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4 of a List
with some Photos
Noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours
in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela
Fourth Part of a List of South America Butterflies in 5 Parts,
compiled by Armas Hill
Here, in Part #4: Nymphalidae, the Brushfoots
Among Butterfly groupings in this list, links to:
Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe PREPONINI
with the genera: Agrias, Archaeoprepona, Noreppa, Prepona
Leaf Butterflies: Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe ANAEINI
with the genera: Anaeomorpha,
Coenophlebia, Consul, Fountainea, Hypna, Memphis, Siderone, Zaretis
Emperors: Subfamily APATURINAE with the genus: Doxocopa
Snout: Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE with the genus Libytheana
Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe BIBLIDINI with the genera: Biblis, Mestra, Vila
Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe COEINI with the genera: Baeotus, Historis
Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe NYMPHALINI
with the genera: Colobura, Hypanartia,
Pycina, Smyrna, Tigridia, Vanessa
Crackers & allies: Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe AGERONIINI
with the genera: Batesia, Ectima, Hamadryas, Panacea
& allies: Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPICALLINI
with the genera: Catonephele, Cybdelis, Eunica, Myscella, Nessaea
Daggerwings: Subfamily CYRESTINAE with the genus Marpesia
Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EUBAGINI
with the genus Dynamine
"Eighty-Eight" Butterflies: Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe CALLICORINI
with the genera: Antigonis,
Callicore, Catacore, Diaethria, Haematera, Mesotaenia,
Orophila, Paulogramma, Perisama
Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPIPHILINI
with the genera: Asterope, Epiphile, Nica, Peria, Pyrrhogyra, Temenis
Sisters: Subfamily LIMENITIDINAE, Tribe LIMENITIDINI with the genus Adelpha
Peacocks, Page, Malachite: Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe VICTORININI
with the genera: Anartia, Metamorpha, Siproeta
Buckeyes, Mimic: Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe JUNONIINI
with the genera: Junonia, Hypolimnas
Patches, Checkerspots, Crescents: Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe MELITAEINI
with the genera: Anthanassa,
Castilia, Chlosyne, Dagon, Eresia, Gnathotriche, Higginsius,
Janatella, Mazia, Ortilia, Phystis, Tegosa, Telenassa
Longwings: Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe HELICONIINI
with the genera: Agraulis, Dione, Dryadula, Dryas, Eueides, Heliconius
Fritillaries: Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ARGYNNINI with the genera: Euptoita, Yramea
Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ACRAEINI with the genera: Abananote, Actinote, Altinote
Milkweed Butterflies: Subfamily
DANAINAE, Tribe DANAINI
with the genera: Danaus, Ituna, Lycorea
Clearwings: Subfamily Ithomiinae
with the genera: Aeria,
Athesis, Athyrtis, Callithomia, Dircenna, Elzunia, Episcada, Epityches,
Eutresis, Godyris, Greta, Heterosais, Hyalyris, Hypoleria, Hypomenitis, Hypothyris, Ithomia,
Mcclungia, Mechanitas, Melinaea, Methona, Napeogenes, Oleria, Olyras, Pagyris, Placidina,
Pseudoscada, Pteronymia, Scada, Thyridia, Tithorea
Morphos: Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribe MORPHINI with the genera: Antirrhea, Caerois, Morpho
Owl Butterflies: Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribe BRASSOLINI
with the genera: Bia,
Brassolis, Caligo, Catoblepia, Dasyophthalma, Dynastor, Eryphanis, Narope,
Opoptera, Opsiphanes, Selenophanes
Satyrs, Wood-nymphs, Ringlets: Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribe SATYRINI
Links to other South America Butterfly groupings in this list:
#1 - Swallowtails (Papilionidae)
Part #2 - Whites, Yellows, Sulphurs (Pieridae)
Part #3 - Hairstreaks, Blues (Lycaenidae) & Metalmarks (Riodinidae)
Part #5 - Skippers (Hesperiidae)
Some Photos of Butterflies and Moths during FONT Tours in Ecuador
In South America, the countries of Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Ecuador each have a great number of butterfly species.
Ecuador has the greatest concentration of species per kilometer. In that country, there are said to be 2,726 species of butterflies.
An Orange Daggerwing photographed during
the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
(photo by Marie Gardner)
Codes relating to illustrations in various books:
Numbers noted as (AZ:xx)
refer to pages in "Butterflies of Arizona - A Photographic
Guide", by Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin, & Hank Brodkin
(with fine photographs).
Numbers noted as (BB:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Buenos Aires (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals
Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved
Numbers noted as (D1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries
Numbers noted as (DV:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies Of South America", by Bernard D'Abrera
Numbers noted as (EBE:xx) refer to pages in "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology", by Xavier Silva.
Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell
Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman
Numbers noted as (MCA:xx) refer to pages in "A Swift Guide to the Butterflies of Mexico & Central America" by Jeffrey Glassberg
Numbers noted as (MM:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas (Butterflies) of Missiones (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals
Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guides to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul, 1998 edition. Those noted as (PEp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.
Numbers noted as (PW:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies", by Paul Opler & illustrated by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1999 edition. Those noted as (PWp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.
Numbers noted as (RG:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of the Lower Rio Grande Valley" by Roland Wauer.
Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter.
Numbers noted as (WGC:xxx) refer to pages in "A Wildlife Guide to Chile", by Sharon Chester.
AR: in Argentina
BR: in Brazil
CH: in Chile
EC: in Ecuador am: Amazonian nw: northwest EC
VE: in Venezuela
Butterflies observed during FONT tours noted by an (*) after the 2-letter country code.
(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website
Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in South America in:
Brazil Ecuador Uruguay Venezuela Argentina Chile
Lists & Photo Galleries of BIRDS, including those during FONT Tours in South America
Lists & Photo Galleries of MAMMALS, relating to FONT Tours in South America
Lists of Photo Galleries of AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES, including those during FONT Tours in South America
Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus of those with Photos in the FONT Website
Directory of Photos in this Website
List of South American Butterflies, Part #4
Family NYMPHALIDAE: BRUSHFOOTS
Cosmopolitan, with subfamilies range from 8 to 25, depending upon taxonomic treatment.
This is the most diverse family of butterflies, with approximately 6,000 known species worldwide.
Brushfoot butterflies appear 4 rather than 6-legged as their 2 front legs are much reduced.
Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe PREPONINI
Butterflies in PREPONINI have irridescent blue colors on the upperside of their wings.
Most species are in primary or secondary forests, where they usually fly over the canopy.
Sometimes they are in open areas.
They feed on decaying fruits and other organic matter.
Butterflies in AGRIAS spend most of their time, as noted above, in the forest canopy.
They are attracted to rotting fruits, fish, and mammal dung.
Agrius are strong fliers and very shy.
Their main flying time seems to be between October and March to April.
THE FOLLOWING COMMENTARY REGARDING BUTTERFLIES IN AMAZONIAN SOUTH
was written by Henry Walter Bates in 1863 in "The Naturalist on the River Amazons"
and mentions the Morpho butterflies Morpho rhetenor (above) and Morpho menelaus and
Morpho uraneis (both below).
"The neighborhood of Para
(in Brazil) is rich in butterflies. It will convey some idea of the diversity when
I mention that about 700 species of that tribe can be found within an hour's
walk of the town
(note: maybe an exaggeration.),
whilst the total number found in the
British Isles does not exceed 66, and the whole of Europe supports only 321.
The splendid blue Morphos, some of which measure seven inches in expanse, are generally confined to the shady alleys of the forest. They sometimes come forth into the broad sunlight. When we first went to look at our new residence in Nazareth, a Morpho menelaus, one of the most beautiful kinds, was seen flapping its huge wings like a bird on the verandah.
That species, however, although much admired, looks dull in colour by the side of its congener, the Morpho rhetenor, whose wings on the upper face, are of quite a dazzling lustre.
Rhetenor usually prefers the broad sunny roads in the forest, and is an almost unattainable prize, on account of its lofty flight; for it very rarely descends nearer the ground than about 20 feet. When it comes sailing along, it occasionally flaps its wings, and then the blue surface flashes in the sunlight, so that it is visible a quarter of a mile off.
There is another species of this genus, of a satiny-white hue, the Morpho uraneis; this is equally difficult to obtain; the male only has the satiny lustre, the female being of a pale-lavender colour."