  ______  ARne  (MM:281)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Tesala del Nordeste 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Tesala del Nordeste 
    (translates to "Northeastern Tesela")

  216. Adelpha zea ______ ARba,ne  (BB:243) (DV1:27) (MM:282)
    AR common name: Zea
    (Range: Mexico to the Argentina)  

  217. Adelpha zina  ______  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha zina zina  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Venezuela & southwest Ecuador)
    ZINA SISTER
    (Range: Nicaragua to Peru)


    Genus HYPANARTIA

  218. Hypanartia lethe  (ph)  ______ (C:279) (DV1:28) (MCA:95) (MM:324)
    ORANGE MAPWING
    AR common name: Leta 
    (referring to the scientific name; Lethe, in mythology, was Oleno's wife who turned into a stone)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil & Argentina)



    Orange Mapwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


  219. Hypanartia godmani  ______  (MCA:95)
    GODMAN'S MAPWING 
    (or Splendid Mapwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  220. Hypanartia kefersteini ______ (DV1:28)
    RED MAPWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)

  221. Hypanartia bella  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:261) (MM:325)
    AR common name: Bella 
    (translates to "Beautiful")


    Genus SIPROETA (or METAMORPHA)

  222. Siproeta (or Metamorpha) stelenes  (ph)  ______  (F:202)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Siproeta stelenes biplagiata  ______  (DV1:28) (K:209) (MCA:96) (PE:26)
    (subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon; also south Florida, Cuba, the Cayman Is.) 
    Siproeta stelenes sophene  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    Siproeta stelenes meridionalis  ______  ARne  (MM:329) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)   
    MALACHITE
    an AR common name: Itaovy Guasu 
    (translates to "Large Emerald") (from Guarani words, alluding to its color, size, and beauty)
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, and thru West Indies)  

    The Malachite is on the wing all year in the tropics. It feeds on fermenting fruit. 



    Above & below: Malachites  
    The photo below on a Poinsettia plant in Southeast Brazil during the FONT tour in May 2011.
    (photo below by Pat Yoder) 



  223. Siproeta epaphus  (ph)  ______  (S:136)
    Siproeta epaphus epaphus  ______  (DV1:28) (K:209) (MCA:96) 
    (subspecies from south Texas to Peru)
    Siproeta epaphus trayja ______ ARne  (MM:320)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    RUSTY-TIPPED PAGE 
    (or Brown Siproeta
    AR common name: Epafos Moreno  ("Dark Epafos") (referring to Epafos who in mythology, was Jupiter's son)  
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  



    A Rusty-tipped Page photographed during a FONT Tour
    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd)


    Genus METAMORPHA

  224. Metamorpha elissa  ______
    Metamorpha elissa elissa  ______
    (subspecies from Panama to the Guianas & Peru)
    METAMORPHA 


    Genus ANARTIA

  225. Anartia fatima  (ph)  ______  (MCA:94)
    Anartia fatima fatima  ______ 
    (subspecies from south Texas to northwest Colombia)
    BANDED PEACOCK 

  226. Anartia amathea  (ph)  ______  (C:311)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Anartia amathea roeselia ______ ARba,ne  (BB:265) (MM:327) 
    (subspecies from Panama to Argentina & in some of the Lesser Antilles)
    RED PEACOCK
    AR common name: Princesa Roja 
    (translates to (translates to "Red Princess")
    (Range: Panama to Argentina, also: Trinidad & Tobago, Grenada, Barbados, Antigua) 



    Above & below: the Red Peacock, photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (upper photo by Fred Lesser, with his i-phone,
     lower photo by Marie Gardner)   




  227. Anartia jatrophae  (ph)  ______  (C:309) (DV1:28) (K:209) (MCA:94) (PE:24) (S:107) (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Anartia jatrophae jatrophae  ______  ARne  (MM:326) 
    (subspecies in South America & in the Lesser Antilles) 
    WHITE PEACOCK
    AR common name: Princesa Perlada  (Princesa,
    or Princess, is the common Spanish name for the ANARTIA genus butterflies; "Perlada" refers to the wing coloring)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also West Indies)  



    White Peacock


    Genus JUNONIA: BUCKEYES 

    The number of species of buckeyes in Central & South America, and the West Indies is uncertain.
    If there is more than 1 species, their ranges are uncertain.     

  228. Junonia evarete ______ (D1:28) (F:168) (K:207) (MCA:94) (PE:23)
    Junonia evarete evarete  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeastern South America) 
    TROPICAL BUCKEYE

    (Range: southern US thru the American tropics)



    Tropical Buckeye
    (photo by Sherry C. Nelson)


  229. Junonia genoveva  ______  (K:207) (MCA:94) (PE:23)
    Junonia genoveva genoveva  ______ 
    (subspecies in Surinam)
    Junonia genoveva vivida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Surinam, Guyana)
    Junonia genoveva constricta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela & Colombia)
    Junonia genoveva incarnata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela & Colombia)
    Junonia geneveva infuscata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Junonia genoveva hilaris ______ ARba,ne  (BB:263) (MM:328) 
    (subspecies in Paraguay, northeast Argentina, southern Brazil, Uruguay) 
    MANGROVE BUCKEYE 
    (in the West Indies called the Caribbean Buckeye; other names are Smoky Buckeye, Florida Buckeye, West Indian Buckeye
    AR common name: Pavo Real  ("Peacock")  (another name: Genoveva)
    (Range: southern US to Argentina) 


    Genus VANESSA: LADY BUTTERFLIES 

  230. Vanessa (or Cynthia) cardui  (ph)  ______ (DV1:28) (K:205) (MCA:93) (PE:23) (S:141) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    PAINTED LADY
    (Range: worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand) 



    Painted Lady
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  231. Vanessa virginiensis  (ph)  ______
    AMERICAN LADY
    (Range: from North America south to Colombia; also in the West Indies, Hawaii, & the Canary Islands) 

  232. Vanessa carye  (ph)  ______ ARba,ne  CH  (BB:257) (MM:321) (WGC:101)
    FOUR-EYED LADY
    AR common name: Dama Cuatro Ojos 
    (translates to "Four-eyed Lady")
    CH common name: Mariposa Colorada
    (Range: widespread in South America in a variety of habitats, including towns and cities. In Chile, Arica to Magallanes)

    Vanessa carye
    is a smaller sister species of the Painted Lady, Vanessa cardui.
    The larvae feeds on nettles and mallows.



    A Four-eyed Lady photographed during a FONT tour in southern Chile,
    on Chiloe Island
    (photo by Frank Stermitz)


  233. Vanessa atalanta  (ph)  ______  (MCA:93)
    Vanessa atalanta rubria  ______ 
    (subspecies from North America to Guatemala, & Venezuela)
    RED ADMIRAL 

  234. Vanessa terpsichore  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposa Colorada de Philippi
    (Range: in Chile, occurs commonly from Coquimbo to Magallanes)

    Vanessa terpsichore
    is very similar to Vanessa carye, but it is paler.

  235. Vanessa braziliensis ______ ARba,ne  (BB:259) (MM:322)
    AR common name: Dama Dos Ojos 
    (translates to "Two-eyed Lady")

  236. Vanessa myrinna ______ ARne  (MM:323)
    AR common name: Dama Fajarda 
    (translates to "Banded Lady")


    Genus HYPOLIMNAS

  237. Hypolimnas misippus  (ph)  ______ (DV1:28) (F:164)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1764)
    THE MIMIC 
    (other names: Diadem Butterfly, Six-continent Butterfly, Danaid Butterfly
    (Range: distribution nearly worldwide; occurs in northeastern South America)

    The female of Hypolimnas misippus resembles Danaus chrysippus of the Old World, with coloration similar to Danaus glippus, the Queen.


    Genus CHLOSYNE: PATCHES

      
  238. Chlosyne lacinia (ph)  ______ (C:265) (DV1:29) (K:189) (MCA:82) (PE:21)
    Chlosyne lacinia saundersi  ______  ARne  (MM:337) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    BORDERED PATCH
    AR common name: Naranjita
    (Range: US to northern Argentina)

    Chlosyne lacinia has a very variable pattern. It prefers sunny places and feeds on nectar.



    Above & below: Bordered Patch



    This lower photo is of a dark Bordered Patch.
    Those in the Iguazu area have more orange in the upperwings, hence the common name there of "Naranjita".
    (above photos by Doris Potter)  

  239. Chlosyne poecile ______ (DV1:29)
    POECILE CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: southwestern Costa Rica to Venezuela)

  240. Chlosyne narva ______ (DV1:29)
    Chlosyne narva narva  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela)
    Chlosyne narva bonpland  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to western Ecuador)
    NARVA CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela & Ecuador)

  241. Chlosyne janais  ______  (MCA:82)
    Chlosyne janais janais  ______ 
    (subspecies from the southern US to Colombia)
    CRIMSON-PATCH CHECKERSPOT 
    (also called Crimson Patch



    A Crimson-patch Checkerspot, or Crimson Patch

  242. Chlosyne hippodrome  ______  (MCA:83)
    Chlosyne hippodrome hippodrome  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia) 
    SIMPLE CHECKERSPOT

  243. Chlosyne perlula  ______
    PERULA CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: Venezuela & Colombia) 


    Genus TEGOSA

  244. Tegosa anieta  ______ (MCA:88)
    Tegosa anieta anieta ______ (DV1:29) 
    BLACK-BORDERED CRESCENT 
    (or Black-bordered Tegosa)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela, also Trinidad)

  245. Tegosa frisia  ______ 
    Tegosa frisia hermas  ______  ARne  (MM:331)
    AR common name: Saipicada 
    (translates to "Splashy")

  246. Tegosa claudina ______ ARba,ne  (BB:267) (MCA:88) (MM:332)
    CLAUDINA CRESCENT
    AR common name: Claudina 
    (referring to the scientific name)

  247. Tegosa orobia  ______  ARba  (BB:269)
    AR common name: Incienso  (referring to the scientific name "orobia" which means ""incense"")

    Tegosa orobia can be confused with Tegosa claudina. T. orobia occurs in flowery scrubland in northeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. 


    Genus ORTILIA




    A butterfly in the Ortilia genus photographed in northern South America
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  248. Ortilia ithra  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:273) (MM:333)
    AR common name: Mbatara 
    (a Guarani word meaning "lead-colored", with short white lines)

    Ortilia ithra is common in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. It occurs with others in the genus. 

  249. Ortilia velica  ______ 
    Ortilia velica durnfordi  ______
      ARba,ne  (BB:271) (MM:334) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    AR common name: Marroncita 
    (translates to "Small Brown")

  250. Ortilia dicoma  ______  ARne  (MM:335)
    AR common name: Alitas Largas 
    (translates to "Long Wings")  


    Genus ERESIA

  251. Eresia ithomioides  ______
    Eresia ithomioides eutropia
    (or melania ______  (subspecies from Costa Rica to western Colombia)
    Eresia ithomioides cissia  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    VARIABLE CRESCENT

  252. Eresia eunice  ______
    Eresia eunice drypetis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Panama, Colombia, & northwest Ecuador)
    EUNICE CRESCENT

  253. Eresia alsina  ______  (MCA:86)
    Eresia alsina quintilla  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    THREE-BANDED CRESCENT

  254. Eresia clio  ______  (DV1:30) (MCA:87)  (includes what was Eresia clara
    Eresia clio reducta  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    CREAMY CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

    Eresia clio
    was described by Linnaeus in 1758.

  255. Eresia levina  (ph)  ______



    Eresia levina
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  256. Eresia poecilina  ______
    Eresia poecilina casiphia  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)

  257. Eresia lansdorfi  (ph)  ______ ARba,ne  (BB:275) (MM:336)
    AR common name: Falsa Erato  ("False Erato") 
    (name refers to its resemblance to Heliconius erato phyllis



    Above & below: Eresia lansdorfi, the "False Erato",
    photographed at Iguazu Falls
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)





    Genus CASTILIA

  258. Castilia eranites ______ (DV1:30) (MCA:86)
    MIMIC CRESCENT
      (or Smudged Crescent)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  259. Castilia ofella ______ (DV1:30) (MCA:87)
    WHITE-DOTTED CRESCENT
    (Range: Guatemala to Venezuela, also Trinidad)


    Genus JANATELLA

  260. Janatella leucodesma ______ (DV1:30)
    WHITENED CRESCENT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela, also Trinidad)


    Subgenus ANTHANASSA (and PHYCIODES) CRESCENTS

  261. Anthanassa (or Phyciodes) drusilla ______ (DV1:30) (MCA:90)
    ORANGE-PATCHED CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador) 

  262. Anthanassa (or Phyciodes) ptolyca ______ (DV1:30) (K:183) (MCA:91) (PE:21)
    Anthanassa ptolyca ptoyca  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela)
    DARKENED CRESCENT 
    (or Black Crescent)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  263. Anthanassa ardys  ______  (MCA:90)
    ARDYS CRESCENT 
    (or Ardent Crescent
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  264. Anthanassa sosis (or dora)  ______
    SOSIS CRESCENT
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)
      


    Subfamily HELICONIINAE: LONGWINGS

    Mostly in the American tropics. Adults of some species are long-lived, and several are distasteful. Various other species mimic the distasteful butterflies of this group.  


    Genus PHILAETHRIA: 
    nearly identical species which may be differentiated only by comparing their underwings.

  265. Philaethria dido ______  (DA:92) (DV1:31) (S:164)
    Scarce Bamboo Page
    (Range: southern Mexico to the Amazon Basin in Brazil; also Trinidad)

    Philaethria dido generally lies high in the tree canopy, but on occasion descends to drink and take in salts from the damp ground. 
    The costal margins and the transverse band of the hindwings of Philaethria dide are chocolate-colored.  

  266. Philaethria wernickei ______  ARne (DA:text) (MM:340)
    AR common name: Itaovy Rabona 
    (translates to "Tailless Itaovy")  (Itaovy is a Guarani word meaning "emerald")
    (Range: southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina)

    The costal margins and the transverse band of the hindwings of Philaethria wernickei are gray.



    Genus PODOTRICHA:  2 species occurring at medium to high elevations in the Andes.

  267. Podotricha telesiphe  (ph)  ______ 
    Podotricha telesiphe tithraustes  ______  (DA:93)
    TELESIPHE LONGWING
    (Occurs in Ecuador & Peru, from 2,500 to 9,000 feet)



    Telesiphe Longwing, Podotricha telesiphe
    (photo courtesy of Sherry Nelson)
      
      

    Genus DIONE

  268. Dione moneta  (ph)  ______ (C:267) (DV1:31) (F:143) (K:155) (MCA:80) (PE:19)
    MEXICAN SILVERSPOT 
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America) 



    Mexican Silverspot
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  269. Dione juno ______  (DV1:31) (MCA:80) (S:161)
    Dione juno juno  ______  EC
      (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Dione juno suffumata ______ ARba,ne  (BB:281) (MM:343) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    JUNO LONGWING 
    (other names are Silver Spot or Scarce Silver-spotted Flambeau
    AR common name: Juno Obscura  (translates to "Dark Juno")  (Juno in mythology was a Greek goddess, a dark, relating to D. j. suffumata, is in comparison with another Argentine subspecies.)
    (Range: thru Central & South America, also the Lesser Antilles) 

    Dione juno is closely related to Dryas iulia
    Dione juno often occurs in the same places as the very similar Gulf Fritillary, Agraulis vanillae. It (Dione juno) is said to be attracted to red and blue flowers.

  270. Dione glycera  (ph)   ______  EC  CH  (WGC:101)
    ANDEAN SILVERSPOT
    CH common name: Mariposa Dione
    (Range: in Chile, in Arica and Tarapaca, where it occurs in open and deforested areas, villages and towns, and in mid-elevation valleys)



    Andean Silverspot
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus AGRAULIS: a single well-known species which occurs in a number of races throughout its vast range.

  271. Agraulis vanillae  (ph)  ______  (C:269) (DV1:31) (F:144) (K:157) (MCA:80) (PE:19) (S:160)
    Agraulis vanillae maculosa ______ ARba,ne  (BB:283) (DA:93) (MM:343) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)  
    GULF FRITILLARY 
    (another name, particularly in the West Indies: Silver-spotted Flambeau
    AR common name: Espejitos  (translates to "Mirrors", referring to the silver spots on the ventral side, that appear as fragments of a mirror)
    BR common name: Pingos de Prata 
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to South America, also West Indies)  

    The widespread and familiar Agraulis vanillae, or Gulf Fritillary, visits gardens to drink nectar.
    Its Fiery orange upperside is distinguished from Dryas iulia by presence of numerous black dots on the forewing and a silver spotted underside.



    Gulf Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


    Genus DRYADULA

  272. Dryadula phaetusa  (ph)  ______ ARne  (DV1:31) (K:155) (MCA:80) (MM:344) (PE:19)
    BANDED LONGWING 
    (other names have been Banded Orange Heliconian,or  Banded Orange
    AR common name: Faetusa  (referring to Phaetusa, who in mythology, was the Sun's daughter, and Phaeton's sister.) 
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)



    A Banded Longwing, or Banded Orange Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour in Brazil


    Genus DRYAS

  273. Dryas iulia  (ph)  ______  (C:301) (DA:94) (DV1:31) (F:145) (K:157) (MCA:80) (PE:19) (S:159)
    Dryas iulia moderata  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Dryas iulia alcionea ______ ARba,ne  (BB:279) (MM:342) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    JULIA HELICONIAN
    (or Julia) (another name, particularly in the West Indies: The Flambeau)
    AR common name: Julia
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to Brazil, also West Indies) 

    Dryas iulia visits open sunny and flowery areas (often wet ground), and breeds on the passion flower. 



    Two photos of Julia Heliconians; the lower photo during a FONT tour in Brazil





    Genus EUEIDES: a genus of about a dozen species that's remarkable for the lack of conformity of its members. Some resemble DANAIDAE (Ituna), ACRAEIDAE (Actinote), ITHOMIIDAE (Mechanitis) and the genus HELICONIUS.  

  274. Eueides aliphera  (ph)  ______  (DA:94) (DV1:31) (MCA:80) (S:161)
    Eueides aliphera aliphera ______ ARne  ECnw  (MM:348) 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador & northeast Argentina)
    FINE-LINED LONGWING 
    (another name is Least Heliconian)
    AR common name: Pequena Julia  (translates to "Small Julia"
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, including Trinidad & Tobago) 

    Eueides aliphera is a miniature of Dryas julia, both in wing shape and the variations of markings.   



    Fine-lined Longwing


  275. Eueides procula ______ (DV1:31)
    DARKENED LONGWING 
    (another name is Nonpassionate Helioconian)
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil) 

  276. Eueides isabella  (ph)  ______  (DV1:31) (K:155) (MCA:80) (PE:20) (S:159)
    Eueides isabella ecuadoriensis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Eueides isabella dianasa ______ ARne  (MM:349) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ISABELLA'S LONGWING
    (or Isabella, or Isabella Tiger)
    AR common name: Isabel Meridional  (translates to: Southern Isabel)
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, also West Indies)  



    An Isabella's Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  277. Eueides vibilia ______ (DV1:31) (MCA:80)
    VIBILIA LONGWING 
    (another name is Acting Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  278. Eueides lybia ______ (DV1:31)
    Eueides lybia olympus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua on the Caribbean slope to Colombia)
    SHARP-EDGED LONGWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)   


    Genus HELICONIUS (and LAPARUS): LONGWINGS

    Many species in this genus have forms matching so closely that they are very difficult to distinguish.

     
  279. Heliconius ricini  ______  (S:163)
    RICINI LONGWING 
    (another name is Small Heliconian)
    (Range: the Amazon Basin)

  280. Laparus (has been Heliconius) doris ______ (DV1:31) (F:160) (MCA:81) (S:162)
    Laparus doris eratonia ______  (DA:98)
    Laparus doris aristomache ______ (DA:98)
    Laparus doris viridis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    DORIS LONGWING 
    (other names are Dot-bordered Heliconian, or the Doris Butterfly(other names are Dot-bordered Heliconian, or the Doris Butterfly
    , or Doris)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Heliconius doris is trimorphic, in that it occurs in 3 color varieties. Individuals of either sex can have red, green, or blue coloration, in addition to the basic black pattern with yellow blotches. It occurs in forest margins and clearings.

  281. Heliconius ismenius  (ph)  ______ (DV1:31) (MCA:80)
    Heliconius ismenius telchinia  ______  (DV1:31)
    TIGER-STRIPED LONGWING 
    (or Tiger Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)  

    Heliconius ismenius is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Dismorphia amphiona (in the PIERIDAE), Melinaea lilis or ethra (in ITHOMIINAE in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia mechanitis (in the NYMPHALIDAE), Hypothyris euclea (in ITHOMIINAE in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth. 



    Tiger-striped Longwing

  282. Heliconius hecale  (ph)  ______ (DV1:31) (F:160) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius hecale melicerta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    Heliconius hecale australis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Heliconius hecale eucherius ______ (DA:100)
    Heliconius hecale barcanti ______ (DA:100)
    HECALE LONGWING 
    (or Heart-spotted Heliconian)
    (Range: in Central & South America, from Mexico to the Guianas, Amazonas, & the eastern side of the Andes in Bolivia) 

    Heliconius hecale has a number of races.   

    Heliconias hecale is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Charonias eurytele (in the PIERIDAE), Dismorphia eunoe (in the PIERIDAE), Napeogenes peredia (in ITHOMIINI in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia coela (in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth. 

     

    Hecale Longwing


  283. Heliconius melpomene  (ph) ______ (C:307) (DV1:32) (F:161) (S:162)
    Heliconius melpomene vulcanus  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Panama, Colombia & northwest Ecuador)
    Heliconius melpomene rosina ______ (DA:101)
    Heliconius melpomene cythera ______  EC  (DA:101) 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    MELPOMENE LONGWING 
    (other names are the Postman Heliconnian
    , or the Postman)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

    Heliconius melpomene is slightly larger than its close relative, Heliconius erato, the Small Postman, with which it often flies. 
    Many species in the Heliconius genus have forms matching so closely that they very difficult to distinguish.

    Parallel races of Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius erato mimic each other throughout the Neotropics, sharing the same patterns in the same geographic areas.
    The length of the yellow ray can be used to differentiate the two species. It does not reach the edge of the wing in Heliconius melpomene.



    The Postman, or Melpomene Longwing 


  284. Heliconius cydno  (ph)  ______ (DV1:32) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius cydno cydno ______ (DA:102) 
    Heliconius cydno chioneus  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeastern Costa Rica to Colombia) 
    Heliconius cydno alithea  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Heliconius cydno galanthus ______ (DA:102)
    CYDNO LONGWING 
    (or Grinning Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

    Some forms of Heliconius cydno resemble forms of Heliconius sapho, the Blue-and-white Heliconian, with which they fly.



    Cydno Longwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  285. Heliconius erato  (ph)  ______ (DV1:32) (F:160) (K:155) (MCA:81) (PE:19)
    Heliconius erato notabilis ______  (DA:103)
    Heliconius erato cyrbia ______  ECw  (DA:103)
    Heliconius erato demophoon ______ (DA:104)
    Heliconius erato hydara ______  (DA:104)
    Heliconius erato venus  ______ 
    (subspecies in western Colombia, in the choco) 
    Heliconius erato phyllis ______ ARba,ne  (BB:285) (MM:345) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    CRIMSON-PATCHED LONGWING 
    (or Erato Heliconian)  

    AR common name: Erato 
    (Erato was, in mythology, one of the nine muses; she presided over erotic poetry.)
    a BR common name: Castanha Vermelha
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)  

    Heliconius erato flies close to the ground, along forest margins and in open areas. It roosts communally at night.



    Above & below: Heliconius erato cyrbia
    photographed during the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photos by Marie Gardner) 




    Below: another more widespread form of the Crimson-patched Longwing,
    or Erato Heliconian





  286. Heliconius sara ______ (C:305) (DV1:32) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius sara magdalena  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia & Venezuela)
    Heliconius sara sprucei  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Heliconius sara sara ______  (DA:106)
    SARA LONGWING 
    (or Sara Heliconian
    ,or Small Blue Grecian)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Although almost without variation in Central America, Heliconius sara has a number of different forms from Panama southwards.

  287. Heliconius charitonia  (ph)  ______ (C:303) (DV1:32) (F:160) (K:155) (MCA:80) (PE:19) (S:160)
    Heliconius charitonia charitonia ______  (DA:105)
    ZEBRA LONGWING 
    (or Zebra Heliconian, or the Zebra
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also the West Indies)

    The Zebra, or Heliconius charitonia, is a  graceful butterfly that is a common sight in gardens and at roadside flowers. It roosts in small to large clusters, returning to the same roost night after night. 
    This species is very familiar to visitors of butterfly houses as it is easy to rear.



    Zebra Longwing
    (photo by Doug Johnson)


  288. Heliconius hecalesia ______ (DV1:32) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius hecalesia hecalesia  ______  (DA:104)
    (subspecies in eastern Panama & Colombia)
    Heliconius hecalesia eximius  ______  EC
      (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    FIVE-SPOTTED LONGWING 
    (or Five-spotted Heliconian  
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)  

  289. Heliconius clysonymus  (ph) ______ (DV1:32)
    MONTANE LONGWING 
    (or Yellow-patch Longwing)
    (Range: Honduras to Ecuador) 



    Montane Longwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  290. Heliconius sapho ______ (DV1:32) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius sapho candidus  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Heliconius sapho leuce ______  (DA:106)
    Heliconius sapho eleuchia ______  (DA:106) 
    SAPHO LONGWING 
    (or Blue-and-white Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

    Some forms of Heliconius sapho resemble forms of Heliconius cydno with which they fly. 

  291. Heliconius eleuchia ______ (DV1:32)
    Heliconius eleuchia eleuchia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia) 
    Heliconius eleuchia primularis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    WHITE-EDGED LONGWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  292. Heliconius atthis  ______  ECnw  

  293. Heliconius besckei ______ ARne  (MM:346)
    AR common name: Alemana 
    (translates to "German", in that the coloring of the butterfly is like the German flag.)  

  294. Heliconius ethilla  ______ 
    Heliconius ethilla narcaea ______ ARne  (MM:347) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    TAWNY-STRIPED LONGWING
    AR common name: Arcoiris 
    (translates to "Rainbow")
    BR common name: Maria Boba

  295. Heliconius metharme ______  (DA:96)
    (Range: Colombia, Peru, & Brazil - western Amazonas)

    Heliconius metharme flies in the company of Heliconius doris.) 

  296. Heliconius hecuba ______  (DA:96)
    (Range: northern Colombia & the eastern slopes of the Andes south to Ecuador)

    Heliconius hecuba is a variable species.

  297. Heliconius xanthocles ______  (DA:96)
    (Range: Colombia to Peru, also Brazil & the Guianas)  

    Heliconius xanthocles has a color and pattern resemblance to the PIERID Archonias bellona hyrnetho, and a day-flying ARCTIID moth Pericopis phyleis.

  298. Heliconius wallacei ______  (DA:97)
    (Range: Colombia to Peru; also Brazil, the Guianas, & Trinidad)

    Heliconius wallacei is a variable species, but distinguished by the presence of a greater or lesser amount of a dull steely blue color on the uppers.   

  299. Heliconius nattereri ______  (DA:98,99)
    (Range: eastern Brazil)

    This exquisite butterfly, Heliconius nattereri, is very rare, a threatened species.  
     

  300. Heliconius numata  ______ 
    Heliconius numata idalion ______  (DA:99) 
    (a subspecies in Colombia)
    Heliconius numata messene ______ (DA:99) 
    (a subspecies in Colombia)
    (Range: Colombia, Venezuela, Guianas, Brazil (western Amazonas) to Paraguay) 

  301. Heliconius hermathena  ______ 
    Heliconius hermathena rubopunctata  ______ (DA:103)

    (Range: Brazil, in the lower middle Amazon)

    Heliconius hermathena is with variation, but can almost always be identified by the distinctive and beautiful greenish yellow streak on the upper forewing. 

  302. Heliconius telesiphe  ______ 
    Heliconius telesiphe sotericus  ______ (DA:105)

    (Range: southern Colombia to central Peru)

    The form of Heliconius telesiphe that's yellow-banded on the hindwing strongly resembles another HELICONID, with which it often flies, Podotricha telesiphe.


    Genus EUPTOIETA

  303. Euptoieta claudia  (ph)  ______ (D1:32) (K:157) (MCA:79) (PE:4,20)
    Euptoieta claudia hortensia  ______  ARba,ne  CH  (BB:277) (MM:338) 
    (subspecies in Argentina & in Chile) 
    VARIEGATED FRITILLARY
    AR common name: Hortensia 
    (the scientific epithet)
    CH common name: Mariposa Hortensia

    (Range: Canada thru Central & South America, also the West Indies. In Chile, from Coquimbo to Valdivia) 



    Variegated Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  304. Euptoieta hegesia  (ph)  ______  (MCA:79)
    Euptoieta hegesia meridiania  ______  ARne  (MM:339) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MEXICAN FRITILLARY
    AR common name: Falsa Hortensia  ("False Hortensia"
    , alluding to its resemblance to Euptoleta claudia hortensia, with the common name Hortensia) 



    Mexican Fritillary


    Genus YRAMEA

  305. Yramea cytheris  (ph)  ______  CH
    CYTHERIS FRITILLARY
    CH common name: Mariposa Pintada Comun
    (Range: in Chile, from Santiago to Magallanes)

    Yramea cytheris
    is often seen resting on the ground.



    A Cytheris Fritillary photographed in Chile in January 2012
    (photo by Jim Zuckerman)

  306. Yramea inca  ______

  307. Yramea lathonioides  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposa Pintada de la Altura
    (Range: in Chile, from Atacama to Magallanes, in foothills and mountains)

  308. Yramea modesta  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposita Pintada Chica
    (Range: in Chile, from Coquimbo to Llanquihue, where it is uncommon in the high Andes)

  309. Yramea sobrina  ______

  310. Yramea lynx  ______  


    Genera ALTINOTE & ACTINOTE

  311. Altinote ozomene  ______  (MCA:78)
    LAMPLIGHT ACTINOTE
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)



    Lamplight Actinote
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

     
  312. Actinote anteas ______ (D1:32) (MCA:78)
    ANTEAS ACTINOTE 
    (or Doubleday's Actinote
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  313. Actinote melampeplos ______ (D1:32) (MCA:78)
    BOW-WINGED ACTINOTE
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  314. Actinote surima surima ______ ARne  (MM:350)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa Anaranjada 
    (translates to "Orange Lazy", referring to its type of flight)

  315. Actinote thalia pyrrha ______ ARne  (MM:351)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa Base Amarilla 
    (translates to " Yellow Base Lazy", referring to its type of flight)

  316. Actinote melanisans ______ ARba,ne  (BB:289) (MM:352)
    AR common names: Perezosa Base Translucida 
    (translates to "Translucent Base Lazy", referring to its type of flight) or Perezosa Grande  ("Big Lazy")

  317. Actinote pellenea calymma ______ ARba,ne  (BB:287) (MM:353)  (subspecies in Argentina) 
    AR common name: Perezosa 
    (translates to "Lazy', referring to its type of flight)

  318. Actinote mamita elena ______ ARba,ne  (BB:291) (MM:354)  (subspecies in Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa de Elena 
    (translates to "Elena's Lazy", referring to its type of flight) 


    Subfamily DANAINAE: MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES


    Genus ITUNA:
    a single species, distinctive.

  319. Ituna ilione lamira ______  (DA:79)
    (Range: Central America to northern Argentina)

    The sexes of Ituna ilione are similar. The semi-transparent wings are similar to ITHOMIIDS, but this species has a much greater size. This butterfly is often seen floating effortlessly for long distances, at a uniform height above the ground, until a shrub with flowers distracts it from its reverie. Then, it becomes immediately ensconced, oblivious to all else, as it spends long minutes refreshing itself.    


    Genus LYCOREA: 
    Remarkable heliconid mimics. They resemble Heliconius ethilla, but can be distinguished by their larger size in both sexes, and in the male, the presence of a tuft of extrusible "hair-pencils" at the tip of the abdomen.

  320. Lycorea ilione ______  (DV1:33)
    Lycorea ilione ilione ______ ARne  (MM:415)  
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    CLEARWING MIMIC-QUEEN
    AR common name: Reina Cristalina 
    ("Crystalline Queen")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

  321. Lycorea halia (formerly cleobaea(ph)  ______  (DV1:33) (F:176) (K:155) (PE:text) (S:187)
    Lycorea halia discreta  ______  ARne  (DA:text) (MM:414) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    TIGER MIMIC-QUEEN 
    (or Large Tiger)
    AR common name: Halia de Noreste  (referring to the scientific name, and the geographical location in Argentina, as there is another subspecies in the northwestern part of the country)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

    Lycorea halia is larger than true heliconids. It occurs in wood and scrub habitats.



    Tiger Mimic-Queen
    (photo by Marie Gardner)



    Genus DANAUS: ROYALTY

  322. Danaus plexippus  (ph)  ______ (C:37) (DV1:33) (F:143) (K:227) (PE:3,4,27) (S:184)
    Danaus plexippus erippus ______ ARba,ne  CH  (BB:325) (MM:416) 
    (subspecies in Argentina & Chile)   
    Danaus plexippus megalippe ______  (DA:80)
    MONARCH
    AR common name: Monarca 
    (another AR common name is: Oruga de las Asclepias)
    CH common name: Monarcha
    (Range: a truly cosmopolitan species, occurring in North & south America, Australia, and the East Indies) 

    Danaus plexippus is a very strong flier with strong migratory tendencies in temperate regions, but not in the tropics or  elsewhere in South America, such as Chile, where it is usually a solitary flier and does not migrate.



    Monarch
    (photo by Howard Eskin)  


  323. Danaus eresimus  (ph)  ______  (C:283) (DV1:33) (F:142) (K:229) (PE:27)
    Danaus eresimus plexaure ______ ARba,ne  (BB:327) (MM:417) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    SOLDIER
    AR common name: Emperatriz  ("Empress")
      (another name is Tropical Queen)
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, also in the Antilles) 

    Danaus eresimus plexaure can be confused with Danaus gilippus.
     
  324. Danaus gilippus  (ph)  ______
    Danaus gilippus gilippus ______ ARba,ne  (BB:323) (MM:418) (PE:27) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    QUEEN
    AR common name: Reina  ("Queen")
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina)   

     



    Two photos of Queens
    (photos by Howard Eskin)



    Subfamily ITHOMIINAE:
    this highly diverse group has been considered as a separate family, or (now by most) as a subfamily of NYMPHALIDAE.  


    Genus EUTRESIS:
    2 or 3 species

  325. Eutresis hypereia ______ (DV1:33)
    Eutresis hypereia hypereia ______  (DA:82) 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    CRISP TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, & northern Brazil) 

    Eutresis hypereia is similar to the DANAID Ituna species.


    Genus OLYRAS:  3 species found in Central & South America

  326. Olyras crathis ______ (DV1:33)
    CRATHIS TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  327. Olyras insignis ______ (DV1:33)
    INSIGNIS TIGERWING 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 


    Genus TITHOREA: a Neotropical genus of about 15 species

  328. Tithorea tarricina ______ (DV1:34) (F:207)
    CREAM-SPOTTED TIGERWING 
    (another name is Variable Prestonian)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  329. Tithorea harmonia ______ (C:367) (DV1:34) (S:180)
    Tithorea harmonia pseudonyma  ______  ARne  (MM:397) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    HARMONIA TIGERWING 
    (other names include Black-fronted Prestonian, Harmonius Tiger-Clearwing
    , Tiger Butterfly, or the Tiger)
    AR common name: Armoniosa
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

    Tithorea harmonia feeds on enriched surfaces.


    Genus AERIA 

  330. Aeria eurimedia 
    Aeria eurimedia agna  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to northwest Venezuela)
    BANDED TIGERWING

  331. Aeria olena  ______  
    Aeria olena olena  ______   ARne  (MM:398) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)   
    AR common name: Gracil  (referring to the butterfly's small size and graceful movements)


    Genus METHONA

  332. Methona themisto  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:315) (MM:400)
    AR common name: Temisto 
    (referring to the scientific name)
    BR common name: Borboleta do Manaca


    Genus THYRIDIA:
    4 species, 3 of which strongly resemble species in the genus  METHONA
    These species are separated from those in that genus by the presence of white marginal spots on both surfaces of the hindwing. In
    METHONA they only occur on the underside. 
    THYRIDA species are generally larger than METHONA.  


  333. Thyridia aedesia aedesia ______  (DA:84)  (subspecies from southern Panama to Brazil) 
    (Range: Central America to northwestern Brazil, Amazonas)   

  334. Thyridia hippodamia cetoides ______  (DA:85)
    (Range: Peru, Brazil) 

    Thyridia hippodamia can be difficult to separate from Methonia species.

  335. Thyridia psidii  ______  (DV1:34)
    Thyridia psidii pallida ______  ARne  (MM:401) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    Clapping Ticlear
    AR common name: Palida 
    (translates to " Pale", referring to the scientific name of the subspecies) 
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  


    Genus PLACIDINA

  336. Placidina euryanassa  ______  ARne  (MM:402)
    AR common name: Espanola 
    ("Spanish", alluding to the pattern on the wings like the Spanish flag)
    BR common names: Espanhola or Grande Bandeira Espanhola


    Genus EPITYCHES

  337. Epityches eupompe  ______  ARne  (MM:403)
    AR common name: Filigrana  ("Watermark")   



    Genus MELINAEA:
    Now said to 7 or 8 species; formerly about 20.

  338. Melinaea ethra ______ (DV1:34)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  339. Melinaea idae  ______
    Melinaea idae idae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    IDAE TIGERWING

  340. Melinaea marsaeus  ______
    Melinaea marsaeus messenina ______  (DA:83)
    (subspecies in Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil)
    Melinaea marsaeus mothone ______ (DA:83) 
    (subspecies in Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, & Brazil; in these countries, the 2 subspecies, messenina & mothone, occur in widely differing river valley localities.)  
    (Range: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, in Amazonas) 

  341. Melinaea scylas  ______  
    SCYLAX TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia, on the Pacific slope)  


    Genus MECHANITIS:  8 to 10 species of distinctively shaped ITHOMIIDS, some of which have extremely long wings and abdomens, making them look rather like dragonflies. 

  342. Mechanitis polymnia ______ (C:369) (DV1:34) (S:180)
    POLYMNIA TIGERWING 
    (another name has been Disturbed Tigerwing)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Mechanitis polymnia frequents more disturbed habitats than most ITHOMIINE butterflies. It flies in bright sunlight, and is attracted to flowers. It is said to fly commonly along the streets of the cities and towns of Costa Rica.

  343. Mechanitis lysimnia  ______  (DA:85) (DV1:34)
    Mechanitis lysimnia lysimnia  ______  ARba,ne  BR(*)  (BB:317) (MM:399) 
    (subspecies in Argentina & Minas Gerais, Brazil) 
    Mechanitis lysimnia macrinus  ______  (subspecies in Panama & Colombia) 
    LYSIMNIA TIGERWING 
     
    AR common name: Multicolor  ("Multicolored")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

  344. Mechanitis menapis ______ (DV1:34)
    Mechanitis menapis saturata ______  (DA:85) 
    (subspecies in the Cauca Valley of Colombia - other races have quite different coloration and markings.) 
    MENAPIS TIGERWING  (another name has been Variable Tigerwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador; also Trinidad)


    Genus PAGYRIS: a single species, with a number of new races described in recent years

  345. Pagyris ulla ______  (DA:86)
    (Range: Colombia to Peru)

    The overall "glassy" appearance, with hints of soft colors occasionally breaking through, is a characteristic of Pagyris ulla. 


    Genus CALLITHOMIA: between 5 and 10 species of dark ITHOMIIDS in Central & South America 

  346. Callithomia hezia  ______
    Callithomia hezia villula ______  (DA:86) 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Callithomia hezia phagesia ______ (DA:86) 
    (subspecies in central Peru)
    HEZIA CLEARWING  (or White-leading Ticlear
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  
        
  347. Callithomia lenea  ______
    Callithomia lenea agrippina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    Callithomia lenea methonella  ______  ARne  (MM:408) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    LENEA CLEARWING
    AR common name: Diafana  (or Diaphanous)


    Genus SCADA

  348. Scada zibia  ______ (DV1:34)
    ZIBIA TIGERWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Peru) 


    Genus HYALYRIS: 8 to 10 species of CLEARWINGS, with some species showing delicate combinations of yellows & orange-browns especially at the anal angle of the hindwings. 

  349. Hyalyris excelsa ______ (DV1:34)
    EXCELSA TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru) 

  350. Hyalyris oulita  ______ 
    Hyalyris oulita cana ______  (DA:87)
      (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Hyalyris oulita adelinda ______  (DA:87) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    (Range: Venezuela to southern Peru & nearby Bolivia)  


    Genus HYPOTHYRIS

  351. Hypothyris euclea  ______  (DV1:34)
    Hypothyris euciea laphria ______ ARne  (MM:406) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    EUCLEA TIGERWING 
    (or Common Ticlear)
    AR common name: Yvoty
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina; a recent discovery in Argentina)  

  352. Hypothyris ninonia ______
    Hypothyris ninonia daeta ______ ARne  (MM:407) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Yvoty Moroti



    Genus NAPEOGENES

  353. Napeogenes cranto ______ (DV1:34)
    CRANTO TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru) 


    Genus ITHOMIA:  40 to 45 species of clear-winged butterflies with the most beautiful opalescent reflections when viewed in an oblique light.

  354. Ithomia derasa ______  (DA:87)
    (Range: Costa Rica, maybe Nicaragua, to Colombia)

  355. Ithomia celemia ______ (DV1:35)
    CELEMIA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela) 

  356. Ithomia terra ______ (DV1:35)
    TERRA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  357. Ithomia agnosia ______ 
    Ithomia agnosia zikani ______ ARne  (MM:404) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Cristalina Mancha Blanca 
    (translates to "White-spot Crystalline")

  358. Ithomia drymo ______ ARne  (MM:405)
    AR common name: Cristalina Guion Negro 
    (translates to "Black Hyphen Crystalline")

  359. Ithomia salapia ______  (DA:87)
    (Range: Ecuador & Peru)


    Genus OLERIA: 
    85 to 90 species of CLEARWINGS characterized in many species by orange apical coloring in the forewing, and/or some orange marking on the margin of the hindwing.  

  360. Oleria zelica ______ (DV1:35)
    ZELICA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)   

  361. Oleria ilerdinoides ______  (DA:88)
    (Range: Brazil, Amazonas)

    There are similarly patterned and colored "species" that may prove to be seasonal or local forms of Oleria ilerdinoides. 

  362. Oleria susiana  ______ 
    Oleria susiana susiana  ______  (DA:88)
    (Range: Colombia to northern Peru)

    This "species", Oleria susiana, is part of a small group, in appearance atypically OLERIA, but placed in this genus for convenience until the true generic identity can be determined. 


    Genus CERATINIA

  363. Ceratinia tutia  ______
    Ceratinia tutia dorilla ______ (DV1:35) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela)
    TUTIA CLEARWING 
    (or Yellow-tipped Ticlear)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus DIRCENNA

  364. Dircenna dero  ______  (DV1:35)
    Dircenna dero euchytma  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela) 
    Dircenna dero celtina  ______  ARne  (MM:409) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DERO CLEARWING
    (or Big-bordered Dircenna)
    AR common name: Celtina  (regarding the name: Celtina in mythology had a baby with Hercules, called Celto, that gave rise to the Celts)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  


    Genus EPISCADA:  15 to 18 species of mostly clearwinged butterflies, with 1 or 2 with orange-brown and yellow colored opaque qualities.

  365. Episcada carcinia ______  (DA:89)
    (Range: southern Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, & Uruguay)

  366. Episcada hymenaea  ______ 
    Episcada hymenaea hymenaea  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:319) (MM:410) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    AR common name: Cristalina 
    (translates to "Crystalline", referring to the appearance of the wings)

    Near Buenos Aires, Argentina, Episcada hymenaea has been seen flying together with the similar Pseudoscada erruca.



    Genus PTERONYMIA:  65 to 70 species of medium to large sized CLEARWINGS, with many having a yellowish cast to the diaphanous wings.  

  367. Pteronymia oneida ______  (DA:89)
    (Range: Colombia & Ecuador)

  368. Pteronymia sylvo  ______  ARne  (MM:411)  
    AR common name: Sylvo 
    (referring to the scientific name) 


    Genus HYPOMENITIS: a single species

  369. Hypomenitis theudelinda  ______  (DA:89)
    (Range: Colombia to Peru)


    Genus GODYRIS: about 10 species of medium to large CLEARWINGS.

  370. Godyris zavaleta ______ (DV1:35)
    VARIEGATED CLEARWING 
    (or Variegated Ticlear)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

  371. Godyris duillia ______  (DA:90)
    (Range: Colombia to Bolivia, in the eastern Andes)


    Genus HYPOLERIA

  372. Hypoleria lavinia  ______
    Hypoleria lavania vanilia  ______
      (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    LAVINIA CLEARWING


    Genus GRETA  

  373. Greta polissena ______ (DV1:36)
    POLISSENA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil) 

  374. Greta andromica ______ (C:371) (DV1:36)
    ANDROMICA CLEARWING
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru) 


    Genus PTERONYMIA

  375. Pteronymia artena ______ (C:375) (DV1:36)
    ARTENA CLEARWING 
    (or Pointed Clearwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru, also Trinidad) 

    Pteronymia artena is common in many forests, up to 6,000 feet above sea level. Its larval host plants are woody vines called lianas, common in the tropical canopy.


    Genus PSEUDOSCADA

  376. Pseudoscada timna  ______
    Pseudoscada timna saturata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    TIMNA CLEARWING

  377. Pseudoscada erruca  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:321) (MM:412)
    AR common name: Cristalina Azulada  ("Bluish Crystalline")

    Near Buenos Aires, Argentina, Pseudoscada erruca has been seen flying together with the similar Episcada hymenaea.


    Genus MCCLUNGIA

  378. Mcclungia cymo  ______
    Mcclungia cymo salonina  ______  ARne  (MM:413)
    AR common name: Cristalina Mancha Amarilla  ("Yellow Spot Crystalline")



    Genus HETEROSAIS

  379. Heterosais edessa  ______ (DV1:36)
    EDESSA GLASSWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)


    Genus ANTIRRHEA: about 20 species

  380. Antirrhea philaretes (or miltiades) ______  (DA:154,155) (DV1:37) (F:118) (MCA:131)
    Antirrhea philaretes lindigii  ______ 
    (subspecies from Guatemala, on the Caribbean slope, to the Amazon basin)
    NORTHERN ANTIRRHEA 
    (another name is White-signed Morphet)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Antirrhea philaretes often perches, feeding on rotting fruit and fungi. 


    Subfamily MORPHIDAE: there are about 150 species of this grouping in tropical Central & South America


    Genus MORPHO:
    about 80 showy species. These Central & South American species have always drawn much attention, as the large, obvious males are a very bright metallic blue.   

       
  381. Morpho helenor  (ph)  ______  (DV1:38) (MCA:131)
    Morpho helenor peleides  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    Morpho helenor violacea ______  BRse
    COMMON
    (or BLUE) MORPHO  (other names are the Helenor Morpho and the Emperor)  
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

    The male of Morpho helenor has more blue on the upperside than the female. The species is attracted to fermenting fruit.

    What has been Morpho peleides has been merged into Morpho helenor, as a subspecies.



    A Common, or Helenor, Morpho photographed during a FONT tour 
    in Minas Gerais, Brazil in May 2011
    (photo by Pat Yoder)


  382. Morpho cypris  ______
    CYPRIS MORPHO
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador, and Trinidad & Tobago)

    The sexes of Morpho cypris are completely different. 
    The male (most often seen) is a brilliant metallic blue, with a WHITE BAND across the wings, and a series of white spots around the wing.
    The larger female, that rarely ventures from the rainforest canopy, is above a rich orange-yellow with a brown margin.
    The undersides of both sexes are brown and white.

  383. Morpho deidamia  _____  (DA:152,153) 
    Morpho deidamia granadensis  ______  (DA:150,151) (DV1:38) (F:183) 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia) 
    SCARCE MORPHO
    (Range: Nicaragua to South America, including Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela & the Guianas)

    The female of the Morpho deidamia is larger than the male, with a narrow blue band and broad brown margins on the upper wings.

    Morpho deidamia grandensis is distinguished from other morpho butterflies by having most of its upper wings a light metallic blue with a dark margin (in both sexes).  

    What has been Morpho granadensis has been merged into Morpho deidamia, as a subspecies.   

  384. Morpho theseus  ______ (DV1:39) (MCA:131)
    STUB-TAILED MORPHO 
    (or Short-tailed Morpho)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  

    Morpho theseus is pale to brown, but not bright blue or white.

  385. Morpho achilles  (ph)  ______
    Morpho achilles achilles  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:355) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina & southeast Brazil)
    ACHILLES MORPHO 
    (other names are the BLUE-BANDED MORPHO, or BANDED BLUE MORPHO)
    AR common name: Pora  (regarding the name: "Pora", it's a Guarani word meaning "beautiful".)
    BR common name: Capitao do mato
    (Range: throughout South America)



    Two photos of Morpho achilles taken during FONT tours in Brazil




  386. Morpho aega  ______
    Morpho aega aega ______  ARne (*) BRse  (MM:356) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AEGA MORPHO
    AR common name: Blue Silk
    BR names: Seda Azul, Corcovado, Telao de Seda, Azulao
    (Range: Brazil, Argentina, & Paraguay) 

  387. Morpho epistrophus  ______
    Morpho epistrophus argentina ______ ARba,ne  (BB:293) (MM:357) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    EPISTROPHUS WHITE MORPHO
    AR common name: Panambi Moroti 
    (regarding the name: "Moroti" is a Guarani word meaning "white"; "Panambi" means "butterfly")
    (Range: in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay)

    Morpho epistrophus has an undulating flight. Butterflies are in the Buenos Aires area from December to March. They occur in gallery forest and rain forest.

  388. Morpho sulkowskyi  ______ 
    Morpho sulkowskyi sirene ______  (DA:146)
    Morpho sulkowskyi erus ______  (DA:146)
    SULKOWSKY'S MORPHO

    (Range: Colombia to Peru)

    Morpho sulkowskyi, a relatively small MORPHO, is a high altitude species, at 6,000 to 8,0000 feet above sea level.  

  389. Morpho rhetenor rhetenor ______  (DA:147,148)
    RHETENOR BLUE MORPHO
    (Range: the Guianas, Colombia, Amazonian Brazil, Ecuador, Peru)

    THE FOLLOWING COMMENTARY REGARDING BUTTERFLIES IN AMAZONIAN SOUTH AMERICA
    was written by Henry Walter Bates in 1863 in "The Naturalist on the River Amazons"
    and mentions the Morpho butterflies Morpho rhetenor
    (above) and Morpho menelaus and
    Morpho uraneis
    (both below).

    "The neighborhood of Para (in Brazil) is rich in butterflies. It will convey some idea of the diversity when I mention that about 700 species of that tribe can be found within an hour's walk of the town (note: maybe an exaggeration.), whilst the total number found in the British Isles does not exceed 66, and the whole of Europe supports only 321.

    The splendid blue Morphos, some of which measure seven inches in expanse, are generally confined to the shady alleys of the forest. They sometimes come forth into the broad sunlight.  When we first went to look at our new residence in Nazareth, a Morpho menelaus, one of the most beautiful kinds, was seen flapping its huge wings like a bird on the verandah.

    That species, however, although much admired, looks dull in colour by the side of its congener, the Morpho rhetenor, whose wings on the upper face, are of quite a dazzling lustre. 
    Rhetenor
    usually prefers the broad sunny roads in the forest, and is an almost unattainable prize, on account of its lofty flight; for it very rarely descends nearer the ground than about 20 feet. When it comes sailing along, it occasionally flaps its wings, and then the blue surface flashes in the sunlight, so that it is visible a quarter of a mile off.

    There is another species of this genus, of a satiny-white hue, the Morpho uraneis; this is equally difficult to obtain; the male only has the satiny lustre, the female being of a pale-lavender colour."

  390. Morpho menelaus  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    MENELAUS BLUE MORPHO
    (Range: in northern South America) 

  391. Morpho amathonte _____ (DV1:39)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela & Ecuador)

    Morpho amathonte is said by some to be a subspecies of Morpho menelaus.

  392. Morpho didius ______  (DA:149)
    GIANT BLUE MORPHO
    (Range: in Peru)

    Morpho didius is said by some to be a subspecies of Morpho menelaus.

  393. Morpho uraneis  ______
    URANEIS MORPHO
    (Range: Amazonian Brazil & Peru)

    Morpho uraneis
    is said to be a subspecies of another species, Morpho eugenia.


    Genus CAEROIS:  3 species from Costa Rica to Colombia & Bolivia)

  394. Caerois gerdrudtus ______  (DA:156) (DV1:40) (F:127)
    Caerois gerdrudtus vespertilio  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    FALSE ANTIRRHEA
    (Range: Costa Rica to western Ecuador)

    Caerois gerdrudtus is not common. It lives in the rainforest and breeds in a palm. The other 2 species in the genus are similar in shape, but are a darker brown with orange bands on both wings.  


    Subfamily BRASSOLIDAE: "The OWLS"


    Genus DYNASTOR: 
    3 magnificent species

     
  395. Dynastor darius  ______  
    Dynastor darius stygianus ______ (DV1:41) (MCA:132) 
    (subspecies Mexico to Ecuador)
    Dynastor darius ictericus ______ ARne  (MM:361)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DARING OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is the Bromeliad Owl Butterfly)
    AR common name: Dario
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  396. Dynastor napoleon ______  (DA:139)
    (Occurs in Brazil, in the Rio de Janeiro province)

    Dynastor napoleon is a very localized species, and certainly one of the most magnificent of the BRASSOLIDS. Regarded as very rare. In the early 20th Century, it was thought to be nearly extinct.  


    Genus DASYOPHTHALMA:  3 species in central & southern Brazil

  397. Dasyophthalma creusa ______  (DA:140)
    (Occurs in central & southern Brazil, maybe adjacent Paraguay)

    Dasyophthalma creusa can only be encountered in the first few months of the year, in the deepest forest. It is one of the most commonly taken butterflies on baits. Moth collectors have reported it coming to bait even at night.  


    Genus SELENOPHANES

  398. Selenophanes josephus  ______
    Selenophanes josephus excultus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    JOSEPHUS OWL BUTTERFLY  


    Genus NAROPE

  399. Narope cyllastros ______ (DV1:41)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  400. Narope syllabus  ______
    Narope syllabus syllabus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Narope syllabus stygius  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonas, Brazil)

  401. Narope anartes  ______
    (Range: Colombia to Bolivia)

  402. Narope nesope  ______
    (Range: Ecuador to Bolivia)

  403. Narope albopunctum  ______
    (Range: Peru)

  404. Narope cauca  ______  (species described in 2002)
    (Range: Colombia)

  405. Narope cyllabarus  ______
    (Range: Colombia, the Guianas & Amazonian Brazil to Bolivia) 

  406. Narope cyllene ______ ARne  (MM:358)  
    AR common name: Cilenia  (regarding the name: Cilenos were the inhabitants of Mount Cilene.)
    (Range: Brazil & northern Argentina)

  407. Narope cyllarus  ______
    (Range: southeastern Brazil, in Rio de Janeiro)

  408. Narope denticulatus  ______ 
    (Range: Brazil, in Mato Grosso)

  409. Narope guihermei  ______   (species described in 1989)
    (Range: southeastern Brazil, in Santa Catarina)

  410. Narope marmorata  ______
    (Range: Bolivia)

  411. Narope obidos  ______  (species described in 2002)
    (Range: Brazil, in Para)

  412. Narope panniculus  ______
    Narope panniculus panniculus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Paraguay)
    Narope panniculus piccatus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  413. Narope ybyra  ______  (species described in 2002)
    (Range: Bolivia)


    Genus OPSIPHANES:  13 species, all with stout bodies, and thick scaled wings. Occur from Mexico to Paraguay (& in Trinidad). 
    The male wingshape reminiscent of the Afrotropical CHARAXES. 
    The behavior is much like that of other BRASSOLIDS. 
    Most of the species in this genus strongly resemble each other. Most of these species are not common.  


  414. Opsiphanes tamarindi  ______
    Opsiphanes tamarindi tamarindi  ______ (DV1:41) (MCA:133) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    Opsiphanes tamarindi corrosus  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    NARROW-BANDED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Heliconia Owlet)
    (another name is Heliconia Owlet)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  415. Opsiphanes invirae  ______  (DV1:42) (MCA:133)
    Opsiphanes invirae sticheli  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to western Venezuela) 
    Opsiphanes invirae amplificatus ______ ARba,ne  (BB:295) (MM:359) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    LOWLAND OWL BUTTERFLY
      (another name is Lowland Owlet)
    AR common name: Fantasma  (translates to "Ghost")
    (Range: Honduras to Argentina; the species has been said to be extending its range further south)  

  416. Opsiphanes cassiae  ______  (MCA:133)
    Opsiphanes cassiae castaneus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Colombia)
    CASSIA'S OWL BUTTERFLY

  417. Opsiphanes cassina ______ (DV1:42) (MCA:133)
    Opsiphanes cassina numatius  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    SPLIT-BANDED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Split-banded Owlet)
    (another name is Split-banded Owlet)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  418. Opsiphanes quiteria ______ (DV1:42) (MCA:133)
    Opsiphanes quiteria badius  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Venezuela)
    Opsiphanes quiteria angostura  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    SCALLOPED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Scalloped Owlet)
    (another name is Scalloped Owlet)
    (Range: Guatemala to the Amazon Basin) 

  419. Opisphanes sallei sallei ______  (DA:141)
    (Range: Venezuela & Colombia to southern Bolivia)

    In Opisphanes sallei, the sexes are similar.

  420. Opisphanes zelotes  ______
    Opisphanes zelotes zelotes  ______  EC
      (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)


    Genus CATOBLEPIA

  421. Catoblepia xanthicles ______  (DV1:44)
    Catoblepia xanthicles occidentalis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    XANTHICLES OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  422. Catoblepia orgetorix ______ (C:355) (DV1:44)
    Catoblepia orgetorix magnalis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    ORANGE-RIMMED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (also called Orgetorix Owl Butterfly)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador) 

  423. Catoblepia amphirhoe ______ ARne  (MM:363)
    AR common name: Fantasma Grande  (translates to "Big Ghost")


    Genus ERYPHANIS:  6 species with "owl eyes" in Central & South America. Breeds on bamboo.

  424. Eryphanis automedon (formerly polyxena)  ______  (DV1:44) (S:158)
    Eryphanis automedon lycomedon ______ 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    Eryphanis automedon automedon  ______ 
    (subspecies in the Guianas)
    Eryphanis automedon spintharus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Eryphanis automedon novicia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Eryphanis automedon tristis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Eryphanis automedon cheiremon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Eryphanis automedon amphimedon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)  
    AUTOMEDON GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name has been the Purple Mort Bleu)
    (Range: Guatemala to the Amazon Basin) 

    Eryphanis polyxena frequents forest clearings in the late afternoon and at dusk.

  425. Eryphanis aesacus ______ (DV1:45) (F:150) (MCA:132)
    DOUBLE-SPOTTED OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  426. Eryphanis bubocula  ______
    BUBOCULA OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)

  427. Eryphanis lycomedon  ______
    SPLIT-SPOTTED OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Guatemala to southern Brazil, including Ecuador & Bolivia)    

  428. Eryphanis reevesii ______ ARne  (MM:366)
    AR common name: Sombra Azul 
    (translates to "Blue Shadow", referring to its color and quick flight)
    BR common name: Olho de boi


    Genus BRASSOLIS

  429. Brassolis isthmia  ______
    Brassolis isthmia isthmia  ______  (MCA:133) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia, in the Caribbean slope)
    SMALL-SPOTTED OWL-BUTTERFLY

  430. Brassolis granadensis  ______
    Brassolis granadensis granadensis  ______
      (subspecies from northwestern Costa Rica to western Ecuador, on the Pacific slope)
    COLOMBIAN OWL-BUTTERFLY    



    Genus CALIGO: 
    20 to 30 species of among the largest and most striking butterflies in the world. The species in this genus can usually be distinguished from each other by the pattern and coloration of the upper wings

    Butterflies in the CALIGO genus avoid bright sunlight. They fly in the late afternoon and at dusk, and they are attracted to fermenting fruit.  

  431. Caligo teucer ______ (S:157)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    TEUCER GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name has been the Cocoa Mort Bleu)
    (Range: Colombia & Venezuela to Bolivia & Paraguay) 

  432. Caligo eurilochus  ______  (DV1:45)
    FOREST GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

    Various subspecies of Caligo eurilochus are recognized, and others have been proposed.

  433. Caligo brasiliensis  (ph)   ______  (MCA:132)
    Caligo brasiliensis brasiliensis  ______  ARne  (DA:143) (MM:367) 
    (subspecies in Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    Caligo brasiliensis galba  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Caligo brasiliensis caesius  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Caligo brasiliensis morpheus  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies in Colombia & Ecuador)
    Caligo brasiliensis minor  ______ 
    (subspecies in Trinidad)
    DARK OWL BUTTERFLY
      (other names are Brazilian Owl Butterfly, Almond-eyed Owl Butterfly, Sulanus Owl Butterfly
    , and Magnificent Owl
    AR common name: Lechucita de Brasil  (translates to "Brazilian Little Owl")
    BR common name: Borboleta Coruja
    (Range: Guatemala to northern Argentina) 



    Caligo brasiliensis. the Brazilian Owl Butterfly, that also has other common names

  434. Caligo oedipus  ______  (MCA:132)
    Caligo oedipus oedipus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    FRUHSTORFER'S OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is the Boomerang Owl Butterfly

  435. Caligo telamonius (formerly memmon) (ph)  ______  (DV1:46) (F:128) (MCA:132)
    Caligo telamonius menus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    PALE GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (other names are the Cream Owl Butterfly, or the Yellow-fronted Owl Butterfly)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    With a wingspan of 13cm, Caligo memmon is among the largest butterflies in the world. It is crepusular. It lives in agricultural areas, where it breeds on Heliconia species and the related banana.   



    A Pale Giant Owl Butterfly photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  436. Caligo illioneus  ______  (DA:text) (DV1:46)
    Caligo illioneus pampeiro ______ ARne  (MM:368) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    DUSKY OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is the Illoneus Giant Owl Butterfly)
    AR common name: Lechucita (translates to "Little Owl")
    BR common name: Corujao
    (translates to "Little Owl")
    BR common name: Corujao
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil & northern Argentina)    

  437. Caligo atreus  (ph)  _____  (DV1:46)
    Caligo atreus agesilaus  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    BANDED OWL BUTTERFLY 
     (another name is the Yellow-edged Giant Owl
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  



    A Banded Owl Butterfly, or Yellow-edged Giant Owl 

  438. Caligo bellerophon  ______  ECnw

  439. Caligo zeuxippus  ______
    Caligo zeuxippus zeuxippus  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)


    Subfamily SATYRINAE: SATYRS & WOOD NYMPHS - the RINGLETS, a large group represented strongly in Central & South America

    Most SATYRS are drab colored. The butterflies are brown or gray and have eyespots (ocelli) on both the upper and lower faces of the wings. Their flight is fast and erratic and they are most often seen at dawn and dusk. The butterflies feed on flower nectar. 
    SATYRS produce only one brood annually, and they overwinter as larvae.  


    Genus HERMEUPTYCHIA

  440. Hermeuptychia sosybius ______ (K:231) (P:37)
    Carolina Satyr
    (Range: southeast US thru mainland tropical America)

  441. Hermeuptychia hermes ______ ARba,ne  (BB:299) (MM:385)
    Hermes Satyr
    AR common name: Hermes 
    (referring to the scientific name, Hermes was the Greek name of the Roman god Mercury, messenger of the gods.
    BR common name: Tristonho  ("Sad") 

    Hermeuptychia hermes occurs in clear sunlit areas in the herbaceous stratum of moist woodlands.


    Genus MANATARIA

  442. Manataria maculata ______ (DV1:47)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  443. Manataria hercyna hercyna ______ ARne  (MM:369)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    White-spotted Satyr
    AR common name: Franja Crema 
    (translates to "Cream Band")


    Genus ORESSINOMA 

  444. Oressinoma typhla ______ (DV1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 


    Genus TAYGETIS: 
    About 27 species of browns in Central & South America. With brown or gray upperparts, and with false eyes on the underside. Mostly, they prefer shaded rainforest understory.  

  445. Taygetis mermeria ______ (DV1:47)
    Great Ur-Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia & Brazil) 

  446. Taygetis virgilia ______ (DV1:47)
    Cramer's Ur-Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  447. Taygetis celia ______ (DV1:47)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Bolivia & Brazil) 

  448. Taygetis xenana ______ (DV1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)  

  449. Taygetis kerea ______ (DV1:47)
    (Range: Guatemala to Paraguay)

  450. Taygetis andromeda ______ (DV1:48)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)

  451. Taygetis penelea ______ (DV1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin) 

  452. Taygetis banghassi ______ (DV1:50)
    (Range: Costa Rica, locally & Bolivia)

  453. Taygetis sylvia ______ ARne  (MM:370)
    AR common name: Silvia

  454. Taygetis rufomarginata ______ ARne  (MM:371)
    AR common name: Rojiza 
    (translates to "Reddish")

  455. Taygetis acuta ______ ARne  (MM:372)
    AR common name: Puntiaguda 
    (translates to "Pointed")

  456. Taygetis ypthima ______ ARne  (MM:373)
    AR common name: Ganchuda  
    (translates to "Hook-shaped")

  457. Taygetis laches marginata ______ ARne  (MM:374)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Andromeda 
    (from an erroneous scientific name that was given to the species)   


    Genus PAMPASATYRUS

  458. Pampasatyrus periphas  ______  ARne  (MM:375)
    AR common name: Bandas Grises  ("Gray Bands")


    Genus FORSTERINARIA

  459. Forsterinaria quantius  ______  ARne  (MM:376)
    AR common name: Quantius
      (referring to the scientific name)

  460. Forsterinaria necys  ______  ARne  (MM:377)
    AR common name: Ondulada  ("Wavy",
    referring to the scalloped outer margin)


    Genus GODARTIANA

  461. Godartiana muscosa  ______  ARne  (MM:378)
    AR common name: Musgosa  ("Mossy")


    Genus SPLENDEUPTYCHIA

  462. Splendeuptychia libitina  ______  ARne  (MM:379)
    AR common nmae: Monedita  ("Little Coin",
    referring to its circular silver spot on the hindwing, like a coin)

  463. Splendeuptychia cosmosphila  ______  ARne  (MM:380)
    AR common name: Dos Monedas 
    ("Two Coins", referring to the silver spots on the hindwings)


    Genus PSEUDODEDBIS

  464. Pseudodedbis euptychidia  ______  ARne  (MM:381)
    AR common name: Puntos Blacnos 
    ("White Dots", referring to its white eyespots on the ventral surface)


    Genus PAREUPTYCHIA

  465. Pareuptychia summandosa  ______  ARne  (MM:382)
    AR common name: Flash 
    (referring to is defense mechanism that produces intermittent gleams of white - a flash effect or lightning - that confuses a predator)


    Genus YPHTHIMOIDES

  466. Yphthimoides celmis  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:297) (MM:383)
    AR common name: Celmis 
    (referring to the scientific name; Celmis, in mythology, was the father of Jupiter's nurse)
    BR common name: Tristonho  ("Sad")

    Yphthimoides celmis is a very common in the grasslands of Buenos Aires province, Argentina.  

  467. Yphthimoides straminea  ______  ARne  (MM:384)
    AR common name: Uniforme 
    ("Uniform", referring to the color of the wings)


    Genus PARYPHTHIMOIDES 

  468. Paryphthimoides poltys  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:301) (MM:386)
    AR common name: Lineas Convergentes  ("Convergent Lines")

  469. Paryphthimoides melobosis  ______  ARne  (MM:387)
    AR common name: Encadeenada 
    ("in chains", referring to the row of eyespots, like a chain)


    Genus PHARNEUPTYCHIA

  470. Pharneuptychia innocentia  ______  ARne  (MM:388)
    AR common name: Inocente 
    ("Innocent", referring to the scientific name) 

  471. Pharneuptychia phares  ______  ARne  (MM:389)
    AR common name: Ocre 
    ("Ochre", referring to its coloring)   


    Genus ZISCHKAIA 

  472. Zischkaia pacarus  ______  ARne  (MM:390)
    AR common name: Esclava Morena  ("Brown Slave")


    Genus MONEUPTYCHIA

  473. Moneuptychia paeon  ______  ARne  (MM:391)
    AR common name: Marmorea 
    ("Marble", referring to the pattern on the hindwings) 


    Genus MEGEUPTYCHIA
     
  474. Megeuptychia antonoe ______ (DV1:48)
    Canopy Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazonian Basin)


    Genus EUPTYCHIA 

  475. Euptychia hermes (probably more than one species involved) ______
    Grass Nymph
    (Range: throughout Central & South America) 


    Genus CISSIA  

    Butterflies in this genus were formerly all placed in EUPTYCHIA.  
     
  476. Cissia alcinoe ______ (DV1:41)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  477. Cissia calixta ______ (DV1:41)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

  478. Cissia hermes ______ (DV1:41)
    (Range: Mexico thru the American tropics)  

  479. Cissia polyphemus ______ (DV1:41)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

  480. Cissia tiessa ______ (DV1:48)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador)

  481. Cissia labe ______ (DV1:48)
    Rusty-spotted Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  482. Cissia palladia ______ (DV1:48)
    Butler's Satyr
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil, also Trinidad)

  483. Cissia terrestris ______ (DV1:48)
    Terrestrial Satyr
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)

  484. Cissia libye ______ (DV1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  485. Cissia metaleuca ______ (DV1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  486. Cissia hesione ______ (DV1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  487. Cissia renata ______ (DV1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  488. Cissia thobiei (maybe Cissia myncea thobiei) ______ ARne  (MM:392)  
    AR common name: Cisea 
    (referring to the scientific name)   


    Genus PEDALIODES

  489. Pedaliodes perperna ______ (DV1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela)

  490. Pedaliodes manis ______ (DV1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela)


    Genus ETEONA

  491. Eteona tisiphone  ______  ARne  (MM:395)
    AR common name: Tisifone 
    (referring to the scientific name; Tisiphone, in mythology, was one of the Furies)


    Genus PRAEPEDALIODES

  492. Praepedaliodes phanias  ______  ARne  (MM:396)
    AR common name: Duende 
    ("Elf", referring to its habit of resting hidden in shady places)  


    Genus ETCHEVERRIUS

  493. Etcheverrius chilensis elwesi  ______  ARba  (BB:303)  (subspecies in Argentina)
    AR common name: Chilenita  ("Small Chilean")

    Etcheverrius chilensis
    occurs in high grasslands (and in the espinal biogeographical zone).

  494. Etcheverrius tandilensis  ______  ARba  (BB:305)  
    AR common name: Serrana Bonaerense 
    (an endemic species in the highlands of Buenos Aires province, Argentina; hence, the Argentina common name) 


    Genus HAYWARDELLA

  495. Haywardella edmondsii  ______  ARba  (BB:307)
    AR common name: Anaranjada Oculta  ("Hidden Orange")


    Genus PAMPASATYRUS 

  496. Pampasatyrus gyrtone  ______  ARba  (BB:309)
    AR common name: Dos Puntos Ocelada  ("Two-dotted Eyespots")

  497. Pampasatyrus quies  ______  ARba  (BB:311)
    AR common name: Dos Puntos  ("Two Dots")

    Pampasatyrus quies
    frequents grasslands, grassy hills, and sand dunes. During the summer, it can be seen rising up vertically to about 70 centimeters, and then descending in a soft glide in the grass.

  498. Pampasatyrus periphas  ______  ARba  (BB:313)
    AR common name: Bandas Grises  ("Gray Bands")

    Pampasatyrus periphas
    is a common species in grasslands in Buenos Aires province, Argentina.


    Genus ARGYROPHORUS

  499. Argyrophorus argenteus  ______  CH  (WGC:101)
    Silver Satyr
    CH common name: Mariposa Plateada

    (Range: in Chile, from Coquimbo to Aisen, in a wide variety of habitats)

    Argyrophorus argenteus has a very fast flight.

  500. Argyrophorus penai  ______  CH
    (Range: in Chile, a rare resident in the mountains of Antofagasta)


    Genus COSMOSATYRUS

  501. Cosmosatyrus chilensis  ______  CH  (WGC:101)
    Common Chilean Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido negro Comun
    (Range: in Chile, from Atacama to Magellanes)

    Cosmosatyrus chilensis is one of the most common butterflies in Chile.

  502. Cosmosatyrus leptoneuroides  ______  CH  
    CH common name: Mariposa del Coiron
    (Range: in Chile, from Coquimbo Magallanes, where it inhabits high altitude grasslands)


    Genus FANULA

  503. Fanula leocognele  ______  CH
    CH common name: Satirido de Ocelo
    (Range: in Chile, from Tarapaca to Nuble, in the High Andes)

  504. Fanula patagonia  ______  CH
    CH common name: Satirido de la Estepa Patagonica
    (Range: in Chile, in Aisen on steppes)


    Genus TETRAPHLEBIA 

  505. Tetraphlebia (or Chillanella) stelligera  ______  CH
    Starry Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido Estrellado
    (Range: in Chile, from Coquimbo to Valdivia)

  506. Tetraphlebia germaini  ______  CH  (WGC:100)
    CH common name: Satirido de Franja Gris
    (Range: in Chile, from Santiago to Nuble, in foothills and high mountains)  


    Genus NEOSATYRUS

  507. Neossatyrus ambriorix  ______  CH
    Ochre-banded Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido de Banda Ocre
    (Range: in Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia)


    Genus NEOMAENAS

  508. Neomaenas janiroodes  ______  CH   (WGC:101)
    Janiriodes Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido Comfuso
    (Range: from Coquimbo to Valdivia, where it is common in a variety of habitats)

  509. Neomaenas monarchus  ______  CH  (WGC:101)
    Monachus Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido Monacal

  510. Neomaenas fractifascia  ______  CH
    CH common name: Satirido Rojizo
    (Range: from Nuble to Valdivia, in places with bamboo thickets; it can be common)


    Genus AUCA

  511. Auca pales  ______  AR CH  (WGC:101)
    Pale Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido Palido
    (Range: from Santiago in Chile to southern Argentina; can be common)
     
  512. Auca coctei  ______  CH
    Coctei Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido Coctel
    (Range: in Chile, from Coquimbo to Aisen)


    Genus ELINA

  513. Elina montroli  ______  CH  (WGC:102)
    Matorral Satyr
    CH common name: Satirido Grande del Matorral
    (Range: in Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia, in matorral)

  514. Elina vanessoides  ______  CH  (WGC:102)
    CH common name: Satirido Danzarino
    (Range: in Chile, from Concepcion to Isla Chiloe, in Nothofagus forest)


    Genus NELIA

  515. Nelia nemyroides  ______  CH
    CH common name: Satirido del Sotobosque
    (Range: in Chile, from Cachapoal to Llanquihue, in Chusquea bamboo understory where it can be common)    



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