PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
88-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

 

Part 4 of a List
with some Photos
of


South America
Butterflies
and Moths


Noting those during
Focus On Nature Tours

in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela


Fourth Part of a List of South America Butterflies in 6 Parts, 
compiled by Armas Hill


Here, in Part #4: Nymphalidae, the Brushfoots

Some in NYMPHALIDAE, the CLEARWINGS and most of the SATYRS, are in:
PART #5 OF THIS LIST OF SOUTH AMERICAN BUTTERFLIES

Among Butterfly groupings in this list below, links to these:

Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe PREPONINI 

with the genera: Agrias, Archaeoprepona, Noreppa, Prepona 

Leaf Butterflies: Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe ANAEINI

with the genera: Anaeomorpha, Coenophlebia, Consul, Fountainea, Hypna, Memphis, Polygrapha, Siderone, Zaretis
 

Emperors:
Subfamily APATURINAE  
with the genus: Doxocopa

Snout: Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE   with the genus Libytheana

Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe BIBLIDINI   with the genera: Biblis, Mestra, Vila

Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe COEINI   with the genera: Baeotus, Historis

Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe NYMPHALINI

with the genera: Colobura, Hypanartia, Pycina, Smyrna, Tigridia, Vanessa

Crackers & allies: Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe AGERONIINI

with the genera: Batesia, Ectima, Hamadryas, Panacea

Purplewings & allies: Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPICALLINI    

with the genera: Catonephele, Cybdelis, Eunica, Myscella, Nessaea 

Daggerwings
: Subfamily CYRESTINAE
   with the genus Marpesia

Sailors: Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EUBAGINI    with the genus Dynamine

"Eighty-Eight" Butterflies:
Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe CALLICORINI

with the genera: Antigonis, Callicore, Catacore, Diaethria, Haematera, Mesotaenia,
Orophila, Paulogramma, Perisama

Banners & allies: Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPIPHILINI

with the genera: Asterope, Epiphile, Nica, Peria, Pyrrhogyra, Temenis

Sisters: Subfamily LIMENITIDINAE, Tribe LIMENITIDINI   with the genus Adelpha 

Peacocks, Page, Malachite: Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe VICTORININI

with the genera: Anartia, Metamorpha, Siproeta

Buckeyes, Mimic: Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe JUNONIINI 

with the genera: Junonia, Hypolimnas 

Patches, Checkerspots, Crescents:
Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe MELITAEINI

with the genera: Anthanassa, Castilia, Chlosyne, Dagon, Eresia, Gnathotriche, Higginsius,
Janatella, Mazia, Ortilia, Phystis, Tegosa, Telenassa    


Longwings: Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe HELICONIINI

with the genera: Agraulis, Dione, Dryadula, Dryas, Eueides, Heliconius, Laparus, Neruda, Philaethria, Podotricha

Fritillaries: Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ARGYNNINI   with the genera: Euptoita, Yramea

Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ACRAEINI   with the genera: Abananote, Actinote, Altinote 

Milkweed Butterflies: Subfamily DANAINAE, Tribe DANAINI   

with the genera: Danaus, Ituna, Lycorea

Morphos: Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribe MORPHINI   with the genera: Antirrhea, Caerois, Morpho

Owl Butterflies: Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribe BRASSOLINI     

with the genera: Bia, Brassolis, Caligo, Catoblepia, Dasyophthalma, Dynastor, Eryphanis, Narope, 
Opoptera, Opsiphanes, Selenophanes


Links to other South America Butterfly groupings in this list:

Part #1 - Swallowtails (Papilionidae)     

Part #2 - Whites, Yellows, Sulphurs  (Pieridae)

Part #3 - Hairstreaks, Blues (Lycaenidae) & Metalmarks (Riodinidae)  

Part #5 - Clearwings (Ithomiini) & Satyrs (Satyrinae)

Part #6 - Skippers (Hesperiidae)

Some Photos of Butterflies and Moths during FONT Tours in Ecuador 

 

In South America, the countries of Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Ecuador each have a great number of butterfly species.
Ecuador has the greatest concentration of species per kilometer. In that country, there are said to be 2,726 species of butterflies.



An Orange Daggerwing photographed during 
the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
(photo by Marie Gardner)  


Codes relating to illustrations in various books:

Numbers noted as (AZ:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Arizona - A Photographic Guide", by Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin, & Hank Brodkin (with fine photographs).

Numbers noted as (BB:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Buenos Aires (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals

Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved

Numbers noted as (D1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries   

Numbers noted as (DV:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies Of South America", by Bernard D'Abrera    

Numbers noted as (EBE:xx) refer to pages in "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology", by Xavier Silva.

Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell  

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman

Numbers noted as (MCA:xx) refer to pages in "A Swift Guide to the Butterflies of Mexico & Central America" by Jeffrey Glassberg

Numbers noted as (MM:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas (Butterflies) of Missiones (Argentina)", by Gustavo Canals  

Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guides to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul, 1998 edition. Those noted as (PEp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.

Numbers noted as (PW:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies", by Paul Opler & illustrated by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1999 edition. Those noted as (PWp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph. 

Numbers noted as (RG:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of the Lower Rio Grande Valley" by Roland Wauer.

Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter.

Numbers noted as (WGC:xxx) refer to pages in "A Wildlife Guide to Chile", by Sharon Chester.


Country Codes:


AR: in Argentina
 ba:   province of Buenos Aires
 ne:   northeast Argentina, including Iguazu Falls  
(ARne also on Brazilian side at Iguazu Falls) 
BR: in Brazil
 am:   Amazonian region
 mg:   Mato Grosso, including the Pantanal and north to Alta Floresta / Rio Cristalino 
 se:    southeast Brazil
CH: in Chile
EC: in Ecuador  am: Amazonian  nw: northwest EC
VE: in Venezuela

Butterflies observed during FONT tours noted by an (*) after the 2-letter country code. 

(ph): species with a photo in the FONT website


Other Links:

Upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in South America in:

Brazil   Ecuador   Uruguay   Venezuela
     Argentina   Chile

Lists & Photo Galleries of BIRDS, including those during FONT Tours in South America

Lists & Photo Galleries of MAMMALS, relating to FONT Tours in South America

Lists of Photo Galleries of AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES, including those during FONT Tours in South America

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus of those with Photos in the FONT Website

Directory of Photos in this Website  




List of South American Butterflies, Part #4



       
 
 Family NYMPHALIDAE: BRUSHFOOTS

         
Cosmopolitan, with subfamilies range from 8 to 25, depending upon taxonomic treatment.

         
This is the most diverse family of butterflies, with approximately 6,000 known species worldwide. 
          Brushfoot butterflies appear 4 rather than 6-legged as their 2 front legs are much reduced.


         
Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe PREPONINI  

        
 Butterflies in PREPONINI have irridescent blue colors on the upperside of their wings. 
          Most species are in primary or secondary forests, where they usually fly up in the canopy.
          Sometimes they are in open areas, where they can be found feeding on decaying fruits and other organic matter.
          The butterflies always feed and rest with their wings firmly closed. But if disturbed they sometimes give 
          a very rapid flick of the wings, displaying their vivid coloration on their upperside.           
 

          Genus AGRIAS

       
  Butterflies in AGRIAS spend most of their time, as noted above, in the forest canopy.
          They are attracted to rotting fruits, fish, and mammal dung.
          AGRIAS are strong fliers and very shy.
          Their main flying time seems to be between October and March to April.   

          The males of all AGRIAS species have prominent yellow tufts of androconial scales on the hindwings.

          The AGRIAS are among the most beautiful of all butterflies, said to be the "true gems of the insect world".  

  1. Agrias aedon  ______  EC  (DV1:13) (MCA:118)
    Agrias aedon aedon  ______ 
    subspecies in Colombia, Venezuela
    Agrias aedon salvini  ______ 
    subspecies in Colombia
    Agrias aedon pepitoensis  ______  EC 
    subspecies in western Colombia and Ecuador
    GREAT AGRIAS  (or AEDON AGRIAS)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela and Ecuador)  

    There is another subspecies of Agrias aedon in Mexico and Central America, Agrias aedon rodriguesi.  

  2. Agrias amydon  ______  BR  EC  (DV1:13) (F:115) (MCA:118)
    Agrias amydon amydon  ______ 
    subspecies in Colombia
    Agrias amydon bogotana  ______ 
    subspecies in northeast Colombia and western Venezuela  
    Agrias amydon aurantiaca  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in Brazil in Para and Amazonas, and in Surinam and Venezuela 
    Agrias amydon uniformis  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in Brazil in Roraima and southern Venezuela
    Agrias amydon excelsior  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in Brazil in Amazonas
    Agrias amydon rubella  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in Brazil in Amazonas
    Agrias amydon amydonius  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in Brazil in Amazonas, Colombia, and Peru in and near Loreto and Iquitos 
    Agrias amydon frontina  ______  EC 
    subspecies in western Colombia and northwest Ecuador
    Agrias amydon zenodorus  ______  EC 
    subspecies in Ecuador and northern Peru 
    Agrias amydon amydonias  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in central Peru and in Brazil in Amazonas 
    Agrias amydon aristuxenus  ______ 
    subspecies in Peru and Bolivia
    Agrias amydon boliviensis  ______ 
    subspecies in Bolivia and Peru
    Agrias amydon phalcidon  ______  BR 
    subspecies in Brazil 
    Agrias amydon ferdinandi  ______  BRmg 
    subspecies in Bolivia and in Brazil in Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Bahia
    There is also a yet undescribed subspecies in Venezuela. 
    WHITE-SPOTTED AGRIAS
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil) 

    Agrias amydon is a  powerful flier. It is a very variable species, with, as noted above, a number of subspecies.. It lives in the rainforest and visits fruit for sugar. 
    In the subspecies A. a. amydon, the upperside is dark brown with vivid crimson patches on the forewings.
    In some subspecies (A. a. zenodorus and A. a. boliviensis), the crimson is replaced by bright orange.
    The upperside hindwings have a patch of metallic blue, which varies in size and hue according to subspecies.

  3. Agrias claudina  ______  BR  EC
    Agrias claudina claudina  ______  BRam,mg 
    subspecies in Venezuela, the Guianas, and in much of Brazil
    Agrias claudina delavilliae  ______ 
    subspecies in Venezuela, in the Sierra de Lema
    Agrias claudina patriciae  ______ 
    subspecies in Venezuela 
    Agrias claudina croesus  ______  BRam  
    subspecies in Brazil in Para and Amazonas 
    Agrias claudina lugens  ______  
    subspecies in Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela
    Agrias claudina sardanapalus  ______  BRam  EC 
      subspecies in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil in Rondonia and Amazonas, and in southern Venezuela
    Agrias claudina godmani  ______  BRmg  
    subspecies in Brazil in Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais, and in Bolivia  
    Agrias claudina annetta  ______  BRse 
      subspecies in southern Brazil in the states of Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo
    GODART'S AGRIAS

    The distinctive subspecies, A. c. sardanapalus has extensive red on the forewings with light sparkling blue on the greater part of the hindwings, otherwise being black. 

    Some say that 4 of the subspecies above (sardanapalus, croesus, claudina, lugens) are in Agrias sardanapalus along with subspecies: claudia, lugina.  

  4. Agrias hewitsonius  ______  BR  EC
    Agrias hewitsonius hewitsonius  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in Brazil in Amazonas
    Agrias hewitsonius beatifica  ______  EC 
    subspecies in Ecuador and Peru
    Agrias hewitsonius stuarti  ______  BRam 
    subspecies in Colombia, Peru, and Brazil in Amazonas  

    Some say that the subspecies here are part of Agrias beata, along with A. b. beata, in taxonomy not applied here. . 

  5. Agrias narcissus  ______  BR
    Agrias narcissus stoffeli  ______ 
    subspecies in Venezuela in the Sierra de Lema
    Agrias narcissus narcissus  ______  BRam 
      subspecies in Amazonian Brazil and the Guianaas
    Agrias narcissus tapajonus  ______  BRam 
      subspecies in Brazil, in Amazonas and Para

    Females of Agrias narcissus tapajonus have both a red form and a yellow form.

    Some say that Agrias narcissus is a subspecies of Agrias aedon (above)


    AGRIAS (above) is one of a very small number of butterflies that have been known to hybridize with other genera in the wild.
    A taxon named Prepona x sarumani was described in 1976, considered to be a hybrid between Prepona praeneste abrupta (below) and Agrias claudina lugens (above)
    The butterfly had been captured near the Rio Huallaga in Peru.
    The hybridization showed there to be a very close relationship between PREPONA and AGRIAS. Some taxonomists question whether the two genera are really distinct, but most do regard them as being so.


    Genus PREPONA

    Butterflies in the genera PREPONA and ARCHAEOPREPONA (below) are a beautiful, bright blue on the upper side of the wings.
    They are mainly in primary or secondary forests (both tropical and cloud forests), but they do occasionally visit agricultural areas to feed on decaying fruits or sap from tree bark.
    Host plants for PREPONA are especially Inga spp. in Mimosaceae.

  6. Prepona omphale ______ (DV1:13)
    Prepona omphale omphale  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Prepona omphale amesia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Prepona omphale caucensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Prepona omphale caucensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil)
    an English name has been OMPHALE'S KING SHOEMAKER
     

  7. Prepona dexamenus  ______  EC  (DV1:13) (MCA:119)
    Prepona dexamenus dexamenus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to the Amazon basin)
    LEAST PREPONA
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

    In flight, Prepona meander makes a crackling sound. 

  8. Prepona pylene  ______  AR  BRmg  EC
    Prepona pylene gnorima  ______  EC  (MCA:119) 
      subspecies from Mexico to Colombia and northwest Ecuador
    Prepona pylene miranda  ______ 
      subspecies in Brazil, Rio Vemelho
    Prepona pylene pylene ______ ARne  (MM:259) 
      subspecies in northeast Argentina
    MOTTLED PREPONA
     
    AR common name: Pylene
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

  9. Prepona buckleyana  ______  
    (Range: in Bolivia)

  10. Prepona deiphile  ______  EC
    Prepona deiphile lygia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to the Guianas)
    Prepona deiphile neoterpe  ______ 
    (subspecies from the Guianas to Peru)
    Prepona deiphile photidia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Prepona deiphile sphacteria  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Prepona deiphile xenagoras  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)
    Prepona deiphile deiphile  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil)   
    ORANGE-SPOTTED PREPONA
    (Range: in southeast Brazil)

  11. Prepona eugenes  ______
    Prepona eugenes eugenes  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  12. Prepona garleppiana  ______
    Prepona garleppiana garleppiana  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  13. Prepona joiceyi  ______
    Prepona joiceyi poleti  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil)

  14. Prepona laertes  ______  EC  (EBE:99) (MCA:119)
    Prepona laertes octavia  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Ecuador)
    Prepona laertes demodice  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies Costa Rica, the Guianas, Ecuador, south to Brazil & Bolivia)
    Prepona laertes louisa  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia, Venezuela, & Trinidad)
    Prepona laertes laertes  ______ 
    (subspecies in Paraguay) 
    YELLOW-TUFTED PREPONA 
    (other names are Feathered Prepona, Laertes Prepona, or Shaded Blue Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Paraguay & Brazil)

    What was Prepona philipponi is now included in Prepona laertes demodice.

  15. Prepona pheridamas  ______  EC
    Prepona pheridamas pheridamas  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Para)

  16. Prepona praeneste  ______  EC
    Prepona praeneste choroniensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Prepona praeneste abrupta  ______  subspecies in Peru  (see note above regarding a hybrid of this species with Agrias claudina lugens) 

  17. Prepona pseudomphale  ______
    Prepona pseudomphale pseudomphale  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Amazonas)

  18. Prepona werneri  ______
    (Range: in Colombia)

  19. Prepona xenagoras  ______
    (Range: in Bolivia)


    Genus ARCHAEOPREPONA

    Host plants
    for ARCHAEOPREPONA are the avocado, Persea americana, and Nectandra spp.. in Lauraceae, or Annona spp. in Annonaceae.

  20. Archaeoprepona amphimachus  ______  EC
    Archaeoprepona amphimachus amphiktion  ______  ECnw  (EBE:100) (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Ecuador)
    Archaeoprepona amphimachus amphimachus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Archaeoprepona amphimachus megacles  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil)
    WHITE-SPOTTED PREPONA   

  21. Archaeoprepona demophon  ______  EC  (C:347) (DV1:14) (MCA:118)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Archaeoprepona demophon demophon  ______  EC  (EBE:99) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Archaeoprepona demophon muson  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Archaeoprepona demophon thalpius  ______  ARne  (MM:256) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ONE-SPOTTED PREPONA
     
    AR common name: Demofonte  (who was a fortune-teller consulted by Alexander the Great)  
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 

    In 1814, the butterfly taxonomist Hubner made a blunder by giving a newly-described species the name Archaeoprepona demophoon (below), almost identical to the name given by Linnaeus 56 years earlier in 1758 to another species, Archaeoprepona demophon (above). To complicate matters further, both species often occur together, and their uppersides are virtually identical!
     
  22. Archaeoprepona demophoon  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:100)
    Archaeoprepona demophoon gulina  ______  ECnw  (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon basin) 
    Archaeoprepona demophoon demophoon  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:257) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    TWO-SPOTTED PREPONA 
    (another name has been the Silver King Shoemaker)
    AR common name: Demophoon  (who, in mythology was Teseo's son)
    (Range: southern Mexico to Argentina)

    Archaeoprepona demophoon lives in the canopy of the rainforest. It is probably one of the fastest-flying butterflies in its range (the American tropics). It is said to have a smell like vanilla (maybe from its food source).

    A photographer's account: "I have observed and photographed it, but always from a great distance, and always as a solitary butterfly, sitting with its wings open in the sun, like a drop of metallic blue paint on the green foliage high in the trees."



    Two-spotted Prepona (or Demophoon) (also called Silver King Shoemaker)
    (photo courtesy of Junji Nakamura who sent us this picture of a butterfly that had been her mother's since the 1950s)

  23. Archaeoprepona meander ______  EC  (DV1:14) (MCA:118) (S:119)
    Archaeoprepona meander megabates  ______  (EBE:100) 
    (subspecies from Panama to Bolivia)
    THREE-TONED PREPONA 
    (another name has been the Banded King Shoemaker
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    In flight, Archaeoprepona meander makes a crackling sound.

  24. Archaeoprepona camilla  ______
    Archaeoprepona camilla camilla  ______  ECnw 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Ecuador) 
    PALE PREPONA

  25. Archaeoprepona chalciope ______ ARne  (MM:258)
    Archaeoprepona chalciope domna  ______ 
    (subspecies in Minas Gerais, Brazil)
    AR common name: Calciope 
    (relating to the scientific name, that is mythological)

  26. Archaeoprepona licomedes  ______  EC
    (Range: in Ecuador & Peru)


    Genus NOREPPA:  genus created in 1971

  27. Noreppa chromus  ______  EC


    Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe ANAEINI:  LEAF BUTTERFLIES


    Butterflies in CHARAXINAE look like dead leaves when not moving.
    Most are in primary or secondary forests, where they fly over the canopy, but sometimes in open areas.
    They feed on fruits and various organic matter.  


    Genus ANAEOMORPHA

  28. Anaeomorpha splendida  ______  EC


    Genus COENOPHLEBIA

  29. Coenophlebia archidona  ______  EC


    Genus SIDERONE: LEAFWINGS

  30. Siderone marthesis ______ (DV1:13)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  31. Siderone galanthis  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:96)
    Siderone galanthis galanthis  ______  (MCA:123) 
    subspecies from Central America to the Amazon basin
    Siderone galanthis angustifascia  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador 
    RED-STRIPED LEAFWING 
    (or Red-and-black Leafwing



    Red-striped Leafwing
    (copyrighted photo by Lisa Johnson)

  32. Siderone syntyche  ______  EC


    Genus ZARETIS: LEAFWINGS

  33. Zaretis ellops (or anzuletta)  ______  (MCA:122)
    SEASONAL LEAFWING 
    (or Holey Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to northwest Venezuela)

  34. Zaretis isidora  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:96) (MCA:122)
    ISIDORA LEAFWING 
    (or Cramer's Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)



    Above & below: the Isidora Leafwing,
    showing upperwings & underwings
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)





  35. Zaretis itys  ______  EC 
    Zaretis itys itys  ______  (DV1:14) (MCA:122) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia and the Amazon basin)
    Zaretis itys itylus  ______  AR:ne  (MM:262) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ITYS LEAFWING 
    (or Skeletonized Leafwing) 
    AR common name: Itis  (refers to the scientific name; Itys in mythology was the daughter of Tereo and Procne.)  
    (Range: southern Mexico to Brazil)

  36. Zaretis pythagoras  ______  ECnw  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, described in 2004)

  37. Zaretis syene  ______  EC   

  38. There is yet an undescribed species of Zaretis in Ecuador.


    Genus HYPNA:  LEAFWINGS

  39. Hypna clytemnestra  ______  AR  EC  (EBE:96) (MCA:123)
    Hypna clytemnestra negra  ______  ECnw  (DV1:15)
      subspecies from Nicaragua to Bolivia
    Hypna clytemnestra huebneri ______ ARne  (MM:260) 
      subspecies in northeast Argentina
    SILVER-STUDDED LEAFWING 
    (or Jazzy Leafwing
    AR common name: Clitemnestra  (relating to the name: Clitemnestra was Agamenon's wife.)
    (Range: Mexico to the Argentina) 


    Genus CONSUL:  LEAFWINGS

  40. Consul fabius  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (EBE:96)
    Consul fabius cecrops ______  ECnw  (DV1:15) (MCA:123)
    subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia
    Consul fabius drurii ______ ARne  (MM:261)  
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    TIGER-STRIPED LEAFWING 
    (or Tiger Leafwing
    AR common name: Mbopi  (this name is Guarani word meaning "bat", referring to its peculiar shape when flying near the tops of trees)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  41. Consul panariste  ______  EC  (EBE:96)
    Consul panariste pandrosa  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador 


    Genus  MEMPHIS:  LEAFWINGS  

    About 100 species, which occur in Central and South America. They resemble the genus ANAEA, to which they are closely related. MEMPHIS was at one time said to be a subgenus of ANAEA.
    With crytic undersides that are leaf-like. They reside in the forest, and are powerful fliers.  

    In Ecuador, there are more than 35 species of MEMPHIS butterflies, with most of them looking very much alike.
    The majority are found in primary or secondary forests, where they fly over the canopy. They do, however, come down to feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    A few of the MEMPHIS species venture into open areas. But most reside in tropical or cloud forests.
    Host plants include: Euphorbiceae (Croton spp.), Lauraceae (Nectandra spp.), and Piperaceae.    

    Also following here is the Genus FOUNTAINEA, closely related to MEMPHIS.  

    FOUNTAINEA butterflies
    are similar to MEMPHIS species, but with spectacular violet or orange coloration on the upper side of the wings.
    There are 8 species in Ecuador, found mostly in tropical areas or cloud forests.
    They frequent wet soils to ingest dissolved mineral salts.
    Host plants are generally Croton spp. in Euphorbiaceae.   

  42. Fountainea ryphea  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (EBE:98)  (was Anaea ryphea)
    Fountainea ryphea ryphea  ______ (DV1:15) (MCA:120) 
    subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon basin 
    Fountainea ryphea ecuadorialis  ______  ECnw  (EBE:98)  subspecies in Ecuador 
    Fountainea ryphea phidile  ______  ARne  (MM:264) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina 
    RYPHEA LEAFWING 
    (or BLUE-BARRED LEAFWING)
    AR common name: Purpurea  (translates to "Purple")



    Ryphea Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  43. Fountainea centaurus  ______  EC  (EBE:98)

  44. Fountainea eurypyle  ______  EC  (DV1:15) (EBE:98) (MCA:120)  (was Anaea eurypyle)
    POINTED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia) 

  45. Fountainea glycerium  ______  AR  EC  (MCA:121) (PE:25)  (was Anaea glycerium)
    Fountainea glycerium cratais  ______  ARne  (MM:263) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    ANGLED LEAFWING
    AR common name: Purpurea Coluda 
    (translates to "Tailed Purple" 

  46. Fountainea halice  ______  EC

  47. Fountainea nessus  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:98)



    Fountainea nessus
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  48. Fountainea noblis  (ph)  ______  EC  (MCA:121)  (was Anaea noblis)
    NOBLE LEAFWING
    (Range: southern Mexico to Venezuela and Peru)



    Noble Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson) 

  49. Fountainea sosippus  ______  EC

  50. Memphis titan  ______  (DV1:15)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru) 

  51. Memphis acaudata  ______  EC

  52. Memphis acidalia  ______  BRmg  EC
    ACIDALIA LEAFWING

  53. Memphis ambrosia  ______  EC

  54. Memphis anassa  ______  EC

  55. Memphis anna  ______  EC
    Memphis anna elina  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador  

  56. Memphis arachne  ______  EC

  57. Memphis aulica  ______
    Memphis aulica gudrum  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador

  58. Memphis aureola  ______  ECnw  (MCA:128)
    AUREOLA LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  59. Memphis xenocles  ______  EC  (DV1:17) (MCA:127)
    CAROLINA LEAFWING 
    (or Corner-spotted Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  60. Memphis arginussa  ______  EC  (DV1:17) (EBE:97) (MCA:125)
    MOTTLED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

  61. Memphis basilia  ______  EC

  62. Memphis beatrix  ______  EC

  63. Memphis catinka  ______  EC

  64. Memphis cerealia  ______  EC

  65. Memphis chaeronea  ______  ECnw

  66. Memphis cleomestra  ______  EC
    Memphis cleomestra cleomestra  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador

  67. Memphis dia  ______  EC

  68. Memphis falcata  ______  EC 

  69. Memphis glauce  ______  EC
    Memphis glauce centralis  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador

  70. Memphis moeris  ______  EC

  71. Memphis mora  ______  EC
    Memphis mora annetta  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador

  72. Memphis moruus  ______  ECnw   

  73. Memphis moruus  (ph)  ______  (DV1:18) (MCA:126)
    Memphis moruus coerulescens ______ ARne  (MM:265) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    LAUREL LEAFWING 
    (or Blue Leaf)  
    AR common name: Hoja Azul  (translates to "Blue Leaf")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)   



    The Laurel Leafwing, or Blue Leaf
    photographed at Iguazu Falls, Argentina
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  74. Memphis lemnos  ______  EC

  75. Memphis lineata  ______  EC

  76. Memphis lorna  ______  EC  (EBE:97)

  77. Memphis lyceus  ______  EC  (DV1:18) (EBE:97)
    LYCEUS LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  78. Memphis nenia  ______  ECnw

  79. Memphis oenomais ______ (DV1:18) (MCA:126)
    EDGE LEAFWING 
    (a northern race is called the BOISDUVAL'S LEAFWING)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central and South America)

  80. Memphis offa  ______  EC

  81. Memphis artacaena  ______  ECnw  (MCA:126)
    WHITE-PATCHED LEAFWING
    (Range: southeast Mexico to Colombia)

  82. Memphis perenna  ______  EC

  83. Memphis phantes  ______  EC

  84. Memphis philumena  ______  EC

  85. Memphis phoebe  ______  EC

  86. Memphis pithyusa  ______  EC
    Memphis pithyusa pithyusa  ______  (DV1:19) (K:221) (MCA:125) (PE:25) 
    subspecies from Texas to Bolivia 
    PALE-SPOTTED LEAFWING 
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia) 

  87. Memphis polycarmes  ______  EC

  88. Memphis polyxo  ______  EC

  89. Memphis praxias  ______  EC

  90. Memphis pseudiphis  ______  EC

  91. Memphis xenippa  ______  EC


    Genus POLYGRAPHA

  92. Polygrapha cyanea  ______

  93. Polygrapha suprema  ______  BRse  local and rare in southeast Brazil

  94. Polygrapha tyrianthina  ______  in Peru and Bolivia
    KING LEAFWING

  95. Polygrapha xenocrates  ______  BR
    Polygrapha xenocrates demaculata  ______  BRmg  
    subspecies in Brazil
    Polygrapha xenocrates punctmarginalis  ______ 
    subspecies in the Guianas


    Subfamily APATURINAE


    Genus DOXOCOPA:  EMPERORS  

    DOXOCOPA butterflies are irridescent species of tropical zones and foothills, occurring up to 4,500 feet above sea level, and mostly in close proximity to primary and secondary forests. 
    They frequently visit riverbanks or wet soils for mineral salts.  
    Host plants are trees of the Ulmaceae family, such as Celtis spp. 

  96. Doxocopa pavon  ______  EC  (DV1:19) (EBE:51) (K:225) (MCA:130) (PE:24)
    PAVON EMPEROR
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia)

  97. Doxocopa clothilda  ______  
    CLOTHILDA EMPEROR
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia) 

  98. Doxocopa cyane  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:20) (EBE:51) (MCA:130)
    CYAN EMPEROR 
    (called, further north in its range, Mexican Emperor)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)



    Above & below: the Cyan Emperor
    The photo above was taken during the FONT tour
    in southern Ecuador in April 2014.

    (upper photo by Marie Gardner, lower photo by Sherry Nelson)




  99. Doxocopa laure  ______  EC  (C:285) (DV1:20) (K:225) (MCA:130) (PE:24)
    SILVER EMPEROR 
    (also called Laure)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  100. Doxocopa linda  ______  AR  EC  (EBE:51)
    Doxocopa linda mileta ______ ARne  (MM:266) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    RARE EMPEROR
    AR common name: Linda 
    (translates to "Cute")  

    Doxocopa linda imitates species of the Adelpha genus.

  101. Doxocopa elis  ______  EC

  102. Doxocopa agathina  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (EBE:51)
    Doxocopa agathina vacuna ______ ARne  (MM:267) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    AR common name: Turqui 
    (translates to "Turquoise")

  103. Doxocopa kallina ______ ARba,ne  (BB:239) (MM:268) 
    AR common name: Indigo

  104. Doxocopa laurentia  (ph)  ______  EC  (MCA:130)
    Doxocopa laurentia cherubina  ______  (EBE:51) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Doxocopa laurentia laurentia  ______ ARba,ne  (BB:237) (MM:269) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    TURQUOISE EMPEROR

    AR common name: Zafiro  (translates to "Sapphire")



    A Turquoise Emperor, Doxocopa laurentia, photographed during a FONT tour
    at Iguazu Falls in August 2008


  105. Doxocopa lavinia  ______  EC

  106. Doxocopa zunilda  ______  EC
    Doxocopa zunilda felderi  ______  (DV1:19) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Doxocopa zunilda zunilda ______ ARne  (MM:270) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ZINGY EMPEROR
    AR common name: Zunilda
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina)


    Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE:  SNOUTS


    Genus LIBYTHEANA:  SNOUTS  

  107. libytheana carinenta   ______  (C:281) (DV1:20) (F:175) (K:223) (MCA:79) (PE:18) (S:146) (WGC:101)
    Libytheana carinenta carinenta  ______  ARba,ne  BRmg  CH  (BB:235) (MM:255) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)  
    AMERICAN SNOUT 
    AR common names: Picuda  (this and other common names refer to the size of the labial palpi)
    Mariposa Elefante, Trompa de Elefante, Trompuda
    BR common name: Bicuda  
    CH common name: Mariposa Comun del Tropico  

    (Range: southern US to Argentina. In Chile, locally in coastal Linares)



    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe BIBLIDINI 


    Genus BIBLIS

  108. Biblis hyperia  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:319) (DV1:21) (F:124) (K:215) (MCA:107) (PE:25)
    Biblis hyperia pacifica  ______  EC  (EBE:52) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador in the area of the Coast)
    Biblis hyperia laticlavia  ______  EC  (EBE:52) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador in the Amazon)
    Biblis hyperia nectanabis ______ ARba,ne  (BB:251) (MM:291) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador in the area of the Coast)
    Biblis hyperia laticlavia  ______  EC  (EBE:52) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador in the Amazon)
    Biblis hyperia nectanabis ______ ARba,ne  (BB:251) (MM:291) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    RED RIM

    AR common name: Alas Sangrantes  (translates to "Crimson-banded Black")
    (Range: Mexico to the Argentina, also the West Indies) 

    The Red Rim is a numerous butterfly in Ecuador, with two subspecies (as noted above). Easy to identify, it occurs in tropical areas, and up to about 3,500 feet above sea level.
    Host plants: Tragia spp. in Euphorbiaceae.   



    Red Rim


    Genus MESTRA

  109. Mestra dorcas  ______  EC


    Genus VILA

  110. Vila azeca  ______  EC

  111. Vila emilia  ______  EC


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe COEINI 


    Genus HISTORIS

    This genus includes only 2 large, common species of the humid tropics (in Ecuador, in the Amazon and Esmeraldas).
    They feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter. They also frequent riverbanks and wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants include: Cecropia spp. (in Urticaceae).        

  112. Historis odius  (ph)  ______   AR  BRmg  EC  (DV1:21) (MCA:127) (PE:text)
    Historis odius odius  ______  EC  (EBE:70)  
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Historis odius dious  ______  ARne  EC 
    (MM:272)   subspecies from Mexico to Argentina
    ORION CECROPIAN 
    (also called Stinky Leaf Wing
    AR common name: Popeno, a Guarani word meaning "gigantic" 
    (Range: throughout Central and South America; in North America, a rare stray to Florida) 



    Orion Cecropian

  113. Historis acheronta  ______  EC  (C:353) (DV1:21) (MCA:127)
    Historis acheronta acheronta  ______  (EBE:70) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    TAILED CECROPIAN
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    TAILED CECROPIAN
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin, also Greater Antilles)


    Genus BAEOTUS

    This genus has 4 species (all of which are in Ecuador), especially in the Amazon.
    Baeotus aeilus is also in the area of the Ecuadorian Coast.
    These butterflies feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter, and they frequent riverbanks and wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants are Cecropia spp. (in Urticaceae) and probably Moraceae.  

     
  114. Baeotus beotus  ______  EC  (DV1:21) (MCA:116) (F:122)
    GRAPHIC BEAUTY
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)

    Baeotus baeotus is an attractive and rare butterfly in virgin rainforest.

  115. Baeotus aeilus  ______  BRmg  EC
    Baeotus aeilus amazonicus  ______  EC  (EBE:71) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    AMAZON BEAUTY

  116. Baeotus deucalion  ______  EC  (EBE:71)

  117. Baeotus japetus  ______  EC  (EBE:71)


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe NYMPHALINI


    Genus TIGRIDIA

  118. Tigridia acesta  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:21) (MCA:116)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Tigridia acesta columbina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, by the Coast)
    Tigridia acesta fulvescens  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, in the Amazon)  
    TIGER BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

    In Ecuador, the Tiger Beauty is somewhat less common than the Dirce Beauty (below).
    It occurs in less disturbed habitats, and feeds primarily on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants: Cecopia spp. in Urticaceae. 



    Tiger Beauty
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus COLOBURA

  119. Colobura dirce  (ph)   ______  EC  (C:291) (DV1:21) (EBE:81) (MCA:116) (S:114)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Colobura dirce dirce  _____  ARne  (MM:271) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DIRCE BEAUTY 
    (other names have been the Small Beauty and The Mosaic
    )
    AR common name: Cebrita  (this name & the English "Zebra Butterfly" refer to the pattern on the ventral side)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America, also the West Indies) 

    In Ecuador, Colobura dirce is of infrequent occurrence in the area of the Coast and in the Amazon along primary and secondary forest edges, and in agricultural areas.
    It feeds primarily on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants are Cecropia spp. (in Urticaceae). 



    Colobura dirce, the Dirce Beauty

  120. Colebura annulata  ______  EC  (MCA:116)  (species described in 2001)
    NEW BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to western Ecuador & Bolivia, and east to Venezuela, the Guianas, & Trinidad)  


    Genus SMYRNA

  121. Smyrna blomfildia  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:21) (EBE:81) (K:225) (MCA:115) (PE:26)
    Smyrna blomfildia blomfildia  ______  ARne  (MM:273) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    BLOMFILD'S BEAUTY
    AR common name: Dibujada
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

    In Ecuador, the Blomfild's Beauty is not very common. It occurs in the area of the Coast, in the Amazon, and up to about 4,200 feet above sea level on both slopes.
    It feeds primarily on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants: in Urticaceae. 



    Blomfild's Beauty, Smyrna blomfildia
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus PYCINA

  122. Pycina zamba ______  EC  (DV1:21) (MCA:115)
    CLOUD FOREST BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to Peru) 


    Genus HYPANARTIA   


    In Ecuador, HYPANARTIA butterflies are common, mid-sized species found in open areas and forest edges in foothills, cloud forests, and with some in Andean valleys. 
    They are easily seen on wet soil extracting mineral salts.
    Host plants are in Urticaceae (Boehmeria spp. and Pillea spp.) and in Ulmaceae.

  123. Hypanartia lethe  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:279) (DV1:28) (EBE:80) (MCA:95) (MM:324)
    ORANGE MAPWING
    AR common name: Leta 
    (referring to the scientific name; Lethe, in mythology, was Oleno's wife who turned into a stone)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil & Argentina)



    Above & below: Hypanartia lethe, the Orange Mapwing
    (upper photo by Sherry Nelson; lower photo by Jorge Bizarro)




  124. Hypanartia godmani  ______  EC  (MCA:95)
    GODMAN'S MAPWING 
    (or Splendid Mapwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  125. Hypanartia kefersteini ______  EC  (DV1:28) (EBE:80)
    RED MAPWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)

  126. Hypanartia charon  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  127. Hypanartia christophori  ______  EC  (species described in 1998)

  128. Hypanartia cinderella  (ph)  ______  EC  (species described in 2001)



    Hypanartia cinderella
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  129. Hypanartia dione  ______  EC

  130. Hypanartia lindigi  ______  EC

  131. Hypanartia trimaculata  ______  EC  (species described in 2001)

  132. Hypanartia bella  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:261) (MM:325)
    AR common name: Bella 
    (translates to "Beautiful"


    Genus VANESSA: LADY BUTTERFLIES  


    In Ecuador, VANESSA butterflies, or "Painted Ladies", are common and conspicuous in diverse areas such as open areas, cloud forests, Andean valleys, paramos, dry coastal areas. There are at least 6 species in Ecuador.
    Two species occur in the Galapagos Islands: Vanessa carye and Vanessa virginiensis.
    In the Andes, Vanessa altissima flies at over 12,000 feet above sea level.
    VANESSA butterflies feed on nectar, rotten fruit, and other organic matter, and they visit wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants include those in Acanthaceae, Malvaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Urticaceae.  

  133. Vanessa (or Cynthia) cardui  (ph)  ______ (DV1:28) (K:205) (MCA:93) (PE:23) (S:141) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    PAINTED LADY
    (Range: worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand) 



    Painted Lady
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  134. Vanessa virginiensis  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:79)
    AMERICAN LADY
    (Range: from North America south to Colombia; also in the West Indies, Hawaii, & the Canary Islands) 

  135. Vanessa carye  (ph)  ______  ARba,ne  CH  EC  (BB:257) (MM:321) (WGC:101)
    FOUR-EYED LADY
    AR common name: Dama Cuatro Ojos 
    (translates to "Four-eyed Lady")
    CH common name: Mariposa Colorada
    (Range: widespread in South America in a variety of habitats, including towns and cities. In Chile, Arica to Magallanes)

    Vanessa carye
    is a smaller sister species of the Painted Lady, Vanessa cardui.
    The larvae feeds on nettles and mallows.



    A Four-eyed Lady photographed during a FONT tour in southern Chile,
    on Chiloe Island
    (photo by Frank Stermitz)


  136. Vanessa atalanta  (ph)  ______  (MCA:93)
    Vanessa atalanta rubria  ______ 
    (subspecies from North America to Guatemala, & Venezuela)
    RED ADMIRAL 

  137. Vanessa altissima  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:79)



    Vanessa altissima
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  138. Vanessa terpsichore  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposa Colorada de Philippi
    (Range: in Chile, occurs commonly from Coquimbo to Magallanes)

    Vanessa terpsichore
    is very similar to Vanessa carye, but it is paler.

  139. Vanessa braziliensis ______ ARba,ne  EC  (BB:259) (EBE:79) (MM:322)
    AR common name: Dama Dos Ojos 
    (translates to "Two-eyed Lady")

  140. Vanessa myrinna ______ ARne  EC  (MM:323)
    AR common name: Dama Fajarda 
    (translates to "Banded Lady")


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe AGERONIINI


    Genus HAMADRYAS: CRACKERS:: species in this genus are called "CRACKERS" because of the noise the males make with their wings in flight. 

    In general CRACKERS are also called CALICOS

    CRACKERS, or CALICOS, or "CLICKERS", are essentially tropical. They are easily recognizable by their patterns, and by their way of sitting head down on trunks or walls. But species can be hard to identify because they look much like one another.
    They feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants: in Euphorbiaceae (Dalechampia spp. and Tragia spp.)

  141. Hamadryas februa  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (DV1:21) (F:158) (K:217) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas februa ferentina  ______  (MCA:113) 
    subspecies from Mexico south to Colombia, the Guianas and the Amazon, also Trinidad) 
    Hamadryas februa februa ______ ARba,ne  (BB:253) (MM:284) 
    subspecies in Argentina
    GRAY CRACKER
    (or some places called The Cracker) (also called Common Calico)  
    AR common name: Pororo Ocelos Rojos (translates to "Red eye-spotted Pororo") ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles".)  
    (Range: southern US to Argentina) 

    Hamadryas februa occurs along forest edges. Not at flowers, but at rotting fruit, dung, and mud. 



    A Gray Cracker photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  142. Hamadryas feronia  (ph)  ______  ECnw  (C:259) (DV1:21) (EBE:57) (K:217) (PE:26)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hamadryas feronia farinulenta  ______   (MCA:114)
    (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hamadryas feronia farinulenta  ______   (MCA:114) 
    subspecies from Mexico to Peru and Venezuela, and Trinidad  
    VARIABLE CRACKER

    (Range: southern US to Brazil) 



    A Variable Cracker photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


  143. Hamadryas arethusa ______ (S:132)
    QUEEN CRACKER  

    Hamadryas arethusa
    is considered conspecific with Hamadryas laodamia (below).   

  144. Hamadryas guatemalena  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:21) (PE:26)
    GUATEMALAN CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  145. Hamadryas ipthime ______  (DV1:21) (MCA:113) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas ipthime ipthime ______  EC 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia & southern Brazil) 
    BROWNISH CRACKER 
    (or RINGLESS BLUE CRACKER 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  146. Hamadryas fornax  ______  (DV1:21) (EBE:57) (F:158)
    Hamadryas fornax fornacalia  ______  EC  (MCA:112) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia & Venezuela)
    Hamadryas fornax fornax ______ ARne  EC  (MM:287) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ORANGE CRACKER 
    (other names are Yellow Cracker, or Yellow-skirted Cracker
    AR common name: Pororo Mancha Ocre (translates to "Ochre-spotted Pororo") ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles".)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

    Hamadryas fornax is smaller than other crackers, and with a number of subspecies. It is  found In moist rainforest, occurring along trails and rivers.

  147. Hamadryas amphinome  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (DV1:22) (EBE:56) (F:157) (PE:26)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Hamadryas amphinome mexicana  ______  (MCA:112) 
    subspecies from Mexico to Colombia
    Hamadryas amphinome amphinome ______ ARba,ne  ECam  (BB:255) (MM:286) 
      widespread subspecies, in Argentina and eastern Amazonian Ecuador
    Hamadryas amphinome fumosa  ______  ECnw  
    subspecies in western Ecuador, in the coastal area  
    RED CRACKER
    AR common names: Pororo Mancha Roja 
    (translates to "Red-spotted Pororo" with "Pororo" being a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles", 
    or Clic Rojiza, translating to "Reddish Click", referring to the peculiar noise made by the butterfly)
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, can occur in rainforests)

    A host plant for Hamadryas amphinome is Dalechampia scandens (in Euphorbiaceae). 



    Red Cracker  (the red is on the other side of the wings) 

  148. Hamadryas glauconome  ______
    Hamadryas glauconome amphichloe   ______  EC 
      subspecies in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador 
    GLAUCOUS CRACKER 

  149. Hamadryas arinome  ______  EC
    Hamadryas arinome arienis ______  ECnw  (DV1:22) 
    subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia; subspecies in western Ecuador
    Hamadryas arinome arinome  ______  EC 
      subspecies in eastern Ecuador
    TURQUOISE CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)  

  150. Hamadryas laodamia  ______  BRam,mg  EC  (C:261) (F:159)
    Hamadryas laodamia saurites  ______  ECnw  (DV1:22) (MCA:112) 
    subspecies from southern Mexico to Colombia, northern Venezuela, Trinidad; subspecies in western Ecuador  
    Hamadryas laodamia laodamia  ______  EC  
    subspecies in eastern Ecuador
    STARRY NIGHT CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

    Hamadryas laodamia has delightful coloration completely different than its allies. It flies in the canopy and in sunny clearings in the rainforest.

  151. Hamadryas albicornis  ______  EC

  152. Hamadryas alicia  ______  EC

  153. Hamadryas amphichloe  ______  EC  (EBE:57)

  154. Hamadryas chloe  ______  EC
    Hamadryas chloe chloe  ______  EC  (EBE:57) 
    subspecies in eastern Ecuador

  155. Hamadryas epinome  ______  ARne  (MM:285)
    AR common name: Pororo 
    (this name is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles") 

  156. Hamadryas arete  (ph)  ______  ARne  (MM:288)
    AR common name: Pororo Azul 
    (translates to "Blue Pororo")  ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles")



    Hamadryas arete
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)


    Genus ECTIMA

  157. Ectima erycinoides  ______  EC

  158. Ectima iona  ______  EC

  159. Ectima lirides  ______  EC

  160. Ectima thecla  ______  EC
    Ectima thecla thecla  ______  ARne  (MM:289)
    AR common name: Pororo Mini 
    (referring to the similarity with the butterflies of the genus HAMADRYAS called "Pororo"; "Mini" relates to its smaller size.) 


    Genus PANACEA

    PANACEA species are spectacular species of humid tropical areas.

    In Ecuador, there are 5 species, essentially in the Amazon and in the northern Coastal area. They are common in certain Amazonian areas, and uncommon by the Coast.
    They feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter, and they also visit riverbanks and wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants: Caryodendron spp. in Euphorbiaceae.    

  161. Panacea procilla ______ (DV1:22)
    (Range: Panama to the Amazon Basin) 

  162. Panacea prola  ______  EC  (EBE:58)

  163. Panacea regina  ______  EC  (EBE:58)

  164. Panacea chalcothea  ______  EC

  165. Panacea divalis  ______  EC

  166. Panacea procilla  ______  EC


    Genus BATESIA

  167. Batesia hypochlora  ______  EC


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPICALLINI



    Genus EUNICA:  PURPLEWINGS
    60 species in Central & South America that live in primary forest  There are at least 28 species in Ecuador.

    Most of the EUNICA species are found in tropical areas, with some in cloud forests.
    It is a diverse group in which males show brilliant bluish colors.
    Some species are seen on humid soil.
    Host plants are usually in Euphorbiaceae and Burseraceae.   

     
  168. Eunica tatila  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:22) (K:215) (MCA:111) (PE:25)
    Eunica tatila bellaria  ______  ARne  (MM:317) 
    (subspecies from Panama to southern Brazil & Argentina)
    FLORIDA PURPLEWING 
    (or Large Purplewing, or simply Purplewing)
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, also West Indies) 
     



    Eunica tatila, the Florida Purplewing

  169. Eunica monima  ______  EC  (DV1:22) (EBE:55) (K:215) (MCA:111) (PE:25)
    DINGY PURPLEWING
    (Range: southern US and Mexico thru Central America into South America to Venezuela, also the Greater Antilles) 

  170. Eunica malvina  ______  EC  (DV1:22) (MCA:110)
    RAYED PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  171. Eunica mygdonia  ______  BRmg  EC  (DV1:22) (EBE:55) (MCA:110)
    BLIND PURPLEWING 
    (or Mygdonia Purplewing)
    (Range: Mexico to the Brazil)

  172. Eunica alcmena  ______  
    Eunica alcmena alcmena  ______  EC  (DV1:23) (MCA:110) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia & western Venezuela)
    DARK PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)

  173. Eunica araucana  ______
    ARAUCANA PURPLEWING
    (Range: Panama, Colombia, western Venezuela)

  174. Eunica caelina  ______  (MCA:111)
    Eunica caelina olympias  ______  EC 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Peru & Venezuela)
    MOTTLED PURPLEWING

  175. Eunica caralis  ______
    Eunica caralis caralis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies known to be in Honduras, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela)
    CARALIS PURPLEWING

  176. Eunica carias  ______  EC
    Eunica carias carias  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    CARIAS PURPLEWING

  177. Eunica chlororhoa  ______  EC
    Eunica chlororhoa mira  ______ 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Colombia)
    ORANGE-STAINED PURPLEWING

  178. Eunica clytia  ______  EC  (EBE:55)
    CLYTIA PURPLEWING
    (Range: western Panana to Peru & central Brazil) 

  179. Eunica alpais  ______  BRmg  EC  (DV1:23) (EBE:55) (MCA:111)
    SHINING PURPLEWING 
    (or Alpais Purplewing)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)

  180. Eunica norica  ______
    Eunica norica norica  ______  EC  (DV1:22) 
    subspecies from Costa Rica to Venezuela and western Ecuador
    MIDNIGHT PURPLEWING 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  181. Eunica pomona  ______  EC
    Eunica pomona amata  ______  (DV1:23)
    ROUNDED PURPLEWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela) 

  182. Eunica pusilla  ______  BRmg
    PUSILLA PURPLEWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia and southeast Brazil)

  183. Eunica sydonia  ______  EC  (DV1:22) (MCA:110)
    PLAIN PURPLEWING
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru)  

  184. Eunica volumina  ______  EC
    Eunica volumina venusia  ______  (MCA:111) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Chiapas)
    BLUE-CELLED PURPLEWING


  185. Eunica amelia  ______  EC

  186. Eunica amycla  ______  EC

  187. Eunica bechina  ______  EC

  188. Eunica brunnea  ______  EC

  189. Eunica concordia  ______  EC  (EBE:55)

  190. Eunica eurota  ______  EC  (EBE:55)

  191. Eunica evelide  ______  EC

  192. Eunica marsolia  ______  EC

  193. Eunica orphise  ______  EC

  194. Eunica phasis  ______  EC

  195. Eunica sophonisba  ______  EC  (EBE:55)

  196. Eunica veronica  ______  EC

  197. Eunica viola  ______  EC

  198. Eunica maja maja  (ph)  ______  ARne  (MM:316)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MAJA PURPLEWING
    AR common name: Maja



    the female Maja Purplewing, Eunica maja maja
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  199. Eunica eburnea ______ ARne  (MM:318)
    AR common name: Marfil 
    (translates to "Ivory") (The scientific name, eburnea, means "ivory", or like it.) 


    Genus MYSCELIA


  200. Myscelia cyaniris  ______  EC  (DV1:22) (MCA:108)
    Myscelia cyaniris millelorum  ______  (EBE:54) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, described in 1984) 
    WHITENED BLUEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru) 

    In Ecuador, Myscelia cyaniris millelorum is not very common, occurring in the area of the Coast, where it is both humid (in the north) and dry (in the central-south). It can also be seen in agricultural zones.
    It feeds on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants are Dalechampia spp. in Euphorbiaceae.
    .  
  201. Myscelia leucocyna ______ (DV1:22)
    Myscelia leucocyna leucocyna  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Venezuela)
    PALE BLUEWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela) 

  202. Myscelia capenas  ______  EC 
    Myscelia capenas octomaculata  ______  (EBE:54) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

    In Ecuador, Myscelia capenas octomaculata is uncommon, in primary and secondary forests of the Amazon, usually seen in forest gaps. 
    It feeds on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants: in Euphorbiaceae.   

  203. Myscelia orsis  ______  AR:ne  (MM:315)
    AR common name: Yin-Yang 
    (This name is because the male & female are very different, but yet they are of course complimentary, as is the universal principle of the yin and the yang in Taoism.)  


    Genus NESSAEA

  204. Nessaea aglaura  ______  EC  (MCA:107)
    Nessaea aglaura aglaura  ______ 
    subspecies from southern Mexico
    Nessaea aglaura thalia  ______  EC  (EBE:54)  
    subspecies in Ecuador
    NORTHERN NESSAEA 
    (or Common Olivewing)

    In Ecuador, Nessaea aglaura thalia is rare, in and around primary forest in the northwest part of the country, in the Choco biogeographic zone.
    Host plants: in Euphorbiaceae.
     
  205. Nessaea hewitsonii  ______  EC

  206. Nessaea obrinus  ______  BRmg  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    BLUE-AND-ORANGE OLIVEWING


    Genus CATONEPHELE  


    CATONEPHELE butterflies are generally easy to identify. Males are orange and black. Females are very distinct.
    In Ecuador, there are no less than 9 species. They occur in tropical zones, with some in cloud forests. Usually they are close to primary or secondary forests, but they are also found in agricultural areas.
    Host plants are usually Alchornea spp. in Euphorbiaceae.    

  207. Catonephele numilia  (ph)  ______  AR  BRse  EC  (MCA:109)
    Catonephele numilia esite ______  EC  (DV1:25) (EBE:52) (S:139) 
    subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela and in northwest Ecuador; also Trinidad) 
    Catonephele numilia neogermanica  (ph)  ______  ARne  (MM:292)  subspecies in northeast Argentina
    BLUE-FROSTED BANNER 
    (other names are the Stoplight Catone and Grecian Shoemaker)
    AR common name: Terciopelo Manchado  (translates to "Spotted Velvet")
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil & Argentina) 



    Catonephele numilia, the Blue-frosted Banner 
    or Spotlight Catone or Grecian Shoemaker
    photographed during a FONT tour in southeast Brazil in August 2009 

  208. Catonephele chromis  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:25) (EBE:52) (MCA:109)
    SISTER-SPOTTED BANNER 
    (another name is Cloud Forest Catone
    (Range: Honduras to possibly Bolivia) 



    Catonephele chromis, the Sister-spotted Banner
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  209. Catonephele orites  ______  ECnw   (DV1:25) (EBE:53)
    BROKEN BANNER
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

    In Ecuador, Catonephele orites is a relatively rare species in the area of the northern Coast, in the Choco biogeographic zone.

  210. Catonephele acontius  ______  AR  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)
    Catonephele acontius caeruleus ______ ARne  (MM:293) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Terciopelo Fajado 
    (translates to "Banded Velvet") 

  211. Catonephele antinoe  ______  EC

  212. Catonephele mexicana  ______  EC  (EBE:52)  (species described in 1985)

  213. Catonephele nyctimus  ______  EC

  214. Catonephele salacia  ______  EC

  215. Catonephele salambria  ______  EC


    Genus CYBDELIS  


  216. Cybdelis mnasylus  ______  EC  (EBE:59)

    In Ecuador, Cybdelis mnasylus is relatively common in cloud forest on both Andean slopes, up to 2,100 meters above sea level. 

  217. Cybdelis boliviana  ______  EC

  218. Cybdelis phaesyla  ______  ARne  (MM:309)
    AR common name: Abanderada 
    (translates to "Standard-bearer", alludes to the pattern on the upper forewings, like Argentina's flag)


    Subfamily CYRESTINAE


    Genus MARPESIA: DAGGERWINGS
    Mostly Central and South American butterflies, but also occurs in Africa. Called "DAGGERWING" after the long tail on each hindwing. 

    Host plants for Marpesia butterflies include those in Moraceae (for example, Ficus spp.)

  219. Marpesia zerynthia (or coresia)  (ph)  ______  BR  EC  (K:219) (MCA:117)
    Marpesia zerynthia dentigera  ______  (DV1:23) (EBE:68) (PE:25) 
    (subspecies from Mexico, rarely Texas, to Peru)
    Marpesia zerynthia zerynthia  ______  BR 
    (subspecies in Bahia, Brazil) 
    WAITER DAGGERWING
    (Range: southern US thru Central and South America) 

    Marpesia coresia has been merged into Marpesia zerynthia.



    A Waiter Daggerwing photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


  220. Marpesia merops  ______  EC  (DV1:23) (MCA:117)
    SPOT-BANDED DAGGERWING 
    (or Dappled Daggerwing)
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil)

  221. Marpesia berania  (ph)  ______  BRmg  EC  (C:275) (DV1:23) (MCA:117)
    Marpesia berania berania  ______  EC  (EBE:67) 
      a subspecies in Ecuador
    Marpesia berania fruhstorferi  ______  EC  
    a subspecies in Ecuador
    ORANGE DAGGERWING
      (other names are TANGERINE DAGGERWING and Guatemalan Daggerwing)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central and South America)



    Above & below: Orange Daggerwings photographed 
    during the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
    (photos by Marie Gardner) 





  222. Marpesia marcella  ______  EC  (DV1:23)
    Marpesia marcella marcella  ______  EC  (EBE:15,69) 
    subspecies in Ecuador    
    PURPLE-STAINED DAGGERWING
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru)

  223. Marpesia iole  ______  (DV1:23)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Bolivia)

  224. Marpesia petreus  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (DV1:23) (F:177) (K:219) (MCA:117) (PE:25) (S:123)
    Marpesia petreus petreus ______ ARne  EC  (EBE:68) (MM:320) 
    subspecies from the Guianas to Bolivia, Argentina
    RUDDY DAGGERWING
    (also called Southern Daggertail, and in the West Indies, the Tailed Flambeau)
    (Range: southern US thru Central and South America) 

    Marpesia petreus visits flowers and mud-puddles.



    Ruddy Daggerwing

  225. Marpesia chiron  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  ECnw  (C:273) (DV1:23) (EBE:67) (K:219) (MCA:117) (PE:25)
    Marpesia chiron marius ______ ARne  (MM:319) 
    (was said to be a subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MANY-BANDED DAGGERWING
    AR common name:
    Mario  (refers to the scientific name; the only race found in Argentina)
    BR common name: Cambaxirra
    (Range: southern US, Central and South America, also West Indies) 



    Many-banded Daggerwing, Marpesia chiron
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  226. Marpesia corinna  (ph)  ______  EC
    CORINNA DAGGERWING



    Corinna Daggerwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  227. Marpesia crethon  ______  EC  (EBE:68)

  228. Marpesia egina  ______  EC

  229. Marpesia furcula  ______  EC
    Marpesia furcula violetta  ______  EC  (EBE:69)  
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Marpesia furcula oechalia  ______  EC  (EBE:69) 
      subspecies in Ecuador

  230. Marpesia livius  ______  EC
    Marpesia livius livius 
    ______  EC   subspecies in Ecuador

  231. Marpesia themistocles  ______  BR  EC
    Marpesia themistocles norica  ______  BRmg  EC  (EBE:67) 
    subspecies in Brazil and Ecuador
    NORICA DAGGERWING

  232. Marpesia tutelina  ______  EC

  233. Marpesia orsilochus  ______  BRmg
    WHITE-BANDED DAGGERWING


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EUBGINI


    Genus DYNAMINE


    DYNAMINE
    is a diverse genus of small butterflies. Most species are tropical, with some in cloud forests.  
    Males are usually bright bluish or white.
    In Ecuador, there are almost 30 species. Many visit wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants: usually Euphorbiaceae.   

  234. Dynamine agacles  ______   EC
    Dynamine agacies core  ______ (DV1:24) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Dynamine agacies agacies ______ ARne  (MM:303) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    PALE SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota Ribeteada  (translates to "Edged Drop")
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina)  

  235. Dynamine theseus ______  EC  (DV1:24) (MCA:103)
    WHITE SAILOR
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador)

  236. Dynamine colombiana  ______  EC
    COLOMBIAN SAILOR
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia, Ecuador, & northwest Venezuela) 

  237. Dynamine postverta (or mylitta)  ______  EC  (DV1:24) (MCA:102)
    Dynamine postverta postverta  ______  ARne  (EBE:62) (MM:306) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & northeast Argentina)
    FOUR-SPOTTED SAILOR 
    (another name is Mexican Sailor
    AR common name: Gota Ocelata  (translates to "Eye-spotted Drop")
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)  

  238. Dynamine artemisia  ______  EC
    Dynamine artemisia glauce ______ (C:289) (DV1:24) (MCA:102) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    Dynamine artemisia artemisia ______ ARne  (EBE:63,212) (MM:308) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & northeast Argentina)
    SMALL-EYED SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota de Monoculo
    (translates to "Drop with Monocle", has a large "eyespot" with a band, like a monocle)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

  239. Dynamine aerata  ______  ARne  EC  (MM:307)
    AR common name: Gota de Anteokos 
    (translates to "Drop with Glasses")

  240. Dynamine agatha  ______  EC

  241. Dynamine amplias  ______  EC

  242. Dynamine anubis  ______  EC
    Dynamine anubis pieridoides  ______  (EBE:63)

  243. Dynamine arene  ______  EC

  244. Dynamine chryseis ______  EC  (EBE:62) (DV1:24)
    THICK-RIMMED SAILOR
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)

  245. Dynamine erchia  ______  EC

  246. Dynamine gisella  ______  EC  (EBE:63)

  247. Dynamine haenschi  ______  EC  (species either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  248. Dynamine ines  ______  EC
    Dynamine ines geta  ______  (EBE:62)

  249. Dynamine myrrhina ______ ARba,ne  (BB:247) (MM:301)
    AR common name: Gota de Luz 
    (translates to "Drop Light")

  250. Dynamine myrson  ______  EC

  251. Dynamine coenus  ______  EC
    Dynamine coenus coenus ______ ARne  (MM:302) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Gota Blanca 
    (translates to "White Drop")

  252. Dynamine athemon  ______  EC
    Dynamine athemon maeon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    Dynamine athemon barreiroi  ______  (EBE:63)
    Dynamine athemon athemaena ______ ARne  (MM:304) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    GHOST SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota con Linea 
    (translates to "Drop with Line")

  253. Dynamine tithia  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:63)
    Dynamine tithia salpensa  ______  (DV1:24) 
    (subspecies in the Andes and upper Amazon basin, from Colombia to Bolivia; was thought to be in Central America)  
    Dynamine tithia tithia  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:305) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BLUE SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota Ciega 
    (translates to "Blind Drop")



    Above & below: the Blue Sailor, photographed at Iguazu Falls
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)  



  254. Dynamine paulina  ______  EC
    Dynamine paulina thalassina  ______  (MCA:102) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    DARK SAILOR 
    (or Paulina's Sailor)

  255. Dynamine pebana  ______  EC

  256. Dynamine perpetua  ______  EC

  257. Dynamine persis  ______  EC

  258. Dynamine racidula  ______  EC  (EBE:63)

  259. Dynamine sara  ______  EC

  260. Dynamine setabis  ______  EC
    Dynamine setabis agnes  ______  (EBE:62)

  261. Dynamine sosthenes  ______  EC

  262. Dynamine vicaria  ______  EC

  263. Dynamine zenobia  ______  EC


    Genus PYRRHOGYRA

    In Ecuador, there are 5 species of PYRRHOGYRA that are relatively common in primary and secondary forests of the Amazon and the area of the Coast.
    They are usually seen when they come out to ingest mineral salts.
    Host plants are Paullinia spp. (in Sapindaceae).  

  264. Pyrrhogyra neaerea  ______  EC  (DV1:28) (MCA:103)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Pyrrhogyra neaerea arge  ______  ARne  (MM:310) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BANDED BANNER 
    (or Leading Red-ring)
    AR common name: Pore Pyla
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)  

  265. Pyrrhogyra crameri  ______  EC  (DV1:28) (MCA:103)
    ROUNDED BANNER 
    (or Cramer's Red-ring)
    (Range: Belize to the Amazon Basin)

  266. Pyrrhogyra otolais  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:28) (MCA:103)
    DOUBLE-BANDED BANNER 
    (or White-edged Red-ring)
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia) 



    Double-banded Banner
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


  267. Pyrrhogyra edocla  ______  EC  (DV1:28) (MCA:103)
    Pyrrhogyra edocia edocia  ______ 
    subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela 
    GREEN-SPOTTED BANNER 
    (or Complete Red-ring)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  268. Pyrrhogyra amphiro  ______  BRmg  EC
    AMPHIRO REDWING



    Genus ASTEROPE

    ASTEROPE butterflies occur primarily in undisturbed tropical forests in the Amazon basin.
    They spend most of their time in the forest canopy, but they are attracted to rotting fruits, fish, and mammal dung.
    During the day, they fly mostly between 10am & 2pm.       

  269. Asterope degandii  ______  EC
    Asterope degandii degandii  ______ 
    (subspecies from western Panama to Ecuador)
    Asterope degandii adamsi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    RED-BASED BANNER

  270. Asterope buckleyi  ______  EC
    (Range: in Ecuador and Peru)

  271. Asterope leprieuri  ______  EC

  272. Asterope markii  ______  EC  (EBE:59)
    Asterope markii ackeryi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Para)
    Asterope markii hewitsoni  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Ecuador & Peru)
    Asterope markii davisii  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Amazonian Ecuador)
    Asterope markii markii  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, in Amazonas)
    Asterope markii werneri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Brazil, Rio Japura)

    Asterope markii
    is an attractive species of the Amazon, uncommon in primary and secondary forests.
    It is usually seen when looking for mineral salts.
    Host plants include Paullinia spp. (in Sapindaceae).   

  273. Asterope whitelyi  ______  EC
    Asterope whitelyi whitelyi  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)

  274. Asterope optima  ______
    Asterope optima optima  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru, at Iquitos & the area of the Explorama Lodge)


    Genus TEMENIS

    The two species in TEMENIS feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter. They also frequent riverbanks and wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants: in Sapindaceae.  

  275. Temenis laothoe  ______  EC  (DV1:24) (MCA:107)
    Temenis laothoe hondurensis  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    Temenis laothoe laothoe  ______  (EBE:61) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, in the Amazon and in humid forests of Esmeraldas)
    Temenis laothoe santina  ______ ARne (MM:313) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ORANGE BANNER
    AR common name: Mocha 
    (translates to "Blunt")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 

  276. Temenis pulchra  ______  EC  (DV1:24)
    Temenis pulchra pallidior  ______  (EBE:61) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador, in the Amazon)
    RED BANNER
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)


    Genus NICA

  277. Nica flavilla  ______  EC  (MCA:107)
    Nica flavilla canthara  ______  (DV1:24) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to at least Venezuela) 
    Nica flavilla flavilla  ______  ARne  (MM:314) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    LITTLE BANNER
    AR common name: Aritos  (translates to "Small Rings")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 



    Genus EPIPHILE

    EPIPHILE is a relatively diverse genus with at least 10 beautiful species in Ecuador, mostly in cloud forests on both Andean slopes.
    These butterflies feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter. They also visit riverbanks and wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants: in Sapindaceae.   

  278. Epiphile adrasta  ______  (MCA:106)
    Epiphile adrasta bandusia  ______ 
    subspecies from central Panama to Colombia
    COMMON BANNER

  279. Epiphile eriopis  ______  EC
    Epiphile eriopis devriesi  ______  (MCA:106) 
    subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia, described in 1986
    WHITE-STRIPED BANNER 
    (or White-tipped Banner)

  280. Epiphile chrysites  (ph)  ______  EC
    Epiphile chrysites chrysites  ______ 
    subspecies from Venezuela to Bolivia
    CHRYSITES BANNER   



    Above & below: the Chrysites Banner
    (both photos by Sherry Nelson)




  281. Epiphile epimenes  (ph)  ______  EC
    Epiphile epimenes kalbreyeri  ______  EC  (EBE:60)
    (Range: Colombia and Venezuela)



    Epiphile epimenes
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  282. Epiphile orea  ______  AR  BRse  EC  (DV1:24)
    Epiphile orea ditalis  ______  EC  (EBE:60) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Epiphile orea orea ______ ARne  (MM:311) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina 
    AR common name: Marcada Azul 
    (translates to "Blue Marked")
    (Range: Costa Rica to northern Argentina)  

  283. Epiphile dilecta  ______  EC

  284. Epiphile epicaste  ______  EC

  285. Epiphile hubneri ______ ARne  EC  (MM:312)
    AR common name: Marcada Anaranjada 
    (translates to "Orange Marked")

  286. Epiphile imperator  ______  EC  (species described in 2005)

  287. Epiphile lampethusa  ______  EC

  288. Epiphile latifasciata  ______  EC  


    Genus PERIA

  289. Peria lamis  ______  EC


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe CALLICORINI


    Genus HAEMATERA

  290. Haematera pyrame  ______  EC  (DV1:25)
    Haematera pyrame pyrame ______ ARne  (MM:290) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    BLIND EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Llamarada 
    (translates to "Blaze")
    (Range: Nicaragua to northern Argentina)  


    Genus DIAETHRIA

    DIAETHRIA is one of the genera (along with HAEMATERA and CALLICORE) including the popular "88 butterflies", so called for the "numbers" on the hindwings. The numbers 0, 6, 8, and 9, and their combinations, are recognizable.
    In Ecuador, there are 7 species in this genus.
    The most common is Diaethria clymena, with different subspecies in the Amazon, and in the area of the Coast. 
    The subspecies (and other species in DIAETHRIA) occur in tropical areas and cloud forests.
    Diaethria ceryx is restricted to the Coast.
    Host plants for DIAETHRIA are in Sapindaceae.     

  291. Diaethria clymena  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (C:317) (EBE:212)
    Diaethria clymena marchalii  ______  ECnw  (DV1:25)  
    subspecies from Nicaragua to northwest Ecuador
    The above subspecies more like "68" than "88".  (see photo below of butterfly in Ecuador)  
    Diaethria clymena bourcieri  ______  EC  (EBE:64)   subspecies in western Ecuador
    Diaethria clymena peruviana  ______  ECam  (EBE:64) 
      subspecies in eastern Ecuador
    Diaethria clymena janeira  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:294)  
    subspecies in northeast Argentina and southern Brazil
    the WIDESPREAD EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (also known as the CLYMENA EIGHTY-EIGHT, or the Cramer's Eighty-Eight)
    AR common name: Ochenta y Ocho  (translates to "Eighty-Eight Butterfly")
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil and Argentina) 



    Above: an "Eighty-eight Butterfly", Diaethria clymena,
    photographed during a FONT tour in southeast Brazil in August 2009 
    Below: the same species photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2013
    (both photos below by Marie Gardner)



    And below: the same butterfly, yes it is, showing
    the upperside. Diaethria clymena.





  292. Diaethria astala  ______
    Diaethria astala astala  ______  (MCA:105) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    ASTALA EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (or Navy Eighty-Eight

  293. Diaethria ceryx  ______  EC  (EBE:64)  (species either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  294. Diaethria eluina  ______  EC
    Diaethria eluina eluina ______  ARne  (MM:295) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Ochenta y Ocho Azul" 
    (translates to "Blue Eighty-Eight")

  295. Diaethria candrena  (ph)  ______
    Diaethria candrena candrena  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:245) (MM:296)
      (subspecies in Argentina)
    CANDRENA EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Ochenta 
    (translates to "Eighty")



    A Candrena Eighty-Eight, or more appropriately "Eighty" 
    Diaethria candrena
    (photo by Ismail Eren)


  296. Diaethria euclides  ______  EC  (EBE:64)

  297. Diaethria gabaza  ______  EC
    Diaethria gabaza eupepla  ______  (MCA:105) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    SMUDGED EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (or Lipstick Eighty-Eight

  298. Diaethria neglecta  ______  EC

  299. Diaethria nystographa  ______  EC


    Genus CALLICORE

    In Ecuador, there are 14 beautiful species in CALLICORE, another genus with hindwings showing "number-like" designs.
    They, like those in DIAETHRIA, feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter, and butterflies in both genera visit riverbanks and wet soils for mineral salts.
    As with DIAETHRIA, host plants are in Sapindaceae.    

  300. Callicore pitheas  ______  EC  (DV1:25) (MCA:104)
    TWO-EYED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador)

  301. Callicore astarte  ______  EC  (MCA:104) 
    Callicore astarte staudingeri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama, Colombia, Venezuela)
    BLUE-STITCHED EIGHTY-EIGHT 

  302. Callicore atacama ______  EC  (DV1:25)
    YELLOW-BANDED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  303. Callicore brome ______  EC  (DV1:25) (MCA:104)
    FOUR-SPOTTED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  304. Callicore cynosura  ______  EC
    Callicore cynosura cynosura  ______  EC  (EBE:65)   subspecies in Ecuador 

  305. Callicore felderi  ______  EC

  306. Callicore pygas  (ph)  ______  AR  BR  EC
    Callicore pygas cyllene  ______  EC  (EBE:65)   subspecies in Ecuador
    Callicore pygas thamyras  ______  ARne  BRmg  (MM:297) 
    subspecies in Brazil and northeast Argentina
    PYGAS EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Para Guasu 
    (regarding the name: "Para" & "Guasu" are Guarani words meaning, respectively, "full of colors" and "big") 



    Pygas Eighty-eight, at Iguazu Falls
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  307. Callicore hesperis  ______  EC  (EBE:65)

  308. Callicore hydaspes  (ph)  ______  ARne  (MM:298)
    HYDASPES EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Para Mini 
    (regarding the name: "Para" & "Mini" are Guarani words meaning, respectively, "full of colors" and "small")



    A Hydaspes Eighty-eight at Iguazu Falls, on a person's thumb
    (photo by Sherry Nelson) 

  309. Callicore hystaspes  ______  BRmg  EC
    Callicore hystaspes hystaspes  ______  EC  (EBE:65) 
    HYSTASPES EIGHTY-EIGHT


  310. Callicore eunomia  ______  EC
    Callicore eunomia eunomia  ______   (EBE:65)

  311. Callicore excelsior  ______  EC

  312. Callicore sorana sorana ______ ARne  (MM:299)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Para Zigzag  ("Zigzag Para")

  313. Callicore texa  ______  BRmg  EC
    Callicore texa titania  ______  (MCA:104) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    YELLOW-RIMMED EIGHTY-EIGHT

  314. Callicore tolima  ______
    Callicore tolima chimana  ______  EC
      (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    BLUE-AND-ORANGE EIGHTY-EIGHT 

  315. Callicore lyca  ______
    Callicore lyca odilia  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    SIX-SPOTTED EIGHTY-EIGHT


    Genus PERISAMA

    PERISAMA is a diverse group. In Ecuador, there are about 25 species, mostly in foothills and cloud forests.
    They feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter, and they visit riverbanks and wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants are probably in Sapindaceae. 

  316. Perisama aldasi  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, species described in 1996)

  317. Perisama alicia  ______  EC

  318. Perisama ambatensis  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador) 

  319. Perisama bomplandii  ______  EC
    Perisama bomplandii equatorialis  ______  (EBE:66) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

  320. Perisama canoma  ______  EC

  321. Perisama clisithera  ______  EC

  322. Perisama cloelia  ______  EC

  323. Perisama comnena  ______  EC

  324. Perisama dorbignyi  ______  EC

  325. Perisama euriclea  ______  EC

  326. Perisama guerini  ______  EC

  327. Perisama hazarma  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  328. Perisama hilara  ______  EC

  329. Perisama humboldtii  ______  EC
    Perisama humboldtii humboldtii  ______  (EBE:66) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

  330. Perisama ilia  (ph)  ______  EC



    Perisama ilia ilia
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  331. Perisama koenigi  ______  EC  (species described in 1995)

  332. Perisama lanice  ______  EC

  333. Perisama lebasii  ______  EC

  334. Perisama oppelii  (ph)  ______  EC
    Perisama oppelii erebina  ______  (EBE:66) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)



    Perisama oppelii
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  335. Perisama ouma  ______  EC

  336. Perisama paralicia  ______  EC

  337. Perisama patara  ______  EC

  338. Perisama philinus  ______  EC

  339. Perisama tringa  ______  EC

  340. Perisama tryphena  ______  EC

  341. Perisama yeba  ______  EC


    Genus OROPHILA

  342. Orophila cardases  ______  EC

  343. Orophila diotima  (ph)  ______  EC  in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
    DIOTIMA JEWEL



    the Diotima Jewel, Orophila diotima 
    too close to photograph, at least with that camera
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


    Genus ANTIGONIS

  344. Antigonis pharsalia  ______  EC


    Genus MESOTAENIA

  345. Mesotaenia vaninka  ______  EC  (EBE:66)


    Genus PAULOGRAMMA

  346. Paulogramma pyracmon  ______  AR  BRmg  EC
    Paulogramma pyracmon peristera  ______  EC  (EBE:65)
    Paulogramma pyracmon pyracmon  ______  ARne  (MM:300)
    PYRACMON EIGHT-EIGHT

    AR common name: Para Mediana  (
    translates to "Medium Para")


    Genus CATACORE

  347. Catacore kolyma  ______  EC



    Subfamily LIMENITIDINAE, Tribe LIMENITIDINI:  ADMIRALS

    Adults are often characterized by flap-and-glide flight.


    Genus ADELPHA:  SISTERS   

    With more than 55 species in all, ADELPHA is one of the most diverse butterfly genera in Ecuador.
    The genus occurs in tropical areas and cloud forests. Only a few species are really common.
    Most species in the genus look very much alike, and so are hard to identify.
    They feed on rotten fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants include: Urticaceae (Cecropia spp.), and Rubiaceae (for example, Psychotria spp., Uncaria spp., Sabicea spp.)   

  348. Adelpha abia  (ph)  ______  ARne  (MM:278)
    ABIA SISTER
    AR common name: Abia



    Abia Sister

  349. Adelpha argentea  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, described in 1995) 

  350. Adelpha aricia  ______  EC

  351. Adelpha alala  (ph)  ______  EC



    Adelpha alala
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  352. Adelpha attica  ______  EC
    Adelpha attica hemileuca  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador & western Colombia)
    ATTICA SISTER 

  353. Adelpha basiloides  ______  EC

  354. Adelpha barnesia  ______  EC
    Adelpha barnesia leucas  ______  (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to northwest Venezuela & western Ecuador)
    BARNESIA SISTER 
    (or Barnes' Sister

  355. Adelpha boeotia  ______  EC  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha boeotia boeotia  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Bolivia, southwest Brazil, & the Guianas)
    BOEOTIA SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  356. Adelpha boreas  ______  EC  (DV1:26) (MCA:100)
    Adelpha boreas boreas  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to Venezuela & Bolivia) 
    BOREAS SISTER 
    (or Felder's Sister
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  357. Adelpha capucinus  ______  EC

  358. Adelpha cocala  ______  EC  (C:227) (DV:26)
    Adelpha cocala lorzae  ______  (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to northwest Venezuela & western Ecuador) 
    ORANGE-WASHED SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon River)

  359. Adelpha cocala  ______  BRmg
    COCALA SISTER

  360. Adelpha corcyra  ______  EC

  361. Adelpha cytherea  ______  EC  (DV1:26) (MCA:98)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Adelpha cytherea daguana  ______  (EBE:83) 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to northwest Venezuela and western Ecuador) 
    CYTHEREA SISTER 
    (or Smooth-banded Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  362. Adelpha delinita  ______  EC  (DV1:50) (EBE:82) (MCA:100)
    DELINITA SISTER 
    (or Delineated Sister)
    (Range: Honduras to Ecuador)  

  363. Adelpha ethelda  ______  EC

  364. Adelpha epione  (ph)  ______  EC
    Adelpha epione agilla  ______  EC  (EBE:84)



    Adelpha epione
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  365. Adelpha erotia  ______  EC  (DV1:27) (EBE:82) (MCA:100)
    Adelpha erotia erotia  ______ 
    subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia, Amazonian Brazil, and the Guianas
    EROTIA SISTER 
    (or Stitched Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia & Brazil)  

  366. Adelpha erymanthis  ______  EC

  367. Adelpha fabricia  ______  EC

  368. Adelpha falcipennis  ______  ARne  (MM:280)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Adelpha Ocre 
    (translates to "Ochre Adelpha", referring to coloring on the ventral side) 

  369. Adelpha heraclea ______  EC  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha heraclea heraclea  ______ 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to southeast Peru, Brazil)
    HERACLEA SISTER
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela)

  370. Adelpha hesterbergi  ______  EC  (species either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, described in 1999) 
    HESTERBERG'S SISTER
    (Range: Costa Rica, northwestern Ecuador)

  371. Adelpha hyas  ______  EC

  372. Adelpha iphiclus  (ph)  ______  BRmg  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)   
    Adelpha iphiclus iphiclus  ______  EC  (DV1:27)
    (EBE:84) (MCA:99)  subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia and Brazil; also the Guianas, and Trinidad   
    IPHICLUS SISTER 
    (another name is Pointer Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)



    Adelpha iphiclus, the Iphiclus Sister

  373. Adelpha iphicleola  ______  EC

  374. Adelpha irmina  ______  EC

  375. Adelpha ixia  ______  (DV1:27)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  376. Adelpha jordani  ______  EC

  377. Adelpha justina  ______  EC  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha justina justina  ______  (EBE:83)
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru)

  378. Adelpha lamasi  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, species described in 1999)

  379. Adelpha lerna ______ (DV1:27)
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin) 

  380. Adelpha leuceria  ______  EC

  381. Adelpha leucophthalma  ______  EC  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha leucophthalma leucophthalma  ______ 
    subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia
    LEUCOPHTHALMA SISTER 
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia, possibly Peru)

  382. Adelpha lycorias  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (DV1:26) (MCA:101)
    Adelpha lycorias spruceana  ______  EC  (EBE:84)  
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Adelpha lycorias lycorias  ______  ARne  (MM:274)  
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    PINK-BANDED SISTER 
    (or Rayed Sister)
    R common name: Mancha Bermellon (
    translates to "vermilion spot")
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

    Adelpha melanthe now merged into Adelpha lycorias as a subspecies.



    Adelpha lycorias lycorias

    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  383. Adelpha malea  ______  AR  EC
    Adelpha malea fundania  ______  (MCA:99) 
      subspecies from eastern Mexico to northwest Venezuela
    Adelpha malea goyama  ______  AR:ne  (MM:277) 
      subspecies in northeast Argentina
    FUNDANIA SISTER 
    (or Venezuelan Sister)
    AR common name: Goyama

  384. Adelpha melona  ______  AR  EC
    Adelpha melona leucocoma  ______  EC  (EBE:83) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Adelpha melona pseudarete  ______  ARne  (MM:283) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    MELLONA SISTER
    AR common name: Melona

  385. Adelpha mesentina  ______  BRmg  EC  (EBE:82)
    ORANGE SISTER


  386. Adelpha messana  ______  EC
    Adelpha messana messana  ______
      subspecies from Guatemala to northwest Ecuador and northwest Venezuela
    MESSANA SISTER

  387. Adelpha mythra ______ ARne  (MM:276)
    AR common name: Mithra, 
    the name relating to Mithra who was a Persian god.

  388. Adelpha naxia ______  EC   
    Adelpha naxia naxia  ______  (DV1:27) (MCA:99) 
    subspecies from Mexico to the Guianas, the Brazilian Amazon, Bolivia
    NAXIA SISTER 
    (or Two-part Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  389. Adelpha nea  ______  (MCA:98)
    Adelpha nea nea  _____
      subspecies from Costa Rica to Venezuela and the Guianas, and to southern Peru and Amazonian Brazil
    NEA SISTER 
    (or Scarce Sister)

  390. Adelpha olynthia  ______  EC

  391. Adelpha paraena  ______  EC  (MCA:97)
    Adelpha paraena lecromi  ______ 
    subspecies in Panama & northern Colombia, subspecies described in 2003
    LE CROM'S SISTER 
    (further north called Bates' Sister)

  392. Adelpha phylaca  ______  EC  (DV1:27) (EBE:83)
    Adelpha phylaca pseudaethalia  ______  (MCA:100) 
    subspecies from Mexico to northwest Venezuela and western Ecuador
    PHYLACA SISTER 
    (or Cecropia Sister)
    (Range: Guatemala to Bolivia)

  393. Adelpha plesaure  ______  BRmg  EC
    PLESAURE SISTER

  394. Adelpha pollina  ______  EC

  395. Adelpha radiata  ______  EC
    Adelpha radiata aiellae  ______ 
    subspecies from Panama to northwest Ecuador, subspecies described in 1999

  396. Adelpha salmoneus  ______  EC  (DV1:26) (MCA:101)
    GOLD-BANDED SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela and Ecuador)

  397. Adelpha rothschildi  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:82)



    Adelpha rothchildi
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  398. Adelpha salus  ______  EC

  399. Adelpha saundersii  ______  EC

  400. Adelpha serpa  (ph)  ______  EC
    Adelpha serpa celerio  ______  EC  (DV1:27) (EBE:83) (MCA:97) 
    subspecies from Mexico to Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
    Adelpha serpa serpa  ______  AR:ne  (MM:279) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    SERPA SISTER 
    (or Celadon Sister
    AR common name: Serpa
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)



    Adelpha serpa serpa  
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  401. Adelpha seriphia  ______  EC
    Adelpha seriphia godmani  ______
      (MCA:97)  (subspecies to southern Mexico to western Ecuador)
    SERIPHIA SISTER 
    (or Dentate Sister)

  402. Adelpha shuara  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador, described in 1995)
     
  403. Adelpha sichaeus  ______  EC

  404. Adelpha syma  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:241) (MM:275)
    AR common name: Syma
    (referring to the scientific name)

  405. Adelpha thesprotia  ______  EC

  406. Adelpha thessalia  ______  EC
    Adelpha thessalia indefecta  ______  ARne  (MM:281) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Tesala del Nordeste 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Tesala del Nordeste 
    (translates to "Northeastern Tesela")

  407. Adelpha thoasa  ______  EC

  408. Adelpha viola  ______  EC

  409. Adelpha ximena  ______  EC

  410. Adelpha zea ______ ARba,ne  (BB:243) (DV1:27) (MM:282)
    AR common name: Zea
    (Range: Mexico to the Argentina)  

  411. Adelpha zina  ______  EC  (DV1:26)
    Adelpha zina zina  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Venezuela & southwest Ecuador)
    ZINA SISTER
    (Range: Nicaragua to Peru)


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe VICTORININI


    Genus SIPROETA
    (or METAMORPHA)

  412. Siproeta (or Metamorpha) stelenes  (ph)  ______  AR  BRse  EC  (EBE:78) (F:202)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Siproeta stelenes biplagiata  ______  (DV1:28) (K:209) (MCA:96) (PE:26)
    subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon; also south Florida, Cuba, the Cayman Is. 
    Siproeta stelenes sophene  ______  EC 
    subspecies in western Ecuador
    Siproeta stelenes stelenes  ______  EC  subspecies in eastern, Amazonian Ecuador
    Siproeta stelenes meridionalis  ______  ARne  (MM:329) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina   
    MALACHITE
    an AR common name: Itaovy Guasu 
    (translates to "Large Emerald") (from Guarani words, alluding to its color, size, and beauty)
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, and thru West Indies)  

    The Malachite is on the wing all year in the tropics. It feeds on fermenting fruit. It can be common and conspicuous in open and agricultural areas, and at times occurs at forest edges.
    In Ecuador, it occurs up to 4,500 feet above sea level on both slopes.
    It feeds on nectar, rotten fruit, and other organic matter, and it frequents wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants: in Acanthaceae.

    The Malachite is very similar to Philaethria dido, the Scarce Bamboo Page in the subfamily HELICONIINAE. 



    Above & below: Malachites  
    The photo below on a Poinsettia plant in Southeast Brazil during the FONT tour in May 2011.
    (photo below by Pat Yoder) 




  413. Siproeta epaphus  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (EBE:24) (S:136)
    Siproeta epaphus epaphus  ______  (DV1:28) (EBE:77) (K:209) (MCA:96) 
    subspecies from south Texas to Peru
    Siproeta epaphus trayja ______ ARne  (MM:320)  subspecies in northeast Argentina
    RUSTY-TIPPED PAGE 
    (or Brown Siproeta
    AR common name: Epafos Moreno  ("Dark Epafos") (referring to Epafos who in mythology, was Jupiter's son)  
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

    In Ecuador, Siproeta epaphus is abundant, big and conspicuous in open and agricultural areas, and sometimes at forest edges. It is found in the Amazon and in the area of the Coast, and up to 2,000 meters above sea level in cloud forests.
    It feeds on nectar, rotten fruit, and other organic matter. It also visits wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants: in Acanthaceae.   



    A Rusty-tipped Page photographed during a FONT Tour
    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd)


    Genus METAMORPHA

  414. Metamorpha elissa  ______  EC  (EBE:76)
    Metamorpha elissa elissa  ______
    (subspecies from Panama to the Guianas and Peru)
    METAMORPHA 

    In Ecuador, Metamorpha elissa is relatively common in the Amazon region, in open areas and forest borders, up to about 3,500 feet above sea level. It sits over vegetation or on wet soils.


    Genus ANARTIA

  415. Anartia fatima  (ph)  ______  (MCA:94)
    Anartia fatima fatima  ______ 
    (subspecies from south Texas to northwest Colombia)
    BANDED PEACOCK 

  416. Anartia amathea  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:311) (EBE:24,75)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Anartia amathea roeselia ______ ARba,ne  (BB:265) (MM:327) 
    (subspecies from Panama to Argentina & in some of the Lesser Antilles)
    RED PEACOCK
    AR common name: Princesa Roja 
    (translates to (translates to "Red Princess")
    (Range: Panama to Argentina, also: Trinidad & Tobago, Grenada, Barbados, Antigua) 

    In Ecuador, the Red Peacock is abundant in open and agricultural areas, with some at forest edges. It occurs in the Amazon and in the area of the Coast, and up to 6,000 feet above sea level in the cloud forest.
    It feeds on nectar, rotten fruit, or organic matter, and also frequents et soils for mineral salts. 
    Host plants are in Acanthaceae, Verbanaceae, Scrophulariaceae.



    A Red Peacock, photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in April 2014
    (photo by Marie Gardner)   

  417. Anartia jatrophae  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:309) (DV1:28) (K:209) (MCA:94) (PE:24) (S:107) (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Anartia jatrophae jatrophae  ______  ARne  (EBE:18,76) (MM:326) 
    (subspecies in South America & in the Lesser Antilles) 
    WHITE PEACOCK
    AR common name: Princesa Perlada  (Princesa,
    or Princess, is the common Spanish name for the ANARTIA genus butterflies; "Perlada" refers to the wing coloring)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also West Indies)  

    In Ecuador, the White Peacock is less common than the Red Peacock, but still it is a common species.
    Anartia jatrophae occurs in open and agricultural areas, and sometimes at forest edges. It ranges in the Amazon and in the area of the Coast, as well as up to 6,000 feet above sea level in cloud forests.
    It feeds on nectar, rotten fruit, and other organic matter, and visits wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants are in Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae, Scrophulaceae.   



    A White Peacock photographed during the FONT Ecuador Tour in July 2013
    (photo by Marie Gardner)



    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe JUNONIINI
     

    Genus JUNONIA: BUCKEYES 

    The number of species of buckeyes in Central & South America, and the West Indies is uncertain.
    If there is more than 1 species, their ranges are uncertain.     

  418. Junonia evarete  ______  EC  (D1:28) (EBE:71) (F:168) (K:207) (MCA:94) (PE:23)
    Junonia evarete evarete  ______ 
    (subspecies in northeastern South America) 
    TROPICAL BUCKEYE

    (Range: southern US thru the American tropics)  

    In Ecuador, Junonia evarete is along in the Coastal area and in the Amazon, and in the southern Andes up to about 1,800 meters (5,400 feet) above sea level, generally in agricultural and open areas.
    It is a pollinator species. Host plants are in various families, including Verbenaceae.   



    Above: a Tropical Buckeye photographed during the FONT tour
    in Ecuador in May 2014, along the coast
    (photo by Marie Gardner)
    Below: another Buckeye photographed in South America
    (photo by Sherry C. Nelson)





  419. Junonia genoveva  ______  EC  (K:207) (MCA:94) (PE:23)
    Junonia genoveva genoveva  ______ 
    (subspecies in Surinam)
    Junonia genoveva vivida  ______ 
    (subspecies in Surinam, Guyana)
    Junonia genoveva constricta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela & Colombia)
    Junonia genoveva incarnata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela & Colombia)
    Junonia geneveva infuscata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Junonia genoveva hilaris ______ ARba,ne  (BB:263) (MM:328) 
    (subspecies in Paraguay, northeast Argentina, southern Brazil, Uruguay) 
    MANGROVE BUCKEYE 
    (in the West Indies called the Caribbean Buckeye; other names are Smoky Buckeye, Florida Buckeye, West Indian Buckeye
    AR common name: Pavo Real  ("Peacock")  (another name: Genoveva)
    (Range: southern US to Argentina) 

  420. Junonia vestina  ______  EC 


    Genus HYPOLIMNAS

  421. Hypolimnas misippus  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:28) (F:164)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1764)
    THE MIMIC 
    (other names: Diadem Butterfly, Six-continent Butterfly, Danaid Butterfly
    (Range: distribution nearly worldwide; occurs in northeastern South America)

    The female of Hypolimnas misippus resembles Danaus chrysippus of the Old World, with coloration similar to Danaus glippus, the Queen.


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe MELITAEINI


    Genera in this group include: Chlosyne, Tegosa, Ortilia, Eresia, Castilia, Telenassa, Anthanassa (all following here).
    Also: Janatella, Phystis, Mazia, Dagon, Gnathotriche, Higginsius.
    These butterflies occur in tropical zones and cloud forests.
    They are usually small. Some mimic inedible species.
    In Ecuador, the genus Eresia is the most numerous of these genera, with about 15 species.
    Butterflies in this subfamily feed on nectar, rotten fruit, and other organic matter. They also visit wet soils for mineral salts.
    Host plants include those in: Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Urticacae, Scrophularlaceae, and other families.  


    Genus CHLOSYNE: PATCHES

      
  422. Chlosyne lacinia  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:265) (DV1:29) (K:189) (MCA:82) (PE:21)
    Chlosyne lacinia saundersi  ______  ARne  (EBE:72) (MM:337) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador & northeast Argentina) 
    BORDERED PATCH
    AR common name: Naranjita
    (Range: US to northern Argentina)

    Chlosyne lacinia has a very variable pattern. It prefers sunny places and feeds on nectar.



    Above & below: Bordered Patch



    This lower photo is of a dark Bordered Patch.
    Those in the Iguazu area have more orange in the upperwings, hence the common name there of "Naranjita".
    (above photos by Doris Potter)  

  423. Chlosyne poecile ______ (DV1:29)
    POECILE CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: southwestern Costa Rica to Venezuela)

  424. Chlosyne narva ______ (DV1:29)
    Chlosyne narva narva  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela)
    Chlosyne narva bonpland  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to western Ecuador)
    NARVA CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela & Ecuador)

  425. Chlosyne janais  (ph)  ______  (MCA:82)
    Chlosyne janais janais  ______ 
    (subspecies from the southern US to Colombia)
    CRIMSON-PATCH CHECKERSPOT 
    (also called Crimson Patch



    A Crimson-patch Checkerspot, or Crimson Patch

  426. Chlosyne hippodrome  ______  (MCA:83)
    Chlosyne hippodrome hippodrome  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia) 
    SIMPLE CHECKERSPOT

  427. Chlosyne perlula  ______
    PERULA CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: Venezuela & Colombia) 


    Genus TEGOSA

  428. Tegosa anieta  (ph)  ______  EC  (MCA:88) (EBE:72)
    Tegosa anieta anieta ______ (DV1:29) 
    BLACK-BORDERED CRESCENT 
    (or Black-bordered Tegosa)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador & Venezuela, also Trinidad)



    A Black-bordered Crescent, Tegosa anieta,
    photographed during a FONT tour in Ecuador
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  429. Tegosa etia  ______  EC

  430. Tegosa flavida  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  431. Tegosa guatemalena  ______  EC

  432. Tegosa pastazena  ______  EC

  433. Tegosa selene  ______  EC

  434. Tegosa tissoides  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  435. Tegosa serpia  ______  BRmg
    SERPIA CRESCENT 

  436. Tegosa frisia  ______ 
    Tegosa frisia hermas  ______  ARne  (MM:331)
    AR common name: Saipicada 
    (translates to "Splashy")

  437. Tegosa claudina ______ ARba,ne  EC  (BB:267) (MCA:88) (MM:332)
    CLAUDINA CRESCENT
    AR common name: Claudina 
    (referring to the scientific name)

  438. Tegosa orobia  ______  ARba  (BB:269)
    AR common name: Incienso  (referring to the scientific name "orobia" which means "incense")

    Tegosa orobia can be confused with Tegosa claudina. 
    T. orobia
    occurs in flowery scrubland in northeast Buenos Aires province, Argentina. 


    Genus ORTILIA  
    genus created in 1981




    A butterfly in the Ortilia genus photographed in northern South America
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  439. Ortilia liriope  ______  EC

  440. Ortilia ithra  ______  ARba,ne  (BB:273) (MM:333)
    AR common name: Mbatara 
    (a Guarani word meaning "lead-colored", with short white lines)

    Ortilia ithra is common in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. It occurs with others in the genus. 

  441. Ortilia velica  ______ 
    Ortilia velica durnfordi  ______
      ARba,ne  (BB:271) (MM:334) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    AR common name: Marroncita 
    (translates to "Small Brown")

  442. Ortilia dicoma  ______  ARne  (MM:335)
    AR common name: Alitas Largas 
    (translates to "Long Wings")  


    Genus ERESIA

  443. Eresia ithomioides  ______  EC
    Eresia ithomioides eutropia
    (or melania ______  (subspecies from Costa Rica to western Colombia)
    Eresia ithomioides cissia  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    VARIABLE CRESCENT

  444. Eresia eunice  ______  EC
    Eresia eunice drypetis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in Panama, Colombia, & northwest Ecuador)
    Eresia eunice mechanitis  ______  EC  (EBE:74)
      (subspecies in Ecuador)
    EUNICE CRESCENT

  445. Eresia alsina  ______  (MCA:86)
    Eresia alsina quintilla  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    THREE-BANDED CRESCENT

  446. Eresia actinote  ______  EC

  447. Eresia carme  ______  EC

  448. Eresia casiphia  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  449. Eresia clio  ______  BRmg  EC  (DV1:30) (MCA:87)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Eresia clio clara  ______  EC  (EBE:74) 
    subspecies in Ecuador 
    Eresia clio reducta  ______  EC  
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    CREAMY CRESCENT  (or Clio Crescent)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

    The former Eresia clara is now included in Eresia clio as a subspecies (an noted above)

  450. Eresia datis  ______  EC

  451. Eresia emerantia  ______  EC

  452. Eresia letitia  ______  EC

  453. Eresia levina  (ph)  ______  EC



    Eresia levina
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  454. Eresia nauplius  ______  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 

  455. Eresia pelonia  ______  EC
    Eresia pelonia callonia  ______  EC  (EBE:74) 
      subspecies in Ecuador 

  456. Eresia perna  ______  EC

  457. Eresia poecilina  ______
    Eresia poecilina casiphia  ______  EC  (EBE:74)  
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador

  458. Eresia polina  ______  EC

  459. Eresia lansdorfi  (ph)  ______ ARba,ne  (BB:275) (MM:336)
    AR common name: Falsa Erato  ("False Erato") 
    (name refers to its resemblance to Heliconius erato phyllis



    Above & below: Eresia lansdorfi, the "False Erato",
    photographed at Iguazu Falls
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)





    Genus CASTILIA

  460. Castilia eranites  ______  EC  (DV1:30) (EBE:73) (MCA:86)
    MIMIC CRESCENT
      (or Smudged Crescent)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  461. Castilia ofella ______  EC  (DV1:30) (MCA:87)
    WHITE-DOTTED CRESCENT
    (Range: Guatemala to Venezuela, also Trinidad)

  462. Castilla angusta  ______  EC

  463. Castilia castilla  ______  EC
    Castilia castilla occidentalis  ______  (EBE:73) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

  464. Castilia guaya  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  465. Castilia neria  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  466. Castilia perilla  ______  EC
    Castilia perilla perilla  ______  (EBE:73) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)


    Genus JANATELLA

  467. Janatella leucodesma ______ (DV1:30)
    WHITENED CRESCENT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela, also Trinidad)


    Genus TELENASSA

  468. Telenassa berenice  ______  EC

  469. Telenassa delphia  ______  EC
    Telenassa delphia gaujoni  ______  EC  (EBE:73)  
    subspecies in Ecuador

  470. Telenassa jana  ______  EC  (EBE:73)

  471. Telenassa teletusa  ______  EC
    Telenassa teletusa burchelli  ______  BRmg  EC  (EBE:73)  
    subspecies in Brazil and Ecuador
    BURCHELL'S CRESCENT


    Genus ANTHANASSA
    (or PHYCIODES) CRESCENTS

  472. Anthanassa (or Phyciodes) drusilla ______  EC  (DV1:30) (EBE:72) (MCA:90)
    ORANGE-PATCHED CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador) 

  473. Anthanassa (or Phyciodes) ptolyca ______ (DV1:30) (K:183) (MCA:91) (PE:21)
    Anthanassa ptolyca ptoyca  ______ 
      subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela
    DARKENED CRESCENT 
    (or Black Crescent)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  474. Anthanassa ardys  ______  EC  (MCA:90)
    ARDYS CRESCENT 
    (or Ardent Crescent
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  475. Anthanassa sosis (or dora ______
    SOSIS CRESCENT
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  476. Anthanassa annulata  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  477. Anthanassa frisia  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:72)
    Anthanassa frisia taeniata  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in western Ecuador & Peru)
    CUBAN CRESCENT



    Anthanassa frisia taeniata photographed during 
    the FONT tour in Ecuador in May 2014
    (photo by Marie Gardner)
      


    Genus PHYSTIS:  genus created in 1981  

  478. Phystis simois  ______  EC


    Genus MAZIA: 
    genus created in 1981

  479. Mazia amazonica  ______  EC


    Genus DAGON: 
    genus created in 1981

  480. Dagon pusilla  (ph)  ______  EC



    Dagon pusilla
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


    Genus GNATHOTRICHE

  481. Gnathotriche exclamationis  ______  EC

  482. Gnathotriche mundina  ______  EC


    Genus HIGGINSIUS: 
    genus created in 1964

  483. Higginsius fasciata  ______  EC

  484. Higginsius miriam  ______  EC



    Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe HELICONIINI:  LONGWINGS

    Mostly in the American tropics. Adults of some species are long-lived, and several are distasteful. Various other species mimic the distasteful butterflies of this group.  


    Genus NERUDA  
    genus created in 1976

  485. Neruda aoede  ______  EC


    Genus PHILAETHRIA: 
    two nearly identical species which may be differentiated only by comparing their underwings.

  486. Philaethria dido  ______  EC  (DA:92) (DV1:31) (EBE:50,92) (S:164)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    SCARCE BAMBOO PAGE
    (Range: southern Mexico to the Amazon Basin in Brazil; also Trinidad)

    Philaethria dido is a spectacular large and bright green species. It is very similar to the Malachite, Siproeta stelenes.
    It is more associated with primary forests than other longwings, but it is also seen in open areas.
    Generally, Philaethria dido flies high in the tree canopy, but on occasion descends to drink and take in salts from the damp ground. 
    The costal margins and the transverse band of the hindwings of Philaethria dido are chocolate-colored.

    In Ecuador, Philaethria dido is found in coastal areas and in the Amazon, often on wet soil and decaying organic matter.
    Host plants: in Passifloraceae.   

  487. Philaethria wernickei ______  ARne (DA:text) (MM:340)
    AR common name: Itaovy Rabona 
    (translates to "Tailless Itaovy")  (Itaovy is a Guarani word meaning "emerald")
    (Range: southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina)

    The costal margins and the transverse band of the hindwings of Philaethria wernickei are gray.



    Genus PODOTRICHA:  2 species occurring at medium to high elevations in the Andes.

  488. Podotricha judith  (ph)  ______  EC  (EBE:91,179,213)

    In Ecuador, Podotricha judith is relatively common in eastern and western cloud forests up to 2,300 meters above sea level. it is found close to estuaries and on wet soils extracting mineral salts.
    Host plants: Passifloraceae.



    Podotricha judith
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  489. Podotricha telesiphe  (ph)  ______  EC
    Podotricha telesiphe tithraustes  ______  (DA:93)
    TELESIPHE LONGWING
    (Occurs in Ecuador & Peru, from 2,500 to 9,000 feet)



    Telesiphe Longwing, Podotricha telesiphe
    (photo courtesy of Sherry Nelson)
      
      

    Genus DIONE

  490. Dione moneta  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:267) (DV1:31) (F:143) (K:155) (MCA:80) (PE:19)
    Dione moneta butleri  ______  EC  (EBE:90) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    MEXICAN SILVERSPOT 
    (Range: southern US thru Central and South America) 



    Mexican Silverspot
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  491. Dione juno ______  AR  EC  (DV1:31) (EBE:23) (MCA:80) (S:161)
    Dione juno juno  ______  EC
    nw  (EBE:90)   subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    Dione juno andicola  ______  EC  (EBE:90)  
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Dione juno suffumata ______ ARba,ne  (BB:281) (MM:343)  
    subspecies in Argentina
    JUNO LONGWING 
    (other names are Silver Spot or Scarce Silver-spotted Flambeau
    AR common name: Juno Obscura  (translates to "Dark Juno")  (Juno in mythology was a Greek goddess, a dark, relating to D. j. suffumata, is in comparison with another Argentine subspecies.)
    (Range: thru Central and South America, also the Lesser Antilles) 

    Dione juno is closely related to Dryas iulia
    Dione juno often occurs in the same places as the similar Gulf Fritillary, Agraulis vanillae. It (Dione juno) is said to be attracted to red and blue flowers.

  492. Dione glycera  (ph)   ______  CH  EC  (EBE:90,179) (WGC:101)
    ANDEAN SILVERSPOT
    CH common name: Mariposa Dione
    (Range: in Chile, in Arica and Tarapaca, where it occurs in open and deforested areas, villages and towns, and in mid-elevation valleys)



    Andean Silverspot
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus AGRAULIS: a single well-known species which occurs in a number of races throughout its vast range.

  493. Agraulis vanillae  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (C:269) (DV1:31) (EBE:23) (F:144) (K:157) (MCA:80) (PE:19) (S:160)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Agraulis vanillae lucina  ______  EC  (EBE:89) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Agraulis vanillae galapagensis  ______  (EBE:89) 
    subspecies in the Galapagos Islands
    Agraulis vanillae maculosa ______ ARba,ne  (BB:283) (DA:93) (MM:343) 
    subspecies in Argentina  
    GULF FRITILLARY 
    (another name, particularly in the West Indies: Silver-spotted Flambeau
    AR common name: Espejitos  (translates to "Mirrors", referring to the silver spots on the ventral side, that appear as fragments of a mirror)
    BR common name: Pingos de Prata 
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to South America, also West Indies)  

    The widespread and familiar Agraulis vanillae, or Gulf Fritillary, visits gardens to drink nectar.
    Its fiery orange upperside is distinguished from Dryas iulia by presence of numerous black dots on the forewing and a silver spotted underside.



    Above & below: the Gulf Fritillary, the upperside and underside
    (photo above by Howard Eskin; photo below by Sherry Nelson)





    Genus DRYADULA

  494. Dryadula phaetusa  (ph)  ______ ARne  EC  (DV1:31) (K:155) (MCA:80) (MM:344) (PE:19)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    BANDED LONGWING 
    (other names have been Banded Orange Heliconian
    ,or  Banded Orange
    AR common name: Faetusa  (referring to Phaetusa, who in mythology, was the Sun's daughter, and Phaeton's sister.) 
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)



    A Banded Longwing, or Banded Orange Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour in Brazil


    Genus DRYAS

  495. Dryas iulia  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (C:301) (DA:94) (DV1:31) (F:145) (K:157) (MCA:80) (PE:19) (S:159)
    Dryas iulia moderata  ______  ECnw  (EBE:91) 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    Dryas iulia alcionea ______ ARba,ne  EC  (BB:279) (EBE:91) (MM:342) 
    subspecies in Ecuador and Argentina
    JULIA HELICONIAN
    (or Julia(another name, particularly in the West Indies: The Flambeau)
    AR common name: Julia
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to Brazil, also West Indies) 

    Dryas iulia visits open sunny and flowery areas (often wet ground), and breeds on the passion flower. 



    Two photos of Julia Heliconians; the lower photo during a FONT tour in Brazil





    Genus EUEIDES: a genus of about a dozen species that's remarkable for the lack of conformity of its members. Some resemble DANAIDAE (Ituna), ACRAEIDAE (Actinote), ITHOMIIDAE (Mechanitis) and the genus HELICONIUS.  

  496. Eueides aliphera  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (DA:94) (DV1:31) (MCA:80) (S:161)
    Eueides aliphera aliphera ______ ARne  ECnw  (EBE:88) (MM:348) 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador & northeast Argentina
    FINE-LINED LONGWING 
    (another name is Least Heliconian)
    AR common name: Pequena Julia  (translates to "Small Julia"
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, including Trinidad & Tobago) 

    Eueides aliphera is a miniature of Dryas julia, both in wing shape and the variations of markings.   



    Fine-lined Longwing


  497. Eueides procula  ______  EC  (DV1:31) 
    Eueides procula eurysaces  ______  (EBE:88)
    DARKENED LONGWING 
    (another name is Nonpassionate Helioconian)
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil) 

  498. Eueides isabella  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:31) (K:155) (MCA:80) (PE:20) (S:159)
    Eueides isabella ecuadoriensis  ______  ECnw  (EBE:88) 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    Eueides isabella dianasa ______ ARne  (MM:349) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    ISABELLA'S LONGWING
    (or Isabella, or Isabella Tiger)
    AR common name: Isabel Meridional  (translates to: Southern Isabel)
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, also West Indies)  



    An Isabella's Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  499. Eueides vibilia  ______  EC  (DV1:31) (MCA:80)
    Eueides vibilia unifasiatus  ______  (EBE:88)
    VIBILIA LONGWING 
    (another name is Acting Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  500. Eueides lybia ______  EC  (DV1:31)
    Eueides lybia olympus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua on the Caribbean slope to Colombia)
    SHARP-EDGED LONGWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)   

  501. Eueides emsleyi  ______  EC  (species described in 1976)

  502. Eueides heliconioides  ______  EC
    Eueides heliconioides heliconioides  ______  (EBE:88)

  503. Eueides lampeto  ______  EC

  504. Eueides tales  ______  EC


    Genus HELICONIUS (and LAPARUS): LONGWINGS

    HELICONIUS butterflies are an important and interesting group of butterflies:
    for being excellent pollinators,
    for their co-evolution with Passifloraceae (passion-fruit flowers),
    for their advanced mimetic systems,
    and for their presence and beauty.
    They can extract nutrients not only from nectar but also from pollen.
    Many species are inedible for predators.
    Host plants: Passifloraceae. 



    A Passiflora sp. in the Andes, during 
    the FONT Ecuador Tour in April 2014


    Many HELICONIUS species have forms matching so closely that they are very difficult to distinguish.

     
  505. Heliconius antiochus  ______  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)

  506. Heliconius ricini  ______  (S:163)
    RICINI LONGWING 
    (another name is Small Heliconian)
    (Range: the Amazon Basin)

  507. Heliconius (or Laparus) doris  ______  BRmg  EC  (DV1:31) (EBE:86) (F:160) (MCA:81) (S:162)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)
    Heliconius doris eratonia ______  (DA:98)
    Heliconius doris aristomache ______ (DA:98)
    Heliconius doris viridis  ______  EC  
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    DORIS LONGWING 
    (other names are Dot-bordered Heliconian, Rayed Heliconian, or the Doris Butterfly
    , or Doris)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Heliconius doris is trimorphic, in that it occurs in 3 color varieties. Individuals of either sex can have red, green, or blue coloration, in addition to the basic black pattern with yellow blotches. It occurs in forest margins and clearings.

  508. Heliconius ismenius  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:31) (MCA:80)
    Heliconius ismenius telchinia  ______  (DV1:31)
    Heliconius ismenius metaphorus  ______  (EBE:87)
    TIGER-STRIPED LONGWING 
    (or Tiger Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)  

    Heliconius ismenius is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Dismorphia amphiona (in the PIERIDAE), Melinaea lilis or ethra (in ITHOMIINAE in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia mechanitis (in the NYMPHALIDAE), Hypothyris euclea (in ITHOMIINAE in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth. 



    Tiger-striped Longwing

  509. Heliconius hecale  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:31) (F:160) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius hecale melicerta  ______ 
    subspecies in Panama and Colombia
    Heliconius hecale australis  ______  EC  
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    Heliconius hecale eucherius ______ (DA:100)
    Heliconius hecale barcanti ______ (DA:100)
    HECALE LONGWING 
    (or Heart-spotted Heliconian)
    (Range: in Central and South America, from Mexico to the Guianas, Amazonas, and the eastern side of the Andes in Bolivia) 

    Heliconius hecale has a number of races.   

    Heliconias hecale is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Charonias eurytele (in the PIERIDAE), Dismorphia eunoe (in the PIERIDAE), Napeogenes peredia (in ITHOMIINI in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia coela (in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth. 

     

    Hecale Longwing


  510. Heliconius melpomene  (ph) ______  EC  (C:307) (DV1:32) (F:161) (S:162) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Heliconius melpomene vulcanus  ______  EC 
    subspecies in Panama, Colombia and northwest Ecuador
    Heliconius melpomene rosina ______ (DA:101)
    Heliconius melpomene cythera ______  EC  (DA:101) (EBE:87) 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    Heliconius melpomene plesseni  ______  EC  (EBE:87)
    MELPOMENE LONGWING 
    (other names are the Postman Heliconnian
    , or the Postman)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

    Heliconius melpomene is slightly larger than its close relative, Heliconius erato, the Small Postman, with which it often flies. 
    Many species in the Heliconius genus have forms matching so closely that they very difficult to distinguish.

    Parallel races of Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius erato mimic each other throughout the Neotropics, sharing the same patterns in the same geographic areas.
    The length of the yellow ray can be used to differentiate the two species. It does not reach the edge of the wing in Heliconius melpomene.



    The Postman, or Melpomene Longwing, Heliconius melpomene 

    Below: two photographs of the distinctive subspecies, Heliconius melpomene cythera
    photographed during the FONT tour in Ecuador in July 2013
    (photos by Marie Gardner) 









  511. Heliconius cydno  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:32) (EBE:86) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius cydno cydno ______ (DA:102) 
    Heliconius cydno chioneus  ______ 
    subspecies from southeastern Costa Rica to Colombia 
    Heliconius cydno alithea  ______  EC  (EBE:87) 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    Heliconius cydno galanthus ______ (DA:102)
    CYDNO LONGWING 
    (or Grinning Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

    Some forms of Heliconius cydno resemble forms of Heliconius sapho, the Blue-and-white Heliconian, with which they fly.



    Cydno Longwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  512. Heliconius erato  (ph)  ______  AR  BR  EC  (DV1:32) (EBE:86) (F:160) (K:155) (MCA:81) (PE:19) (species described by Linnaeus in 1764)
    Heliconius erato notabilis ______  (DA:103)
    Heliconius erato cyrbia ______  ECw  (DA:103)
    Heliconius erato demophoon ______ (DA:104)
    Heliconius erato hydara ______  (DA:104)
    Heliconius erato venus  ______ 
    subspecies in western Colombia, in the choco 
    Heliconius erato luscombei  ______  BRmg 
    subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil
    Heliconius erato phyllis ______ ARba,ne  (BB:285) (MM:345) 
    subspecies in Argentina
    CRIMSON-PATCHED LONGWING 
    (or Erato Heliconian)  

    AR common name: Erato 
    (Erato was, in mythology, one of the nine muses; she presided over erotic poetry.)
    a BR common name: Castanha Vermelha
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)  

    Heliconius erato flies close to the ground, along forest margins and in open areas. It roosts communally at night.



    The Crimson-patched Longwing, or Erato Heliconian

  513. Heliconius sara  ______  EC  (C:305) (DV1:32) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius sara magdalena  ______ 
    subspecies in Colombia and Venezuela
    Heliconius sara sprucei  ______  EC  (EBE:87,213) 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    Heliconius sara sara ______  (DA:106)
    SARA LONGWING 
    (or Sara Heliconian
    ,or Small Blue Grecian)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Although almost without variation in Central America, Heliconius sara has a number of different forms from Panama southwards.

  514. Heliconius charithonia  (ph)  ______  EC  (C:303) (DV1:32) (F:160) (K:155) (MCA:80) (PE:19) (S:160)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Heliconius charithonia charithonia ______  (DA:105) (EBE:85)
    ZEBRA LONGWING 
    (or Zebra Heliconian, or the Zebra
    (Range: southern US thru Central and South America, also the West Indies)

    The Zebra, or Heliconius charithonia, is a  graceful butterfly that is a common sight in gardens and at roadside flowers. It roosts in small to large clusters, returning to the same roost night after night. 
    This species is very familiar to visitors of butterfly houses as it is easy to rear.



    Zebra Longwing
    (photo by Doug Johnson)


  515. Heliconius hecalesia  ______  EC  (DV1:32) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius hecalesia hecalesia  ______  (DA:104)
    subspecies in eastern Panama and Colombia
    Heliconius hecalesia eximius  ______  EC
       subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    FIVE-SPOTTED LONGWING 
    (or Five-spotted Heliconian  
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)  

  516. Heliconius clysonymus  (ph) ______  EC  (DV1:32)
    Heliconius clysonymus hygiana  ______  (EBE:86)
    MONTANE LONGWING 
    (or Yellow-patch Longwing)
    (Range: Honduras to Ecuador) 



    Montane Longwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  517. Heliconius sapho  ______  EC   (DV1:32) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius sapho candidus  ______  EC 
      subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    Heliconius sapho leuce ______  (DA:106)
    Heliconius sapho eleuchia ______  (DA:106) 
    SAPHO LONGWING 
    (or Blue-and-white Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

    Some forms of Heliconius sapho resemble forms of Heliconius cydno with which they fly. 

  518. Heliconius eleuchia  ______  EC  (DV1:32)
    Heliconius eleuchia eleuchia  ______ 
    subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia 
    Heliconius eleuchia primularis  ______  EC 
    subspecies in northwest Ecuador
    WHITE-EDGED LONGWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  519. Heliconius atthis  ______  ECnw  (EBE:85)  (species either endemic of nearly so to Ecuador)

  520. Heliconius besckei ______ ARne  (MM:346)
    AR common name: Alemana 
    (translates to "German", in that the coloring of the butterfly is like the German flag.)  

  521. Heliconius burneyi  ______  EC

  522. Heliconius congener  ______  EC

  523. Heliconius demeter  ______  EC

  524. Heliconius elevatus  ______  EC

  525. Heliconius ethilla  ______  EC
    Heliconius ethilla narcaea ______ ARne  (MM:347)  
    subspecies in northeast Argentina 
    TAWNY-STRIPED LONGWING
    AR common name: Arcoiris 
    (translates to "Rainbow")
    BR common name: Maria Boba

  526. Heliconius hierax  ______  EC

  527. Heliconius himera  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  528. Heliconius hortense  ______  EC

  529. Heliconius leucadia  ______  EC

  530. Heliconius metharme ______  (DA:96)
    (Range: Colombia, Peru, and Brazil - western Amazonas)

    Heliconius metharme flies in the company of Heliconius doris

  531. Heliconius pardalinus  ______  EC

  532. Heliconius peruvianus  ______  EC

  533. Heliconius hecuba  ______  EC  (DA:96)
    (Range: northern Colombia and the eastern slopes of the Andes south to Ecuador)

    Heliconius hecuba is a variable species.

  534. Heliconius xanthocles  ______  EC  (DA:96)
    (Range: Colombia to Peru, also Brazil & the Guianas)  

    Heliconius xanthocles has a color and pattern resemblance to the PIERID Archonias bellona hyrnetho, and a day-flying ARCTIID moth Pericopis phyleis.

  535. Heliconius wallacei  ______  BRmg  EC  (DA:97) 
    Heliconius wallacei flavescens  ______  EC  (EBE:86)
    WALLACE'S HELICONIAN

    (Range: Colombia to Peru; also Brazil, the Guianas, and Trinidad)

    Heliconius wallacei
    is a variable species, but distinguished by the presence of a greater or lesser amount of a dull steely blue color on the uppers.   

  536. Heliconius nattereri ______  (DA:98,99)
    (Range: eastern Brazil)

    This exquisite butterfly, Heliconius nattereri, is very rare, a threatened species.  
     

  537. Heliconius numata  ______  EC  
    Heliconius numata idalion ______  (DA:99)  
    a subspecies in Colombia
    Heliconius numata messene ______ (DA:99)  
    a subspecies in Colombia
    Heliconius numata euphrasius  ______  EC  (EBE:85)
    (Range: Colombia, Venezuela, Guianas, Brazil (western Amazonas) to Paraguay) 

  538. Heliconius hermathena  ______ 
    Heliconius hermathena rubopunctata  ______ (DA:103)

    (Range: Brazil, in the lower middle Amazon)

    Heliconius hermathena is with variation, but can almost always be identified by the distinctive and beautiful greenish yellow streak on the upper forewing. 

  539. Heliconius telesiphe  ______  EC
    Heliconius telesiphe sotericus  ______ (DA:105) (EBE:85)

    (Range: southern Colombia to central Peru)

    The form of Heliconius telesiphe that is yellow-banded on the hindwing strongly resembles another HELICONID, with which it often flies, Podotricha telesiphe.

  540. Heliconius timareta  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)


    Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ARGYNNINI


    Genus EUPTOIETA

  541. Euptoieta claudia  (ph)  ______  AR  CH  (D1:32) (K:157) (MCA:79) (PE:4,20)
    Euptoieta claudia hortensia  ______  ARba,ne  CH  (BB:277) (MM:338) 
    subspecies in Argentina and in Chile 
    VARIEGATED FRITILLARY
    AR common name: Hortensia 
    (the scientific epithet)
    CH common name: Mariposa Hortensia

    (Range: Canada thru Central & South America, also the West Indies. In Chile, from Coquimbo to Valdivia) 



    Variegated Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  542. Euptoieta hegesia  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (MCA:79)
    Euptoieta hegesia meridiania  ______  ARne  EC  (EBE:92) (MM:339) 
    subspecies in Ecuador and northeast Argentina
    MEXICAN FRITILLARY
    AR common name: Falsa Hortensia  ("False Hortensia"
    , alluding to its resemblance to Euptoleta claudia hortensia, with the common name Hortensia) 

    In Ecuador, Euptoieta hegesia is relatively common in open areas near the Coast and agricultural areas of the Amazon, up to 1,400 meters above sea level.
    Host plants: in Passifloraceae (for example, Passiflora spp.), Turnera sp. (in Turneraceae), and Violaceae (for example Hybanthus).



    Mexican Fritillary

  543. Euptoieta sunides  ______  EC


    Genus YRAMEA

  544. Yramea cytheris  (ph)  ______  CH
    CYTHERIS FRITILLARY
    CH common name: Mariposa Pintada Comun
    (Range: in Chile, from Santiago to Magallanes)

    Yramea cytheris
    is often seen resting on the ground.



    A Cytheris Fritillary photographed in Chile in January 2012
    (photo by Jim Zuckerman)

  545. Yramea inca  ______

  546. Yramea lathonioides  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposa Pintada de la Altura
    (Range: in Chile, from Atacama to Magallanes, in foothills and mountains)

  547. Yramea modesta  ______  CH
    CH common name: Mariposita Pintada Chica
    (Range: in Chile, from Coquimbo to Llanquihue, where it is uncommon in the high Andes)

  548. Yramea sobrina  ______

  549. Yramea lynx  ______  


    Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ACRAEINI


    Genera ALTINOTE
    and ACTINOTE

    In Ecuador, ALTINOTE and ACTINOTE (and ABANANOTE) butterflies are especially present in cloud forests, where they are found on wet soils or flying slowly in the forest or over open areas. They are generally toxic.
    Host plants are: Asteraceae (Mikania sp., Eupatorium sp., Senecio sp.), Urticaceae, and also Verbenaceae (Lantana sp.) and Mimosaceae (Acacia spp. such as A. pellenea).  

  550. Altinote alcione  ______  EC
    Altinote alcione elatus  ______  EC  (EBE:94) 
    subspecies in Ecuador

  551. Altinote callianthe  ______  EC

  552. Altinote dicaeus  ______  EC
    Altinote dicaeus albofasciata  ______  EC  (EBE:94) 
    subspecies in Ecuador 

  553. Altinote eresia  ______  EC

  554. Altinote hilaris  ______  EC
    Altinote hilaris desmiala  ______  EC  (EBE:95
    subspecies in Ecuador

  555. Altinote momina  ______  EC

  556. Altinote negra  ______  EC

  557. Altinote neleus  ______  EC
    Altinote neleus neleus  ______  EC  (EBE:94) 
    subspecies in Ecuador 

  558. Altinote ozomene  ______  EC  (EBE:6) (MCA:78)
    LAMPLIGHT ACTINOTE
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)



    Lamplight Actinote
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

     
  559. Altinote stratonice  ______  EC

  560. Altinote tenebrosa  ______  EC
    Altinote tenebrosa tenebrosa  ______  EC  (EBE:94) 
    subspecies in Ecuador

  561. Actinote anteas ______ (D1:32) (MCA:78)
    ANTEAS ACTINOTE 
    (or Doubleday's Actinote
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  562. Actinote melampeplos  ______  EC  (D1:32) (MCA:78)
    BOW-WINGED ACTINOTE
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  563. Actinote latior  ______  EC

  564. Actinote rufina  ______  EC

  565. Actinote surima surima ______ ARne  (MM:350)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa Anaranjada 
    (translates to "Orange Lazy", referring to its type of flight)

  566. Actinote thalia  ______  AR  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Actinote thalia pyrrha ______ ARne  (MM:351) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa Base Amarilla 
    (translates to " Yellow Base Lazy", referring to its type of flight)

  567. Actinote melanisans ______ ARba,ne  (BB:289) (MM:352)
    AR common names: Perezosa Base Translucida 
    (translates to "Translucent Base Lazy", referring to its type of flight) or Perezosa Grande  ("Big Lazy")

  568. Actinote pellenea  ______  AR  EC  
    Actinote pellenea equatoria  ______  EC  (EBE:95) 
      subspecies in Ecuador
    Actinoe pellenea epiphaea  ______  EC  (EBE:95)  
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Actinote pellenea calymma ______ ARba,ne  (BB:287) (MM:353) 
      subspecies in Argentina 
    AR common name: Perezosa 
    (translates to "Lazy', referring to its type of flight)

  569. Actinote mamita elena ______ ARba,ne  (BB:291) (MM:354)  (subspecies in Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa de Elena 
    (translates to "Elena's Lazy", referring to its type of flight) 


    Genus ABANANOTE

  570. Abananote abana  ______  EC
    Abananote abana abana  ______  EC  (EBE:95) 
      subspecies in Ecuador 

  571. Abananote erinome  ______  EC

  572. Abananote euryleuca  ______  EC

  573. Abananote radiata  ______  EC


    Subfamily DANAINAE, Tribe DANAINI:  MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES


    Genus ITUNA:
    a single species, distinctive.

  574. Ituna ilione lamira ______  (DA:79)
    (Range: Central America to northern Argentina)

    The sexes of Ituna ilione are similar. The semi-transparent wings are similar to ITHOMIIDS, but this species has a much greater size. This butterfly is often seen floating effortlessly for long distances, at a uniform height above the ground, until a shrub with flowers distracts it from its reverie. Then, it becomes immediately ensconced, oblivious to all else, as it spends long minutes refreshing itself.    


    Genus LYCOREA: 
    Remarkable heliconid mimics. They resemble Heliconius ethilla, but can be distinguished by their larger size in both sexes, and in the male, the presence of a tuft of extrusible "hair-pencils" at the tip of the abdomen.

  575. Lycorea ilione ______  AR  EC  (DV1:33)
    Lycorea ilione ilione ______ ARne  (MM:415)  
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    CLEARWING MIMIC-QUEEN
    AR common name: Reina Cristalina 
    ("Crystalline Queen")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

  576. Lycorea halia (formerly cleobaea(ph)  ______  AR  BR  EC  (DV1:33) (F:176) (K:155) (PE:text) (S:187)
    Lycorea halia discreta  ______  ARne  (DA:text) (MM:414) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    Lycorea halia pales  ______  BRmg  
    subspecies in Mato Grosso, Brazil
    TIGER MIMIC-QUEEN 
    (or Large Tiger)
    AR common name: Halia de Noreste  (referring to the scientific name, and the geographical location in Argentina, as there is another subspecies in the northwestern part of the country)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

    Lycorea halia is larger than true heliconids. It occurs in wood and scrub habitats.



    Tiger Mimic-Queen
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  577. Lycorea pasinuntia  ______  EC


    Genus DANAUS: ROYALTY

  578. Danaus plexippus  (*) (ph)  ______  AR  CH  EC  (C:37) (DV1:33) (F:143) (K:227) (PE:3,4,27) (S:184)  (described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Danaus plexippus nigrippus  ______  EC  (EBE:119,120)  
    subspecies in Ecuador 
    Danaus plexippus erippus ______ ARba,ne  CH  (BB:325) (MM:416)  
    subspecies in Argentina and Chile   
    Danaus plexippus megalippe  ______  (DA:80)
    MONARCH
    AR common name: Monarca 
    (another AR common name is: Oruga de las Asclepias)
    CH common name: Monarcha
    (Range: a truly cosmopolitan species, occurring in North and South America, Australia, and the East Indies) 

    Danaus plexippus is a very strong flier with strong migratory tendencies in temperate regions, but not in the tropics or  elsewhere in South America, such as Chile, where it is usually a solitary flier and does not migrate.



    Monarch
    (photo by Howard Eskin)  


  579. Danaus eresimus  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (C:283) (DV1:33) (F:142) (K:229) (PE:27)
    Danaus eresimus plexaure ______ ARba,ne  (BB:327) (MM:417) 
    subspecies in Argentina
    SOLDIER
    AR common name: Emperatriz  ("Empress")
      (another name is Tropical Queen)
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, also in the Antilles) 

    Danaus eresimus plexaure can be confused with Danaus gilippus.
     
  580. Danaus gilippus  (ph)  ______  AR  EC  (EBE:120)
    Danaus gilippus thersippus  ______  (EBE:120) 
      subspecies in the Galapagos Islands
    Danaus gilippus gilippus ______ ARba,ne  (BB:323) (MM:418) (PE:27)  
    subspecies in Argentina
    QUEEN
    AR common name: Reina  ("Queen")
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina)   

     



    Two photos of Queens
    (photos by Howard Eskin)



    Subfamily SATYRINAE  (includes: MORPHINI, BRASSOLINI, METANITINI, SATYRINI) 

    Totally SATYRINAE contains around 2,400 of the 6,000 or so Brushfoot (NYMPHALIDAE) species .
    In Ecuador, there are 410 species in SATYRINAE, and about 70 of them are endemic to the country.
    Most are midsize or small butterflies (except MORPHO and CALIGO) with cryptic coloration (brown, black, etc.)
    Camouflage is their most important method of defense as they do not extract toxic chemicals from their host plants, which include:
    the monocots, such as Poaceae (grasses and bamboos) and Cyperaceae.
    Other host plants include:
    Arecaeae (palms), Heliconiaceae and Musaceae (bananas), Marantaceae and Selaginellaceae (club mosses).

    Host plants for MORPHO also include dicots, such as Inga spp. in Mimosaceae, and others.

    Most SATYRINAE butterflies feed mainly on decaying fruits and other organic matter.
    Many fly close to the ground, in the forest, and due to their camouflage, the sit to "disappear" on leaf litter when disturbed. 


    Subfamily SATRYINAE, Tribe MORPHINI


    Genus ANTIRRHEA:
    about 20 species

  581. Antirrhea philaretes (or miltiades) ______  (DA:154,155) (DV1:37) (F:118) (MCA:131)
    Antirrhea philaretes lindigii  ______ 
    (subspecies from Guatemala, on the Caribbean slope, to the Amazon basin)
    NORTHERN ANTIRRHEA 
    (another name is White-signed Morphet)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Antirrhea philaretes often perches, feeding on rotting fruit and fungi. 

  582. Antirrhea adoptiva  ______  EC

  583. Antirrhea geryon  ______  EC

  584. Antirrhea hela  ______  EC

  585. Antirrhea phasiana  ______  EC

  586. Antirrhea philoctetes  ______  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  587. Antirrhea pterocopha  ______  EC

  588. Antirrhea taygetina  ______  EC

  589. Antirrhea undulata  ______  EC


    Genus MORPHOin total, about 80 showy Central and South American species that always drawn much attention, as the large, obvious males are a very bright metallic blue.   
    These butterflies are truly spectacular. Their blue-violet irridescence, tones and intensities are produced by light diffraction (more than pigments) due to the structure of the scales.

    In Ecuador, there are close to 20 species of MORPHO butterflies, with most in tropical areas.
    They feed on decaying fruit and other organic matter.
    Host plants are Mimosaceae (Inga spp.), Fabaceae (Macharium spp., Pterocarpus spp., Lonchocarpus spp. and others), Rhamnaceae (Scuti spp.), Bignoniaceae, and others.    

       
  590. Morpho helenor  (*)  (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:38) (MCA:131)
    Morpho helenor peleides  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    Morpho helenor bristowi  ______  EC  (EBE:101,106,181) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Morpho helenor violacea ______  BRse
    COMMON
    (or BLUE) MORPHO  (other names are the Helenor Morpho and the Emperor)  
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

    The male of Morpho helenor has more blue on the upperside than the female. The species is attracted to fermenting fruit.

    What has been Morpho peleides has been merged into Morpho helenor, as a subspecies.



    Above: A Common, or Blue Morpho photographed during a FONT tour 
    in Minas Gerais, Brazil in May 2011 
    (upper photo by Pat Yoder)
    Below: Showing the underside, another, Morpho helenor bristowi,
    photographed during a FONT tour in southern Ecuador in April 2014
    (lower photo by Marie Gardner) 





  591. Morpho cypris  ______  EC 
    CYPRIS MORPHO
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador, and Trinidad & Tobago)

    The sexes of Morpho cypris are completely different. 
    The male (most often seen) is a brilliant metallic blue, with a WHITE BAND across the wings, and a series of white spots around the wing.
    The larger female, that rarely ventures from the rainforest canopy, is above a rich orange-yellow with a brown margin.
    The undersides of both sexes are brown and white.

  592. Morpho deidamia  _____  BRmg  EC  (DA:152,153) 
    Morpho deidamia granadensis  ______  (DA:150,151) (DV1:38) (F:183)  
    subspecies in Panama and Colombia 
    Morpho deidamia diomedes  ______  EC  (EBE:108) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    DEIDAMIA MORPHO 
    (or Scarce Morpho)
    (Range: Nicaragua to South America, including Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Venezuela and the Guianas)

    The female of the Morpho deidamia is larger than the male, with a narrow blue band and broad brown margins on the upper wings.

    Morpho deidamia grandensis is distinguished from other morpho butterflies by having most of its upper wings a light metallic blue with a dark margin (in both sexes).  

    What has been Morpho granadensis has been merged into Morpho deidamia, as a subspecies.   

  593. Morpho theseus  ______  EC  (DV1:39) (MCA:131)
    Morpho theseus triangulifera  ______  EC  (EBE:109) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    STUB-TAILED MORPHO 
    (or Short-tailed Morpho)
    (or Short-tailed Morpho)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  

    Morpho theseus is pale to brown, but not bright blue or white.

  594. Morpho achilles  (ph)  ______  AR  BRmg  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Morpho achilles phokylides  ______  EC  (EBE:107) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Morpho achilles achilles  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:355) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina and southeast Brazil
    ACHILLES MORPHO 
    (other names are the BLUE-BANDED MORPHO, or BANDED BLUE MORPHO)
    AR common name: Pora  (regarding the name: "Pora", it is a Guarani word meaning "beautiful".)
    BR common name: Capitao do Mato
    (Range: throughout South America)



    Two photos of Morpho achilles taken during FONT tours in Brazil




  595. Morpho aega  ______
    Morpho aega aega ______  ARne (*) BRse  (MM:356) 
    subspecies in northeast Argentina
    AEGA MORPHO
    AR common name: Blue Silk
    BR names: Seda Azul, Corcovado, Telao de Seda, Azulao
    (Range: Brazil, Argentina, & Paraguay) 

  596. Morpho amphitryon  ______  EC

  597. Morpho epistrophus  ______
    Morpho epistrophus argentina ______ ARba,ne  (BB:293) (MM:357) 
    subspecies in Argentina
    EPISTROPHUS WHITE MORPHO
    AR common name: Panambi Moroti 
    (regarding the name: "Moroti" is a Guarani word meaning "white"; "Panambi" means "butterfly")
    (Range: in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay)

    Morpho epistrophus has an undulating flight. Butterflies are in the Buenos Aires area from December to March. They occur in gallery forest and rain forest.

  598. Morpho sulkowskyi  (*)  ______  EC
    Morpho sulkowskyi sulkowskyi  ______  EC  (EBE:109) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    Morpho sulkowskyi sirene ______  (DA:146)
    Morpho sulkowskyi erus ______  (DA:146)
    SULKOWSKY'S MORPHO

    (Range: Colombia to Peru)

    Morpho sulkowskyi, a relatively small MORPHO, is a high altitude species, at 6,000 to 8,0000 feet above sea level.  

  599. Morpho rhetenor  ______  EC
    Morpho rhetenor rhetenor ______  (DA:147,148)
    RHETENOR BLUE MORPHO
    (Range: the Guianas, Colombia, Amazonian Brazil, Ecuador, Peru)

    THE FOLLOWING COMMENTARY REGARDING BUTTERFLIES IN AMAZONIAN SOUTH AMERICA
    was written by Henry Walter Bates in 1863 in "The Naturalist on the River Amazons"
    and mentions the Morpho butterflies Morpho rhetenor
    (above) and Morpho menelaus and
    Morpho uraneis
    (both below).

    "The neighborhood of Para (in Brazil) is rich in butterflies. It will convey some idea of the diversity when I mention that about 700 species of that tribe can be found within an hour's walk of the town (note: maybe an exaggeration.), whilst the total number found in the British Isles does not exceed 66, and the whole of Europe supports only 321.

    The splendid blue Morphos, some of which measure seven inches in expanse, are generally confined to the shady alleys of the forest. They sometimes come forth into the broad sunlight.  When we first went to look at our new residence in Nazareth, a Morpho menelaus, one of the most beautiful kinds, was seen flapping its huge wings like a bird on the verandah.

    That species, however, although much admired, looks dull in colour by the side of its congener, the Morpho rhetenor, whose wings on the upper face, are of quite a dazzling lustre. 
    Rhetenor
    usually prefers the broad sunny roads in the forest, and is an almost unattainable prize, on account of its lofty flight; for it very rarely descends nearer the ground than about 20 feet. When it comes sailing along, it occasionally flaps its wings, and then the blue surface flashes in the sunlight, so that it is visible a quarter of a mile off.

    There is another species of this genus, of a satiny-white hue, the Morpho uraneis; this is equally difficult to obtain; the male only has the satiny lustre, the female being of a pale-lavender colour."

  600. Morpho menelaus  ______  BRmg  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Morpho menelaus occidentalis  ______  EC  (EBE:108) 
    subspecies in Ecuador
    MENELAUS MORPHO
    (Range: in northern and central South America) 

  601. Morpho amathonte  _____  EC  (DV1:39)
    Morpho amathonte ecuadorensis  ______  EC  (EBE:108) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela & Ecuador)

    Morpho amathonte is said by some to be a subspecies of Morpho menelaus.

  602. Morpho didius ______  (DA:149)
    GIANT BLUE MORPHO
    (Range: in Peru)

    Morpho didius is said by some to be a subspecies of Morpho menelaus.

  603. Morpho uraneis  ______
    URANEIS MORPHO
    (Range: Amazonian Brazil and Peru)

    Morpho uraneis
    is said to be a subspecies of another species, Morpho eugenia.

  604. Morpho cisseis  ______  BRmg  EC
    CISSEIS MORPHO


  605. Morpho eugenia  ______  EC

  606. Morpho godartii  ______  EC

  607. Morpho granadensis  ______  EC
    Morpho granadensis lycanor  ______  EC  (EBE:109)
      (subspecies in Ecuador)

  608. Morpho hecuba  ______  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1771)

  609. Morpho marcus  ______  EC

  610. Morpho niepelti  ______  EC

  611. Morpho telemachus  ______  BRmg  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    TELEMACHUS MORPHO


    Genus CAEROIS:  3 species from Costa Rica to Colombia & Bolivia)

  612. Caerois chorinaeus  ______  EC

  613. Caerois gerdrudtus  ______  EC  (DA:156) (DV1:40) (F:127)
    Caerois gerdrudtus vespertilio  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    FALSE ANTIRRHEA
    (Range: Costa Rica to western Ecuador)

    Caerois gerdrudtus is not common. It lives in the rainforest and breeds in a palm. The other 2 species in the genus are similar in shape, but are a darker brown with orange bands on both wings.  


    Subfamily SATYRINAE, Tribe BRASSOLINI: "The OWLS"


    Genus BIA

  614. Bia actorion rebeli  ______  EC  (subspecies described in 1953)
       

    Genus DYNASTOR: 
    3 magnificent species

  615. Dynastor darius  ______   EC
    Dynastor darius stygianus ______ (DV1:41) (MCA:132) 
    (subspecies Mexico to Ecuador)
    Dynastor darius ictericus ______ ARne  (MM:361)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DARING OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is the Bromeliad Owl Butterfly)
    AR common name: Dario
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  616. Dynastor macrosiris  ______  EC

  617. Dynastor napoleon ______  (DA:139)   in Brazil, in the Rio de Janeiro province

    Dynastor napoleon is a very localized species, and certainly one of the most magnificent of the BRASSOLIDS. Regarded as very rare. In the early 20th Century, it was thought to be nearly extinct.  


    Genus DASYOPHTHALMA:  3 species in central and southern Brazil

  618. Dasyophthalma creusa ______  (DA:140)  in central and southern Brazil, maybe adjacent Paraguay

    Dasyophthalma creusa can only be encountered in the first few months of the year, in the deepest forest. It is one of the most commonly taken butterflies on baits. Moth collectors have reported it coming to bait even at night.  


    Genus OPOPTERA

  619. Opoptera aorsa  ______  EC


    Genus SELENOPHANES

  620. Selenophanes josephus  ______  EC
    Selenophanes josephus excultus  ______ 
    subspecies in Panama and Colombia
    JOSEPHUS OWL BUTTERFLY 

  621. Selenophanes cassiope  ______  EC 

  622. Selenophanes supremus  ______  EC


    Genus NAROPE

  623. Narope cyllastros ______ (DV1:41)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  624. Narope syllabus  ______  EC
    Narope syllabus syllabus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Peru)
    Narope syllabus stygius  ______ 
    (subspecies in Amazonas, Brazil)

  625. Narope anartes  ______  EC
    (Range: Colombia to Bolivia)

  626. Narope nesope  ______  EC
    (Range: Ecuador to Bolivia)

  627. Narope albopunctum  ______
    (Range: Peru)

  628. Narope cauca  ______  (species described in 2002)
    (Range: Colombia)

  629. Narope cyllabarus  ______  BR  EC
    (Range: Colombia, the Guianas and Amazonian Brazil to Bolivia) 

  630. Narope cyllene ______ ARne  (MM:358)  
    AR common name: Cilenia  (regarding the name: Cilenos were the inhabitants of Mount Cilene.)
    (Range: Brazil & northern Argentina)

  631. Narope cyllarus  ______  BRse
    (Range: southeastern Brazil, in Rio de Janeiro)

  632. Narope denticulatus  ______  BRmg
    (Range: Brazil, in Mato Grosso)

  633. Narope guihermei  ______  BR   (species described in 1989)
    (Range: southeastern Brazil, in Santa Catarina)

  634. Narope marmorata  ______
    (Range: Bolivia)

  635. Narope obidos  ______  BR  (species described in 2002)
    (Range: Brazil, in Para)

  636. Narope panniculus  ______  EC
    Narope panniculus panniculus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Paraguay)
    Narope panniculus piccatus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Bolivia)

  637. Narope ybyra  ______  (species described in 2002)
    (Range: Bolivia)


    Genus OPSIPHANES:  13 species, all with stout bodies, and thick scaled wings. Occur from Mexico to Paraguay (& in Trinidad). 
    The male wingshape reminiscent of the Afrotropical CHARAXES. 
    The behavior is much like that of other BRASSOLIDS. 
    Most of the species in this genus strongly resemble each other. Most of these species are not common.  


  638. Opsiphanes tamarindi  ______  EC
    Opsiphanes tamarindi tamarindi  ______ (DV1:41) (MCA:133) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    Opsiphanes tamarindi corrosus  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    NARROW-BANDED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Heliconia Owlet)
    (another name is Heliconia Owlet)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  639. Opsiphanes invirae  ______  EC  (DV1:42) (MCA:133)
    Opsiphanes invirae sticheli  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to western Venezuela) 
    Opsiphanes invirae amplificatus ______ ARba,ne  (BB:295) (MM:359) 
    (subspecies in Argentina)
    LOWLAND OWL BUTTERFLY
      (another name is Lowland Owlet)
    AR common name: Fantasma  (translates to "Ghost")
    (Range: Honduras to Argentina; the species has been said to be extending its range further south)  

  640. Opsiphanes cassiae  ______  EC  (MCA:133)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Opsiphanes cassiae castaneus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Colombia)
    CASSIA'S OWL BUTTERFLY

  641. Opsiphanes cassina ______  EC  (DV1:42) (MCA:133)
    Opsiphanes cassina numatius  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador) 
    Opsiphanes cassina barkeri  ______  EC  (EBE:105) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    SPLIT-BANDED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Split-banded Owlet)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  642. Opsiphanes quiteria  ______  EC  (DV1:42) (MCA:133)
    Opsiphanes quiteria badius  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Venezuela)
    Opsiphanes quiteria angostura  ______  EC  (EBE:105) 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    SCALLOPED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Scalloped Owlet)
    (Range: Guatemala to the Amazon Basin) 

  643. Opisphanes sallei  ______  EC
    Opisphanes sallei sallei ______  (DA:141)
    (Range: Venezuela and Colombia to southern Bolivia)

    In Opisphanes sallei, the sexes are similar.

  644. Opisphanes bogotanus  ______  EC
    Opisphanes bogotanus blandinii  ______  EC  (EBE:105) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)

  645. Opisphanes mutatus  ______  EC

  646. Opisphanes zelotes  ______  EC
    Opisphanes zelotes zelotes  ______  EC
      (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)


    Genus CATOBLEPIA

  647. Catoblepia xanthicles ______  EC  (DV1:44)
    Catoblepia xanthicles occidentalis  ______  EC  (EBE:105) 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    XANTHICLES OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  648. Catoblepia orgetorix ______  EC  (C:355) (DV1:44)
    Catoblepia orgetorix magnalis  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    ORANGE-RIMMED OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (also called Orgetorix Owl Butterfly)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador) 

  649. Catoblepia xanthus  ______  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  650. Catoblepia generosa  ______  EC  (either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  651. Catoblepia berecynthia  ______  BRmg  EC
    BERECYNTHIA OWLET 


  652. Catoblepia soranus  ______  BRmg  EC
    SORANUS OWLET


  653. Catoblepia amphirhoe ______ ARne  (MM:363)
    AR common name: Fantasma Grande  (translates to "Big Ghost")


    Genus ERYPHANIS:  species with "owl eyes" in Central and South America. Breeds on bamboo.

  654. Eryphanis automedon (formerly polyxena)  ______  EC  (DV1:44) (S:158)
    Eryphanis automedon lycomedon ______  
    subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia
    Eryphanis automedon automedon  ______ 
      subspecies in the Guianas
    Eryphanis automedon spintharus  ______ 
      subspecies in Colombia
    Eryphanis automedon novicia  ______  EC 
      subspecies in Ecuador
    Eryphanis automedon tristis  ______  
    subspecies in Peru
    Eryphanis automedon cheiremon  ______  
    subspecies in Bolivia
    Eryphanis automedon amphimedon  ______ 
      subspecies in Brazil  
    AUTOMEDON GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name has been the Purple Mort Bleu)
    (Range: Guatemala to the Amazon Basin) 

    Eryphanis polyxena frequents forest clearings in the late afternoon and at dusk.

  655. Eryphanis aesacus  ______  EC  (DV1:45) (F:150) (MCA:132)
    DOUBLE-SPOTTED OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  656. Eryphanis bubocula  ______
    BUBOCULA OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)

  657. Eryphanis lycomedon  ______
    SPLIT-SPOTTED OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Guatemala to southern Brazil, including Ecuador & Bolivia)    

  658. Eryphanis gerhardi  ______  EC

  659. Eryphanis greeneyi  ______  EC  (species described in 2008)

  660. Eryhanis zolzivora  ______  EC  (EBE:101)

  661. Eryphanis reevesii ______ ARne  (MM:366)
    AR common name: Sombra Azul 
    (translates to "Blue Shadow", referring to its color and quick flight)
    BR common name: Olho de boi


    Genus BRASSOLIS

  662. Brassolis isthmia  ______  EC
    Brassolis isthmia isthmia  ______  (MCA:133) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia, in the Caribbean slope)
    SMALL-SPOTTED OWL-BUTTERFLY

  663. Brassolis granadensis  ______
    Brassolis granadensis granadensis  ______
      (subspecies from northwestern Costa Rica to western Ecuador, on the Pacific slope)
    COLOMBIAN OWL-BUTTERFLY 

  664. Brassolis haenschi  ______  EC

  665. Brassolis sophorae  ______  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)   


    Genus CALIGO: 
    20 to 30 species of among the largest and most striking butterflies in the world. The species in this genus can usually be distinguished from each other by the pattern and coloration of the upper wings 

    Some CALIGO butterflies have a wingspan as large as 20 centimeters (nearly 8 inches). Such large species include Caligo idomeneus and Caligo atreus.  

    Butterflies in the CALIGO genus avoid bright sunlight. They fly in the late afternoon and at dusk, and they are attracted to fermenting fruit and other organic matter.
    Their large ocelli imitate owl or mammal eyes to prevent predation.
    Larvae are large and semi-gregarious, with "horns" and a pro-thoracic gland that expels repulsive substances for protection.
    There is a photo of a CALIGO caterpillar in the book "Ecuador's Butterfly Ecology"  (EBE:215co). 

    For CALIGO and related genera (including OPSIPHANES, CATOBLEPIA, ERYPHANIS, all above), host plants are monocots such as:
    Calathea spp. in Arecaceae, Hedychium spp. in Zyngiberaceae, Heliconia spp. in Heliconiaceae, Musa sapientum in Musaceae (bananas), and Canna indica in Poaceae (sugar cane).       

  666. Caligo teucer  ______  EC  (S:157)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    TEUCER GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name has been the Cocoa Mort Bleu)
    (Range: Colombia & Venezuela to Bolivia and Paraguay) 

  667. Caligo eurilochus  ______  BRmg  EC  (DV1:45)
    Caligo eurilochus morpheus  ______  ECnw  (EBE:102,180) 
    subspecies in Colombia and Ecuador 
    FOREST GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

    Various subspecies of Caligo eurilochus are recognized, and others have been proposed.

    Caligo eurilochus morpheus was said to be Caligo brasiliensis morpheus. 

  668. Caligo brasiliensis  (ph)   ______  (MCA:132)
    Caligo brasiliensis brasiliensis  ______  ARne  (DA:143) (MM:367) 
    (subspecies in Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    Caligo brasiliensis galba  ______ 
    (subspecies in Colombia)
    Caligo brasiliensis caesius  ______ 
    (subspecies in Venezuela)
    Caligo brasiliensis minor  ______ 
    (subspecies in Trinidad)
    DARK OWL BUTTERFLY
      (other names are Brazilian Owl Butterfly, Almond-eyed Owl Butterfly, Sulanus Owl Butterfly
    , and Magnificent Owl
    AR common name: Lechucita de Brasil  (translates to "Brazilian Little Owl")
    BR common name: Borboleta Coruja
    (Range: Guatemala to northern Argentina) 



    Caligo brasiliensis. the Brazilian Owl Butterfly, that also has other common names

  669. Caligo oedipus  ______  (MCA:132)
    Caligo oedipus oedipus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    FRUHSTORFER'S OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is the Boomerang Owl Butterfly

  670. Caligo telamonius (formerly memnon) (ph)  ______  EC  (DV1:46) (F:128) (MCA:132)
    Caligo telamonius menus  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    Caligo telamonius memnon  ______  (EBE:104) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    PALE GIANT OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (other names are the Cream Owl Butterfly, or the Yellow-fronted Owl Butterfly)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    With a wingspan of 13cm, Caligo memnon is among the largest butterflies in the world. It is crepusular. It lives in agricultural areas, where it breeds on Heliconia species and the related banana.   



    A Pale Giant Owl Butterfly photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 

  671. Caligo illioneus  ______  EC  (DA:text) (DV1:46)
    Caligo illioneus oberon  ______  EC  (EBE:103) 
    (subspecies in Ecuador)
    Caligo illioneus pampeiro ______ ARne  (MM:368) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    DUSKY OWL BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is the Illoneus Giant Owl Butterfly)
    AR common name: Lechucita (translates to "Little Owl")
    BR common name: Corujao
    (translates to "Little Owl")
    BR common name: Corujao
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil & northern Argentina)    

  672. Caligo atreus  (ph)  _____  EC  (DV1:46)
    Caligo atreus agesilaus  ______  EC  (EBE:104) 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)
    BANDED OWL BUTTERFLY 
     (another name is the Yellow-edged Giant Owl
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  



    A Banded Owl Butterfly, or Yellow-edged Giant Owl 

  673. Caligo bellerophon  ______  ECnw  (EBE:8,103)  (species either endemic or nearly so to Ecuador)

  674. Caligo euphorbus  ______  EC

  675. Caligo idomeneus  ______  EC  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  676. Caligo oberthurii  ______  EC

  677. Caligo oileus  ______  EC

  678. Caligo placidianus  ______  EC

  679. Caligo prometheus  ______  EC  

  680. Caligo superbus  ______  EC

  681. Caligo zeuxippus  ______  EC
    Caligo zeuxippus zeuxippus  ______  EC 
    (subspecies in northwest Ecuador)  







    To Top of Page