PO Box 9021, Wilmington, DE 19809, USA
E-mail: font@focusonnature.com
Phone: Toll-free in USA 1-8
88-721-3555
 or 302/529-1876

 

Part 4 of a List
with some Photos
of


Central America
Butterflies 
and Moths

Brushfoots


Noting those during 
Focus On Nature Tours 

in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama

with tours in the months of: January, February, March, April, July, December 


Fourth Part of a List of Central American Butterflies in 5 Parts,
compiled by Armas Hill


Here. in Part #4: Nymphalidae, the Brushfoots

including the Clearwings and the Satyrs  


In this part of this list there are are photographs of:  Two-spotted Prepona, Turquoise Emperor, 
Small Beauty, Orion Cecropian, Red Rim, Gray Cracker, Red Cracker, Florida Purplewing, 
Ruddy Daggerwing, Stoplight Catone, Pointed Sister, Malachite, Rusty-tipped Page, White Peacock, 
Banded Peacock, Buckeye, Painted Lady, American Lady, Bordered Patch, Crimson Patch, Rosita Patch, 
Phaon Crescent, Texan Crescent, Gulf Fritillary, Julia Heliconian, Heart-spotted Heliconian, 
Crimson-patched Longwing, Zebra Longwing, Variegated Fritillary, Mexican Fritillary, Monarch, Queen, 
Thick-tipped Greta, Common (or Helenor) Morpho, Yellow-fronted Owl Butterfly, Yellow-edged Giant-Owl      
   

Among the Butterfly groupings that follow, links to:

Leaf Butterflies: subfamily Charaxinae    Crackers: genus Hamadryas    Daggerwings: genus Marpesia

"Eighty-Eight" Butterflies: genera Diaethria & Callicore     Sisters: genus Adelpha    

Patches: genus Chlosyne
    Peacocks: genus Anartia    Lady Butterflies: genus Vanessa

Crescents: including genera Phyciodes & Anthranassa    Longwings: subfamily Heliconiinae

Milkweed Butterflies: subfamily Danainae    Morphos: subfamily Morphidae

Owl Butterflies: genus Caligo & others    Clearwing Butterflies: subfamily Ithomiinae

Satyrs: subfamily Satyrinae


Links to other Central America Lepidoptera groupings:

Part #1 - Swallowtails (Papilionidae)    Part #2 - Whites, Yellows, Sulphurs, Marbles (Pieridae)

Part #3 - Hairstreaks, Blues (Lycaenidae) & Metalmarks (Riodinidae)

Part #5 - Skippers (Hesperiidae)     Moths



A beautiful pupae in Central America,
not identified, 
but possibly of an ITHOMIINAE butterfly


Codes relating to illustrations in various books:


Numbers noted as (AZ:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of Arizona - A Photographic Guide", by Bob Stewart, Priscilla Brodkin, & Hank Brodkin

Numbers noted as (BMCR:xx) refer to plates in "Butterflies and Moths of Costa Rica" by Isidro Chacon & Jose Montero 

Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved

Numbers noted as (D1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries   

Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell  

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman

Numbers noted as (MCA:xxx) refer to pages in "A Swift Guide to the Butterflies of Mexico and Central America", by Jeffrey Glassberg 

Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guides to Eastern Butterflies", by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul, 1998 edition. Those noted as (PEp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph.

Numbers noted as (PW:xx) refer to plates in the "Peterson Field Guide to Western Butterflies", by Paul Opler & illustrated by Amy Bartlett Wright, 1999 edition. Those noted as (PWp:xx) refer to a page with a photograph. 

Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter


Additional Codes:


BZ:  in Belize
CR
: in Costa Rica
GU: in Guatemala
HN: in Honduras
PN: in Panama

(sl): at Sierra Llorona, in hills on the Caribbean side of Panama 

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website 

BUTTERFLIES OBSERVED DURING FONT TOURS NOTED BY AN (*) AFTER THE 2-LETTER COUNTRY CODE.


Other Links:


Itineraries for upcoming FONT Birding & Nature Tours in:
Belize, Costa Rica,  Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, & Panama


Lists of Birds in:    Belize    Costa Rica    Guatemala    Honduras    Panama 

A List & Photo Gallery of Birds in Central America, in 4 Parts

A List of Mammals in Central America  (with some photos)

Other Lists & Photo Galleries of Butterflies & Moths Elsewhere 

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus with Photos in the FONT Website 

A Directory of Photos in this Website



List of Central American Butterflies, Part #4:


         
Family NYMPHALIDAE: BRUSHFOOTS
          Cosmopolitan, with subfamilies ranging from 8 to 25, depending upon taxonomic treatment.

          This is the most diverse family of butterflies, with approximately 6,000 known species worldwide. 
          Brushfoot butterflies appear 4 rather than 6-legged as their 2 front legs are much reduced.


          Genus AGRIAS

  1. Agrias aedon ______
    Agrias aedon rodriguezi  ______ (D1:13) (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica)
    GREAT AGRIAS
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)  

  2. Agrias amydon ______  (F:115) 
    Agrias amydon philatelica ______ CR  PN  (BMCR:149) (D1:13) (MCA:118)
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    Agrias amydon lacandona  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Honduras) (subspecies described in 1999)
    Agrias amydon oaxcata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)
    Agrias amydon smalli  ______  (BMCR:149) 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    WHITE-SPOTTED AGRIAS  
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

    Agrias amydon is a powerful flier. It has a number of subspecies and is quite variable. It lives in the rainforest and visits fruit for sugar. 


    Genus PREPONA: South & Central American butterflies of which the total number of species is unclear since there are many confusing forms. They have bright blue-green bands on the upperside and, often, large false eyes on the underside. These are butterflies of the rainforest canopy and infrequently come down to ground level. Caterpillars feed on members of the Leguminosae.

  3. Prepona laertes (formerly omphale)  ______  
    Prepona laertes octavia ______  PN(sl) (D1:13) 
    (subspecies in Central America) 
    YELLOW-TUFTED PREPONA
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

  4. Prepona dexamenus  ______
    Prepona dexamenus medinai  ______   (MCA:119) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras, described in 1981)
    Prepona dexamenus desxamenus  ______  (D1:13) 
    (subspecies from Panama to the Amazon Basin)
    LEAST PREPONA
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)

  5. Prepona deiphile  ______
    Prepona deiphile diaziana  ______  (MCA:119) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala, described in 1976)
    Prepona deiphile salvadora  ______  (subspecies in El Salvador, described in 1992)  
    Prepona deiphile lygia  ______  (D1:13) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    ORANGE-SPOTTED PREPONA

  6. Prepona pylene  ______
    Prepona pylene philetas  ______  (MCA:119)
    (subspecies fro Mexico to Honduras)
    Prepona pylene gnorima  ______  (D1:13)  (subspecies from Honduras to Colombia)
    MOTTLED PREPONA


    Genus ACHAEOPREPONA

  7. Archaeoprepona phaedra  ______
    Archaeoprepona phaedra phaedra  ______  (D1:13) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    Archaeoprepona phaedra aelia  ______  (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Nicaragua) 
    FALCATE PREPONA
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  8. Archaeoprepona demophon  ______  (C:347)  
    Archaeoprepona demophon centralis ______  (BMCR:149) (D1:14) (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    ONE-SPOTTED PREPONA
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)   

  9. Archaeoprepona demophoon  (ph)  ______
    Archaeoprepona demophoon gulina  ______  (BMCR:149) (D1:14) (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon Basin)
    TWO-SPOTTED PREPONA 
    (another name has been Silver King Shoemaker)



    Two-spotted Prepona 

  10. Archaeoprepona camilla  ______
    Archaeoprepona camilla camilla  ______ PN(sl)  (BMCR:149) (D1:14) (MCA:119) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    PALE PREPONA 
    (or Straw Prepona)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia)

  11. Archaeoprepona meander  ______  (S:119)
    Archaeoprepona meander phoebus  ______  (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras)
    Archaeoprepona meander megabates  ______  (D1:14) 
    (subspecies from Panama to Bolivia)
    THREE-TONED PREPONA 
    (another name has been Banded King Shoemaker)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    In flight, the Three-toned Prepona, or the Banded Wing Shoemaker, makes a crackling sound.

  12. Archaeoprepona amphimachus  ______
    Archaeoprepona amphimachus amphiktion  ______  CR  (BMCR:149) (D1:14) (MCA:118) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    WHITE-SPOTTED PREPONA
      

    Genus SIDERONE: These butterflies have red flashes on their elliptical forewings and leaf-like undersides.

  13. Siderone syntyche  ______ 
    Siderone syntyche syntyche  ______  (D1:13) (MCA:123) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Central America)
    RED-PATCHED LEAFWING

  14. Siderone galanthis  ______
    Siderone galanthis galanthis  ______  (D1:13
    as S. marthesis) (MCA:123)  (subspecies in Central America & south to the Amazon Basin) 
    RED-STRIPED LEAFWING  (or Red-and-black Leafwing)


    Genus ZARETIS

  15. Zaretis callidryas ______ (D1:14) (MCA:122)  
    PALE LEAFWING 
    (or Ghost Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  16. Zaretis ellops ______ (D1:14) (MCA:122)
    SEASONAL LEAFWING 
    (or Holey Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  17. Zaretis itys  ______
    Zaretis itys itys  ______ (D1:14) (MCA:122) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia & the Amazon Basin)
    ITYS LEAFWING 
    (or Skeletonized Leafwing)
    (Range: southern Mexico to Brazil)

  18. Zaretis isidora  (ph)  ______  (MCA:122)
    ISIDORA LEAFWING 
    (or Cramer's Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)



    Above & below: the Isidora Leafwing,
    showing upperwings & underwings
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)






    Genus HYPNA: 
    A single species that has swallowtail-shaped wings and a tail. 

  19. Hypna clytemnestra  ______  (F:163)
    Hypna clytemnestra mexicana  ______  (MCA:123) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)
    Hypna clytemnestra negra  ______ (D1:15) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Brazil)
    SILVER-STUDDED LEAFWING 
    (or Jazzy Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 


    Genus CONSUL

  20. Consul fabius  ______
    Consul fabius cecrops ______ (D1:15) (MCA:123) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia)
    TIGER-STRIPED LEAFWING
     

  21. Consul panariste  ______
    Consul panariste jansoni ______ PN(sl)  (D1:15) (MCA:123) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Panama)
    BLACKENED LEAFWING 
    (or Tricolored Leafwing)
    (Range: Guatemala to Colombia) 

  22. Consul electra  ______
    Consul electra electra  ______  (D1:15) (MCA:123) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    PEARLY LEAFWING

  23. Consul excellens  ______
    Consul excellens excellens  ______  (MCA:123) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)
    Consul excellens genini  ______ 
    (a 2nd subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)
    BLACK-VEINED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico & Guatemala)


    Subfamily CHARAXINAE: LEAF BUTTERFLIES

    Genera ANAEA and FOUNTAINEA: 
    These Central & South American butterflies are called LEAFWINGS since the undersides of the wings are leaf-like and help to disguise the butterfly when it settles on the ground. Some species are dimorphic. 
    These butterflies are similar in behavior to the African genus CHARAXES. 

  24. Anaea aidea ______  (AZ:207) (C:271) (D1:16) (K:221) (MCA:121) (PE:25)
    TROPICAL LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to northwest Costa Rica)

  25. Fountainea (has been Anaea) nobilis  (ph)  ______ 
    Fountainea nobilis nobilis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)  
    Fountainea
    nobilis peralta  ______  (D1:15)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    NOBLE LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)



    Noble Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  26. Fountainea (has been Anaea and Memphis) glycerium  ______  (PE:25)
    Fountainea glycerium glycerium  ______ (BMCR:150) (D1:16) (MCA:121) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    ANGLED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to northern South America)

  27. Fountainea (has been Anaea and Memphis) ryphea  (ph)  ______
    Fountainea ryphea ryphea  ______  PN(sl)  (D1:15) (MCA:120) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Peru)
    RYPHEA LEAFWING 
    (or Blue-barred Leafwing
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon basin)



    Ryphea Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


  28. Fountainea (has been Anaea and Memphis) eurypyle  ______
    Fountainea eurypyle confusa  ______  CR  PN(sl)  (BMCR:150) (D1:15) (MCA:120)
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    POINTED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia) 

  29. Fountainea (has been Anaea and Memphis) halice  ______
    Fountainea halice chrysophana  ______  PN(sl)  (BMCR:150) (D1:15) (MCA:120) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    THORN-SCRUB LEAFWING 
    (or Pear-winged Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)


    Genus or Subgenus  MEMPHIS:  BLUE LEAFWINGS 
    About 100 species, which occur in Central America. They resemble the genus ANAEA, to which they are closely related. In fact, by some, they are onsidered to be within ANAEA.  
    These butterflies have crytic undersides that are leaf-like. They reside in the forest, and are powerful fliers.
     

  30. Memphis (or Anaea) ambrosia  ______
    Memphis ambrosia ambrosia  ______  (BMCR:150) (D1:16) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    AMBROSIA LEAFWING


  31. Memphis (or Anaea) aureola ______ CR PN(sl)  (BMCR:151) (D1:16) (F:181) (MCA:128)
    AUREOLE LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  32. Memphis (or Anaea) herbacea  ______ (D1:16) (MCA:125)
    HERBACEA LEAFWING 
    (or Scarce Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica) 

  33. Memphis (or Anaea) beatrix ______ (BMCR:151) (D1:16)
    BEATRIX LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  34. Memphis (or Anaea) proserpina  ______ (BMCR:153) (D1:17) (D1:18) (F:182) (MCA:124)  
    PROSERPINA LEAFWING  (or Great Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)

  35. Memphis (or Anaea) elara  ______  
    ELARA LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)

  36. Memphis (or Anaea) kingi  ______  (species described in 1971)
    KING'S LEAFWING
    (Range: Panama) 

  37. Memphis (or Anaea) philumena (formerly chaeronea)  ______
    Memphis philumena xenica  ______  (MCA:124)  (subspecies in eastern Mexico & Guatemala) 
    Memphis philumena indigotica  ______ PN(sl)  (BMCR:151,152) (D1:17)  
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    ORANGE-STRIPED LEAFWING

    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)
     
  38. Memphis (or Anaea) glauce  ______
    Memphis glauce centralis  ______ PN(sl)  (D1:17) 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Panama)
    GLAUCE LEAFWING


  39. Memphis (or Anaea) xenocles 
    Memphis xenocles carolina  ______ PN (sl)  (D1:17) (MCA:127) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama, described in 1961)
    CAROLINA LEAFWING 
    (or Corner-spotted Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  40. Memphis (or Anaea) niedhoeferi ______ (D1:17) (MCA:126)  (species described in 1965)
    WAVY-EDGED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)

  41. Memphis (or Anaea) arginussa  ______
    Memphis arginussa eubaena  ______  (BMCR:150) (D1:17) (MCA:125) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama) 
    MOTTLED LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

  42. Memphis (or Anaea) moruus  (ph)  ______
    Memphis moruus boisduvali ______ (BMCR:152) (D1:18) (MCA:126) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama, described in 1961)
    BOISDUVAL'S LEAFWING 
    (or Laurel Leafwing)
     



    The Boisduval's, or Laurel Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  43. Memphis (or Anaea) lyceus ______ (BMCR:152) (D1:18)
    LYCEUS LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  44. Memphis (or Anaea) laura 
    Memphis laura balboa ______ (D1:18) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    LAURA LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)  

  45. Memphis (or Anaea) oenomais  ______ PN(sl)  (BMCR:152,153) (D1:18) (MCA:126)
    EDGE LEAFWING
    (Range: eastern Mexico thru Central America)

  46. Memphis (or Anaea) artacaena ______ PN(sl)  (BMCR:151) (D1:18) (MCA:126)
    WHITE-PATCHED LEAFWING
    (Range: southeast Mexico to Colombia)

  47. Memphis (or Anaea) dia  ______  (MCA:128)
    Memphis dia dia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)  
    DIA LEAFWING 
    (or Shining Leafwing)

  48. Memphis (or Anaea) mora  ______
    Memphis mora orthesia ______ (D1:19) (MCA:128)
    ORTHESIA LEAFWING  (or Godman's Leafwing)

  49. Memphis (or Anaea) forreri ______ (D1:19) (MCA:127)
    FORRER'S LEAFWING 
    (or Guatemalan Leafwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica; as a stray to south Texas)

  50. Memphis (or Anaea) pithyusa  ______  (K:221) (PE:25)
    Memphis pithyusa pithyusa  ______  (BMCR:153) (D1:19) (MCA:125)  
    (subspecies from south Texas to Bolivia)
    PALE-SPOTTED LEAFWING 


  51. Memphis (or Anaea) cleomestra  ______
    Memphis cleomestra ada  ______ (BMCR:152) (D1:19) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    CLEOMESTRA LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  52. Memphis (or Anaea) aulica  ______  (D1:19)
    AULICA LEAFWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  53. Memphis (or Anaea) hedemanni  ______  (MCA:124)
    HEDEMANN'S LEAFWING 
    (or Double-banded Leafwing)
    (Range: southern Mexico & Guatemala)

  54. Memphis (or Anaea) perenna  ______
    Memphis perenna perenna  ______  (MCA:125) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)
    Memphis perenna lankesteri  ______  (D1:16) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    PERENNA LEAFWING  (or Big-spotted Leafwing) 


    Genus ASTEROCAMPA  

  55. Asterocampa idyja  ______
    Asterocampa idyja argus  ______  (MCA:129) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica; as a stray to southeast Arizona)
    "CREAM-BANDED" DUSKY EMPEROR


    Genus DOXOCOPA: 
    About 30 sexually dimorphic species with males all iridescent blue, green, or purple.

  56. Doxocopa callianira ______ (D1:19)
    NICARAGUAN EMPEROR
    (Range: southern Mexico to Costa Rica)

  57. Doxocopa laurentia  (ph)  ______  (S:142)
    Doxocopa laurentia cherubina  ______  PN(sl) (BMCR:164) (D:120) (MCA:130)
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia) 
    TURQUOISE EMPEROR
    (or Sapphire)  (another name is the Blue-green Reflector)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

    Doxocopa laurentia and others in its genus have brilliant iridescent colors.



    A Turquoise Emperor (or Sapphire)
    photographed during a FONT tour

  58. Doxocopa clothilda  ______  PN(sl)  (D1:19)
    CLOTHILDA EMPEROR
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  59. Doxocopa pavon  ______  (K:225) (PE:24)
    Doxocopa pavon theodora  ______  (BMCR:164) (D1:19) (MCA:130) 
    (subspecies from south Texas to Colombia)
    PAVON EMPEROR
    (Range: south Texas to Bolivia)

  60. Doxocopa callianira ______ (D1:19) (MCA:130)
    GUATEMALAN EMPEROR
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)

  61. Doxocopa zunilda  ______
    Doxocopa zunilda felderi ______  (D1:19) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    ZINGY EMPEROR 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  62. Doxocopa cyane  (ph)  ______
    Doxocopa cyane mexicana  ______  PN(sl)  (BMCR:164) (D1:20) (MCA:130) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    CYAN EMPEROR 
    (or Mexican Emperor
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)



    Above & below: the Cyan Emperor
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)




  63. Doxocopa excelsa  ______  (D1:20)
    BROAD-BANDED EMPEROR
    (Range: Nicaragua & Costa Rica)

  64. Doxocopa laure  ______  (C:285) (K:225) (PE:24)
    Doxocopa laure laure  ______  PN(sl)  (D1:20) (MCA:130)
    (subspecies from the southern US to Panama) 
    SILVER EMPEROR

    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  65. Doxocopa linda  ______
    Doxocopa linda plesaurina ______  PN(sl)  (D1:20) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    RARE EMPEROR
     


    Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE: SNOUTS

    Genus LIBYTHEANA:  
    The SNOUT BUTTERFLY has long palps which protrude under the head like a snout. 
    There are about 10 species which occur in South and Central America. 
    They breed on members of Celtis which belong to the elm family, Ulmaceae. 

     
  66. Libytheana carinenta  ______  (C:281) (F:175) (K:223) (PE:18)(PW:22) (S:146) 
    Libytheana carinenta mexicana ______  (AZ:119) (D1:20) (MCA:79) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    AMERICAN SNOUT  
    (Range: southern US to Brazil) 


    Genus TIGRIDIA

  67. Tigridia acesta  ______ (BMCR:134) (D1:21) (MCA:116)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)  
    TIGER BEAUTY
    (Range: southeast Mexico to the Amazon Basin)



    Tiger Beauty
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


    Genus COLOBURA

  68. Colobura dirce  (ph)  ______  (C:291) (S:114) 
    Colobura dirce dirce  ______  (BMCR:133) (D1:21) (MCA:116) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Argentina)
    DIRCE BEAUTY 
    (other names are the Small Beauty
    or The Mosaic)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America, also the West Indies)



    The Small Beauty, or Mosaic

  69. Colobura annulata  ______  (MCA:116)  (species described in 2001) 
    NEW BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to the Guianas & Bolivia)


    Genus HISTORIS

  70. Historis odius  (ph)  ______  (PE:text)
    Historis odius odious  (ph)  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:134) (D1:21) (MCA:127) 
    (subspecies from Texas to Argentina)
    ORION CECROPIAN 
    (also called Stinky Leaf Wing)
    (Range: throughout Central & South America; in North America, as a stray to Florida) 

    In Costa Rica, Historis odius occurs in virtually all habitats from sea level up to 1,500 meters. 

     



    2 photos of Orion Cecropian

  71. Historis acheronta  ______  (C:353) (PW:31) 
    Historis acheronta acheronta  ______ (BMCR:133) (D1:21) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Brazil, as a stray to south Texas & Arizona)
    TAILED CECROPIAN 
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin, also in the Greater Antilles)


    Genus SMYRNA
     
  72. Smyrna blomfildia  (ph)  ______  (K:225) (PE:26)(PW:31) 
    Smyrna blomfildia datis ______ (BMCR:134) (D1:21) (MCA:115) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama) 
    BLOMFILD'S BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to Peru) 



    Blomfild's Beauty
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  73. Smyrna karwinskii  ______  (MCA:115)
    KARWINSKI'S BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to Nicaragua) 


    Genus BAEOTUS: 
    totally 2 species with black and white undersides and tooth-like edges to the hindwings.

  74. Baeotus baeotus  ______  (BMCR:133) (D1:21) (F:122) (MCA:116)
    GRAPHIC BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)  

    Baeotus baeotus is an attractive and rare butterfly in virgin rainforest. 


    Genus  PYCINA

  75. Pycina zamba  ______ 
    Pycina zamba zelys ______ (BMCR:134) (D1:21) (MCA:115) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama) 
    CLOUD-FOREST BEAUTY
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)
     

    Genus BIBLIS:  A single species. Breeds on Tragia, a species of spurge. 

  76. Biblis hyperia  (ph)  ______  (C:319) (F:124) (K:215) (PE:25)(PW:31)
    Biblis nyperia aganisa  ______  PN(*)  (D1:21) (MCA:107) 
    (subspecies from Mexico south to at least Costa Rica)
    RED RIM
    (Mexico to the Amazon Basin, also the West Indies)



    Red Rim


    Genus HAMADRYAS:  Commonly called CRACKERS or CALICO BUTTERFLIES. The mottled calico pattern is on the uppersides of the wings. "Cracker" refers to the sound that the males produce from their abdomens while in flight during interactions with other males and during courting.  

  77. Hamadryas glauconome  ______  (AZ:369) (PW:31) 
    Hamadryas glauconome glauconome  ______  (D1:21) (MCA:114) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica, possibly Panama; as a stray to south Texas) 
    GLAUCOUS CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica, possibly Panama) 

  78. Hamadryas februa  (ph)  ______  (F:158) (K:217) (PE:26)(PW:31) 
    Hamadryas februa ferentina  ______  CR(*)  PN(*)  (BMCR:159) (D1:21) (MCA:113)
    (subspecies from Mexico to Brazil) 
    GRAY CRACKER 
    (in some places called The Cracker) (also called Common Calico, in general Crackers are also called Calicos)  
    (Range: southern US to Brazil) 

    Hamadryas februa is probably the most common of the 9 Hamadryas species in Costa Rica. It occurs along forest edges. Not at flowers, but at rotting fruit, dung, and mud.



    A Gray Cracker photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner) 


  79. Hamadryas feronia  (ph)  ______  (C:259) (F:158) (K:217) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas feronia farinulenta ______ (D1:21) (MCA:114) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Peru, Venezuela, & Trinidad; as a stray to south Texas) 
    VARIABLE CRACKER 
    (has also been called Blue Cracker)
    (Range: southern US to Brazil) 

  80. Hamadryas guatemalena  (ph)  ______  (MCA:114) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas guatemalena guatemalena  ______  GU(*)  (D1:21) 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Costa Rica)
    GUATEMALAN CRACKER

    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)



    A Guatemalan Cracker blending in, on a tree,
    photographed during a FONT tour in Guatemala 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  81. Hamadryas ipthime  ______
    Hamadryas ipthime jeannae  ______  (MCA:113) (PE:26) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica, as a stray to south Texas)
    Hamadryas ipthime ipthime ______ (D1:21) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Brazil)
    BROWNISH CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  82. Hamadryas fornax  ______ 
    Hamadryas fornax fornacalia ______ (D1:21) (F:158) (MCA:112) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela)
    ORANGE CRACKER

    (Range: Mexico to Brazil & Bolivia) 

    Hamadryas fornax is smaller than other crackers, and with a number of subspecies.
    It lives in moist rainforest, where it occurs along trails and rivers.

  83. Hamadryas amphinome  (ph)  ______  (F:157) (MCA:112) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas amphinome mexicana  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:159) (D1:22) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    RED CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)  

    Hamadryas amphinome lives in rainforests.



    Red Cracker (the red is on the other side of the wings)

  84. Hamadryas atlantis  ______  (AZ:369) (F:158) (MCA:112) (PW:31)
    Hamadryas atlantis atlantis  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico, in Chiapas, to Honduras)
    BLACK-PATCHED CRACKER 
    (also called Dusty Cracker)
    (Range: Mexico (mainly western) to Honduras) 

    Hamadryas atlantis can be found in open dry valleys.

  85. Hamadryas arinome  ______
    Hamadryas arinome ariensis ______ (BMCR:159) (D1:22) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia) 
    TURQUOISE CRACKER
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)  

  86. Hamadryas laodamia  ______  (C:261) (F:159) (S:132)
    Hamadryas laodamia saurites ______ CR(*)  (BMCR:160) (D1:22) (MCA:112) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela; also Trinidad)
    STARRY CRACKER  
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin) 

    Hamadryas laodamia has a delightful coloration that is completely different than its allies. It flies in the canopy and in sunny clearings in the rainforest.

  87. Hamadryas amphichloe  (ph)  ______
    Hamadryas amphichloe ferox  ______  (subspecies from Panama to Venezuela)
    CARIBBEAN CRACKER  (or Pale Cracker)


    Genus PANACEA

  88. Panacea procilla  ______
    Panacea procilla lysimache ______ (BMCR:161) (D1:22) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    WIDESPREAD PANACEA
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus MYSCELIA

  89. Myscelia ethusa  ______  (K:217) (PE:24)(PWp:336) 
    Myscelia ethusa pattenia  ______  GU(*)  (D1:22) (MCA:108) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Costa Rica)
    MEXICAN BLUEWING 
    (or Blue Wave)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  90. Myscelia cyaniris  ______
    Myscelia cyaniris cyaniris  ______  PN  (D1:22) (MCA:108) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    WHITENED BLUEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru) 

  91. Myscelia leucocyna  ______
    Myscelia leucocyna smalli ______ (D1:22) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Costa Rica, described in 1984)
    Myscelia leucocyna leucocyna  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Venezuela)
    PALE BLUEWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela) 


    Genus ECTIMA: CRACKERLET

  92. Ectima erycinoides (was rectifascia)   ______  (BMCR:158) (D1:22) (MCA:103)
    NORTHERN ECTIMA 
    (or Northern Crackerlet)  
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)


    Genus MESTRA

  93. Mestra amymone ______  (AZ:203) (C:315) (D:22) (K:215) (MCA:107) (PE:25)(PW:31)
    NORTHERN MESTRA 
    (has also been called Amymone)
    (Range: southern US thru Central America)


    Genus EUNICA:  60 species in Central & South America that live in primary forest.
     
  94. Eunica tatila  (ph)  ______  (K:215) (PE:25)(PW:30)
    Eunica tatila tatila  ______  (D1:22) (MCA:111)  
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica)
    Eunica tatila bellaria  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Brazil & Argentina)
    FLORIDA PURPLEWING 
    (or Large Purplewing)
    (Range: southern US to Brazil & Argentina, also West Indies) 



    Florida Purplewing

     
  95. Eunica monima  (ph)   ______  (AZ:369) (D1:22) (K:215) (MCA:111) (PE:25)(PW:30)
    DINGY PURPLEWING
    (Range: US & Mexico thru Central America to Venezuela, also the Antilles & Bahamas) 

  96. Eunica malvina  ______
    Eunica malvina albida  ______  (D1:22) (MCA:110) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama, described in 1990) 
    RAYED PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  97. Eunica norica  ______
    Eunica norica norica  ______ (BMCR:159) (D1:22) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Ecuador)
    MIDNIGHT PURPLEWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  98. Eunica chlororhoa  ______
    Eunica chlororhoa mira ______ (BMCR:159) (D1:22) 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Colombia)
    ORANGE-STAINED PURPLEWING


  99. Eunica mygdonia  ______
    Eunica mygdonia omoa  ______  (D1:22) (MCA:110) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    BLIND PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)


  100. Eunica alpais  ______
    Eunica alpais excelsa ______ PN(sl)  (BMCR:159) (D1:23) (MCA:111) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to eastern Panama)
    SHINING PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  101. Eunica alcmena  ______
    Eunica alcmena alcmena  ______  (D1:23) (MCA:110) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Colombia & Venezuela)
    DARK PURPLEWING

    (Range: Mexico to Peru)


  102. Eunica sydonia  ______
    Eunica sydonia caresa  ______  (D1:22) (MCA:110) 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Panama) 
    PLAIN PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)

  103. Eunica caelina  ______ 
    Eunica caelina agusta  ______  (D1:23) (MCA:111) 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to western Panama)
    Eunica caelina olympias  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Peru & Venezuela)
    MOTTLED PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  104. Eunica volumna  ______
    Eunica volumna venusa  ______  PN(sl)  (D1:23) (MCA:111) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    BLUE-CELLED PURPLEWING 

  105. Eunica pomona  ______
    Eunica pomona amata  ______  (D1:23) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to eastern Panama)
    ROUNDED PURPLEWING
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  106. Eunica caralis  ______ 
    Eunica caralis caralis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Honduras, Panama; also Colombia & Venezuela)
    CARALIS PURPLEWING

  107. Eunica carias  ______
    Eunica carias carias  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    CARIAS PURPLEWING

  108. Eunica pusilla  ______
    PUSILLA PURPLEWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia & southeast Brazil)

  109. Eunica clytia  ______
    CLYTIA PURPLEWING
    (Range: western Panama to Peru & central Brazil) 

  110. Eunica araucana  ______
    ARAUCANA PURPLEWING
    (Range: western Panama to Venezuela & Ecuador) 


    Genus MARPESIA: DAGGERWINGS:   A genus of mostly Central and South American butterflies, but also occurs in Africa. Called "daggerwings" after the long tail on each hindwing. The butterflies, some of which are dimorphic, engage in mud-puddling.

  111. Marpesia livius  ______  
    Marpesia livius
    alcibiades  (formerly M. alcibiades ______ (D1:23)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    BROWN-BANDED DAGGERWING

    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)

  112. Marpesia zerynthia (or coresia(ph)  ______  (K:219) (PE:25)(PW:text)
    Marpesia zerynthia dentigera
      ______ (D1:23) (MCA:117)  (subspecies from Mexico to Ecuador; as a stray to south Texas)
    WAITER DAGGERWING
     
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)



    A Waiter Daggerwing photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  113. Marpesia merops  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:160) (D1:23) (MCA:117)
    SPOT-BANDED DAGGERWING 
    (or Dappled Daggerwing)
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil)

  114. Marpesia berania  (ph)  ______  (C:275) (MCA:117)
    Marpesia berania fruhstorferi  ______ CR(*)  PN(*)  (D1:23) 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Panama)
    ORANGE DAGGERWING  
    (Range: Belize south thru Central & South America) 

    Marpesia berania has communal roosts and lives up to 5 months.



    Above & below: Orange Daggerwings photographed
    during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


     
  115. Marpesia marcella  ______
    Marpesia marcella valetta  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:160) (D1:23) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Panama)
    PURPLE-STAINED DAGGERWING 
    (Range: Guatemala to Peru)

  116. Marpesia petreus  (ph)  ______  (AZ:205) (F:177) (K:219) (PE:25)(PW:31) (S:123)
    Marpesia petreus petreus  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:160) (D1:23) (MCA:117)
    (subspecies from south Florida & south Texas to western Ecuador, as a stray further north in the US)
    RUDDY DAGGERWING  (also called Southern Daggertail, and in the West Indies, the Tailed Flambeau)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America; also in the West Indies)   

    Marpesia petreus visits flowers and mud-puddles.



    Ruddy Daggerwing

  117. Marpesia chiron  ______  (AZ:368) (BMCR:160) (C:273) (D1:23) (K:219) (MCA:117) (PE:25)(PW:31) 
    MANY-BANDED DAGGERWING
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, as a stray to south Texas & further north, also in the Greater Antilles)

  118. Marpesia corita  ______  (MCA:117)
    Marpesia corita corita  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras)
    Marpesia corita phiale  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico, in Chiapas & in western Guatemala)
    ORANGE-BANDED DAGGERWING

  119. Marpesia harmonia  ______  (MCA:117)
    PALE DAGGERWING
    (Range: southeastern Mexico & Guatemala) 

  120. Marpesia furcula (was iole)   ______  PN(*)(sl)  (D1:23)
    GLOSSY DAGGERWING  (or Sunset Daggerwing)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Argentina)


    Genus DYNAMINE

  121. Dynamine agacles  ______
    Dynamine agacies core ______ (D1:24) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    PALE SAILOR
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin) 

  122. Dynamine theseus ______ (D1:24) (MCA:103)
    WHITE SAILOR  
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

  123. Dynamine athermon  ______
    Dynamine athermon maeon  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    GHOST SAILOR  

  124. Dynamine postverta (or mylitta) ______
    Dynamine postverta mexicana  ______  (D1:24) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Central America, described in 1952)
    MEXICAN SISTER
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)  

  125. Dynamine hecuba ______ (BMCR:157) (D1:24)
    COSTA RICAN SAILOR
    (Range: Costa Rica, endemic)

  126. Dynamine vicaria (formerly hoppi)  ______
    Dynamine vicaria gillotti ______ (BMCR:157,158) (D1:24) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    GIANT SAILOR
    (Range: Costa Rica & Colombia)

  127. Dynamine dyonis  ______ (D1:24) (K:225) (PE:25)
    BLUE-EYED SAILOR 
    (or Blue-eyed Green Wing)
    (Range: Texas to Panama)

  128. Dynamine artemisia  ______  (C:289)
    Dynamine artemisia glauce ______  (D1:24) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    SMALL-EYED SAILOR
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia)

  129. Dynamine paulina  ______ 
    Dynamine paulina thalassina  ______  PN(sl)  (BMCR:158) (D1:24) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    DARK SAILOR
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  130. Dynamine chryseis ______ (D1:24)
    THICK-RIMMED SAILOR
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)

  131. Dynamine sosthenes  ______
    Dynamine sosthenes sosthenes  ______ (D1:24) (MCA:103) 
    (subspecies in Nicaragua & Costa Rica)
    THIN-RIMMED SAILOR 
    (or Nicaraguan Sailor)
    (Range: Nicaragua & Costa Rica)

  132. Dynamine ate ______ (BMCR:157) (D1:24) (MCA:103)
    LITTLE SAILOR
    (Range: Guatemala & Costa Rica, locally)

  133. Dynamine colombiana  ______
    COLOMBIAN SAILOR
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela)  

  134. Dynamine tithia  (ph)  ______  (PW:text)
    Dynamine tithia salpensa ______ (BMCR:158) (D1:24)  
    (subspecies said to be in Costa Rica)
    BLUE SAILOR 
    (or Tithian Sailor)
    (Range: in northern South America in Colombia & Venezuela, but has strayed north into Central America, and as far as Texas)   



    Blue Sailor
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


    Genus ASTEROPE

  135. Asterope degandii  ______
    Asterope degandii degandii  ______ 
    (subspecies from western Panama to Ecuador)
    RED-BASED BANNER


    Genus
    BOLBONEURA

  136. Bolboneura sylphis  ______ 
    Bolboneura sylphis sylphis  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras)
    VARIABLE BANNER


    Genus TEMENIS

  137. Temenis laothoe hondurensis (formerly agatha) ______ (BMCR:161) (D1:24) (MCA:107)  (subspecies from Chiapas, Mexico & Guatemala to Colombia)
    ORANGE BANNER
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon) 

  138. Temenis pulchra  ______  (BMCR:161) (D1:24)  
    RED BANNER
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)


    Genus NICA

  139. Nica flavilla canthara  ______  (BMCR:160) (D1:24) (MCA:107)  (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela)
    LITTLE BANNER
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus EPIPHILE

  140. Epiphile adrasta  ______  (K:225) (MCA:106) (PE:25)
    Epiphile adrasta adrasta  ______  (BMCR:158) (D1:24)  
    (subspecies from Mexico to western Panama, as a stray to south Texas)
    Epiphile adrasta bandusia  ______ 
    (subspecies from central Panama to Ecuador)
    COMMON BANNER 
    (or Dimorphic Bark Wing
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  141. Epiphile iblis (formerly orea) ______
    Epiphile iblis plutonia  ______
      (subspecies in southeast Mexico & Guatemala)
    Epiphile iblis plusios ______ (BMCR:158) (D1:24) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    PLUTONIA BANNER
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  142. Epiphile eriopis  ______  (MCA:106)
    Epiphile eriopis devriesi ______ GU  (BMCR:158) (D1:24)  
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia, described in 1986)
    WHITE-TIPPED BANNER
     

  143. Epiphile hermosa  ______  (species described in 1978)
    BEAUTIFUL BANNER
    (Range: southeastern Mexico & Guatemala)

  144. Epiphile grandis  ______  (D1:24)
    GRAND BANNER
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)


    Genus PYRRHOGYRA:  RED-RINGS

  145. Pyrrhogyra neaerea  ______
    Pyrrhogyra neaerea hypensor  ______  (D1:28) (MCA:103) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    BANDED BANNER  (or Leading Red-ring)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon basin)

  146. Pyrrhogyra otolais  (ph)  ______
    Pyrrhogyra otolais otolais  ______  (BMCR:161) ((D1:28) (MCA:103) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    DOUBLE-BANDED BANNER  (or White-edged Red-ring)
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia)



    Double-banded Banner
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  147. Pyrrhogyra crameri  ______  (BMCR:160) (D1:28) (MCA:103)
    ROUNDED BANNER 
    (or Cramer's Red-ring
    (Range: Nicaragua to Panama)

  148. Pyrrhogyra edocla  ______  (MCA:103) 
    Pyrrhogyra edocia edocla
    (formerly aenaria ______  (BMCR:161) (D1:28)  (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    GREEN-SPOTTED BANNER  (or Complete Red-ring)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon basin)


    Genus CATONEPHELE

  149. Catonephele mexicana ______ CR  PN(sl)  (BMCR:156) (D1:25) (MCA:109)  (species described in 1985) 
    EAST MEXICAN BANNER 
    (or Guatemalan Banner)
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)

  150. Catonephele numilia  (ph)  ______  (MCA:109) (S:139)
    Catonephele numila esite  ______ CR(*)  PN(sl)  (BMCR:156,157) (D1:25) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela, also Trinidad)
    BLUE-FROSTED BANNER
    (other names have been STOPLIGHT CATONE, or Grecian Shoemaker)
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil & Argentina) 



    Two Blue-frosted Banners (or Stoplight Catones
    ) photographed during FONT tours
    Above: a male; below: a female
    (the lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse during a FONT tour in Costa Rica in March 2012)



  151. Catonephele chromis  (ph)  ______ 
    Catonephele chromis godmani ______ (BMCR:156) (D1:25) (MCA:109) 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Panama)
    SISTER-SPOTTED BANNER 
    (another name has been Cloud-forest Catone)
    (Range: Honduras to possibly Bolivia) 



    Sister-spotted Banner
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  152. Catonephele orites ______ (BMCR:157) (D1:25)
    BROKEN BANNER
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)


    Genus NESSAEA

  153. Nessaea aglaura  ______
    Nessaea aglaura aglaura  ______ (BMCR:160) (D1:25) (MCA:107) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Ecuador)
    NORTHERN NESSAEA 
    (or Common Olivewing)
     


    Genus HAEMATERA

  154. Haematera pyramus  ______  
    Haematera pyramus thysbe  ______  (D1:25) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia)
    BLIND EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus DIAETHRIA

  155. Diaethria anna  (ph)  ______  (MCA:105) 
    Diaethria anna anna  ______ (D1:25) (PW:text) 
    (subspecies from eastern Mexico to Costa Rica)
    Diaethria anna salvadorensis  ______ 
    (subspecies from southwestern Mexico to El Salvador, described in 1954)
    ANNA'S EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)



    Anna's Eighty-eight
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  156. Diaethria clymena  (ph)  ______ 
    Diaethria clymena marchalii  ______ (BMCR:157) (D1:25) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Brazil)
    WIDESPREAD EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil)



    A Widespread Eighty-eight, Diaethria clymena 
    photographed during a FONT tour

  157. Diaethria astala  ______  (PE:25) 
    Diaethria astala astala  ______ (D1:25) (MCA:105) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia, the "Turquoise-spotted" Eighty-Eight")
    ASTALA EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (or Navy Eighty-Eight)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  158. Diaethria gabaza  ______
    Diaethria gabaza eupepla  _______  GU  (D1:25) (MCA:105) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    SMUDGED EIGHTY-EIGHT  (or Lipstick Eighty-Eight)
    (Range: Guatemala to Colombia) 

  159. Diaethria bacchis  ______  (MCA:105)
    WHITE-PATCHED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico & Guatemala)  

  160. Diaethria (formerly Cyclogramma) pandama  ______  (BMCR:157) (D1:25)
    ORANGE-STRIPED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 


    Genus CALLICORE

  161. Callicore pitheas  ______  CR(*) PN(*)  (D1:25) (MCA:104)
    TWO-EYED EIGHTY-EIGHT   

    Costa Rica common name:  "Pink Pura Vida"
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador)

  162. Callicore lyca  ______ 
    Callicore lyca lyca  ______  (MCA:104) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Honduras)
    Callicore lyca aerias ______ PN(sl)  (BMCR:156) (D1:25) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Panama)
    SIX-SPOTTED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

  163. Callicore atacama  ______
    Callicore atacama folschveilleri  ______ CR PN  (D1:25) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & western Panama, described in 2008)
    Callicore atacama faustina  ______  (D:125)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, on the Caribbean slope)
    YELLOW-BANDED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  164. Callicore brome  ______  (MCA:104)
    Callicore brome angusta ______  CR  (D1:25)  
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, described in 2000)
    Callicore brome danieli  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama, in the Darien, described in 2003)   
    FOUR-SPOTTED EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

  165. Callicore texa  ______  (MCA:104) 
    Callicore texa tacana  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico & Guatemala, described in 1983)  
    Callicore texa titania ______ (D1:25) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Colombia)
    YELLOW-RIMMED EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  166. Callicore astarte  ______ 
    Callicore astarte patelina  ______ (BMCR:156) (D1:25) (MCA:104) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica)
    Callicore astarte staudingeri  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama, in the Darien, and south in Colombia & Venezuela)  
    BLUE-STITCHED EIGHTY-EIGHT
    (Range: southern Mexico to Costa Rica)

  167. Callicore tolima  ______  (MCA:104) 
    Callicore tolima pacifiica  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico & western Guatemala)
    Callicore tolima guatemalena  ______ 
    (subspecies in Guatemala)
    Callicore tolima peralta  ______  (D1:26) 
    (subspecies from Honduras to eastern Costa Rica & Panama)
    Callicore tolima
    bugaba ______ (BMCR:156) (D1:26)  (subspecies in southwestern Costa Rica & Panama) 
    BLUE-AND-ORANGE EIGHTY-EIGHT

    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 


    Genus MESOTAENIA (formerly part of PERISAMA)

    Regarding the genus PERISAMA:  Over 50 species found mostly in South America, with a closely-related species in Central America. 
    The butterflies are brightly colored with a large orange splash on the forewing underside and an orange band near the apex.
    Most are iridescent. They lack the number-like patterns found the hindwing underside of the CALLICORE. 
    They all live in upland rainforest, where they may be abundant. Some species are rare and prized by collectors.    

  168. Mesotaenia (formerly Perisama) barnesi ______ (D1:26)
    COSTA RICAN EIGHTY-EIGHT  
    (Range: Costa Rica, endemic)


    Subfamily LIMENITIDINAE:  ADMIRALS & SISTERS

    Adults are often characterized by a flap-and-glide flight. 


    Genus ADELPHA:  In round figures, 70 species and 250 forms and races. These are mostly South American, but also Central American with one species extending north of Mexico. These butterflies are, overall, similar, and can be difficult to identify, with small differences in spots, angles of lines, and colors being significant. Butterflies of this genus are found in most habitats, from sea level to upland rainforest.   

  169. Adelpha eulalia  ______  (AZ:201) (F:113) (K:213) (MCA:99) (PE:24)(PW:30): some of these books refer to Adelpha bredowi, the Mexican Sister, and Adelpha californica, the California Sister; these have been considered conspecific
    ARIZONA SISTER
    (Range: southwest US to Guatemala) 

    Adelpha eulalia lives in oak woodlands in foothills.

  170. Adelpha messana  ______
    Adelpha messana messana  ______ 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Ecuador & Venezuela)
    MESSANA SISTER

  171. Adelpha melanthe (or lycorias)  ______  (MCA:101)  
    Adelpha melanthe
    melanthe  ______ (BMCR:147) (D1:26)  (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    RAYED SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  172. Adelpha etheida (formerly zalmona) ______  (MCA:101)
    Adelpha etheida sophax ______  PN(*)(sl)  (BMCR:146) (D1:26) 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to central Panama, in cloud forest)
    ETHEIDA SISTER  (or Silver-banded Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  173. Adelpha boreas  ______ 
    Adelpha boreas boreas (was opheltes)  ______  PN(*) (sl)  (D1:26) 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to Venezuela & Bolivia)
    BOREAS SISTER


  174. Adelpha salmoneus  ______ 
    Adelpha salmoneus salmonides ______  (BMCR:147) (D1:26) (MCA:101) 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to central Panama)
    GOLDEN-BANDED SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela) 

  175. Adelpha leucopthalma  ______ 
    Adelpha leucopthalma leucopthalma  ______  (BMCR:146) (D1:26) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia)
    Adelpha leucopthalma smalli  ______ 
    (subspecies on the Azuero Peninsula in Panama, on Cerro Montuoso, described in 2003)
    LEUCOPTHALMA SISTER


  176. Adelpha zina (formerly justina) ______
    Adelpha zina lacina  ______  (BMCR:147) (D1:26) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to western Panama)
    Adelpha zina zina  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Venezuela & Ecuador)
    ZINA SISTER
     

  177. Adelpha cytherea  ______
    Adelpha cytherea marcia  ______ CR(*)  (BMCR:145) (D1:26) (MCA:98) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to eastern Costa Rica)
    Adelpha cytherea daguana  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Costa Rica to Venezuela & Ecuador; in eastern Costa Rica intergrades with A. c. marcia)  
    CYTHEREA SISTER 
    (or Smooth-banded Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  178. Adelpha cocala  ______  (C:277) 
    Adelpha cocala lorzae ______  PN(*)(sl)  (BMCR:145) (D1:26) (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador)
    LORZA'S SISTER 
    (or Orange-washed Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)  

  179. Adelpha heraclea  ______ 
    Adelpha heraclea heraclea  ______  (D1:26) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Peru & Brazil)
    HERACLEA SISTER


  180. Adelpha boeotia (or jacquelinae)  ______  
    Adelpha boeotia oberthuerii  ______  (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to western Panama)
    Adelpha boeotia boeotia ______ (D1:26) 
    (subspecies from eastern Panama to Bolivia, southwest Brazil, the Guianas)
    OBERTHUR'S SISTER  (or Felder's Sister) 

  181. Adelpha erymanthis  ______
    Adelpha erymanthis erymanthis  ______  (BMCR:146) (D1:26) (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to eastern Panama) 
    ERYMANTHIS SISTER 
    (or Godman's Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia; in cloud forest)

  182. Adelpha delinita (or escalantei)  ______
    Adelpha delinita utina ______ (BMCR:145) (D1:50) (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    UTINA SISTER 
    (or Delineated Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

  183. Adelpha basiloides  ______ (D1:26) (MCA:97) (PE:text)
    SPOT-CELLED SISTER 
    (has been called Tropical Sister)
    (Range: south Texas to Venezuela & Ecuador)

  184. Adelpha iphiclus  (ph)  ______ 
    Adelpha iphiclus iphiclus  (ph)  ______  (BMCR:146) (D1:27) (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia & the Guianas; also Trinidad)
    IPHICLUS SISTER 
    (or Pointer Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia & the Guianas; also Trinidad)



    Iphiclus Sister

  185. Adelpha erotia  ______ 
    Adelpha erotia erotia  ______  PN(sl) (BMCR:145) (D1:27
    and with Adelpha lerna aeolia) (MCA:100)  (subspecies from Costa Rica to Bolivia, Amazonian Brazil, the Guianas; form "lerna" in the same range but north into Chiapas, Mexico)    
    EROTIA SISTER 
    (or Stitched Sister)
    (Range: Guatemala to Venezuela)

  186. Adelpha phylaca  ______
    Adelpha phylaca phylaca  ______  (D1:27) (MCA:100) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras)
    Adelpha phylaca pseudaethalia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Chiapas, Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador)
    PHYLACA SISTER 
    (or Cecropia Sister)
     

  187. Adelpha naxia  ______
    Adelpha naxia naxia  ______  PN(*)(sl)  (D1:27) (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Bolivia, the Brazilian Amazon, & the Guianas)
    NAXIA SISTER 
    (or Three-part Sister)

  188. Adelpha barnesia (formerly ixia) ______
    Adelpha barnesia leucas  ______ (D1:27) (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela & Ecuador)
    LEUCAS SISTER 
    (or Barnes' Sister)
     

  189. Adelpha leuceria  ______ 
    Adelpha leuceria leuceria  ______ (BMCR:146) (D1:27) (F:113) (MCA:101) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to eastern Panama)
    YELLOW-STRIPED SISTER 
    (or Orange-striped Sister)
      

    Adelpha leuceria frequents rain and cloud forests, it will even fly in the mist. Males are encountered mostly, as females remain in the canopy.   

  190. Adelpha leucerioides  ______  (MCA:101)
    Adelpha leucerioides leucerioides  ______ 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)
    TAWNY-STRIPED SISTER 
    (or Veracruz Sister)

  191. Adelpha tracta ______ (BMCR:147) (D1:27)
    TRACTA SISTER 
    (Range: Nicaragua to western Panama)

  192. Adelpha demialba  ______ (BMCR:145) (D1:27)
    WHITE-SPOTTED SISTER
    (Range: Costa Rica to eastern Panama, in cloud forest)

  193. Adelpha diocles  ______ 
    Adelpha diocles creton  ______  (MCA:98) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Guatemala & El Salvador)
    Adelpha diocles diocles  ______  (D1:27) 
    (subspecies in eastern Costa Rica & western Panama)
    SHORT-TAILED SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  194. Adelpha serpa (formerly celerio) ______
    Adelpha serpa celerio ______ (*) PN (sl)  (BMCR:147) (D1:27) (MCA:97) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela) 
    CELERIO SISTER  (or Celadon Sister)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  195. Adelpha fessonia  ______  (K:213) (PE:24)
    Adelpha fessonia fessonia  ______  CR(*)  (D1:27) (MCA:97) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to western Panama, also south Texas)
    BAND-CELLED SISTER 


  196. Adelpha iphicleola (or massilides)  ______
    Adelpha iphicleola iphicleola  ______  (MCA:97) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to eastern Panama) 
    Adelpha iphicleola gortyna  ______ 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & western Panama, intergrading with nominate)
    IPHICLEOLA SISTER 
    (or Confusing Sister

  197. Adelpha stilesiana ______ (D1:27)  (species described in 1982)
    TALAMANCA SISTER
    (Range: in the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica & western Panama on Chiriqui Volcano)

  198. Adelpha melona  ______
    Adelpha melona neildi  ______ 
    (subspecies in central Panama, described in 2003)
    MELLONA SISTER 

  199. Adelpha paroeca (or emathia, formerly zea) ______
    Adelpha paroeca paroeca  ______  (D1:27) (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    PAROECA SISTER 
    (or Eyed Sister)

    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)  

  200. Adelpha felderi ______ (D1:27 in book, but not in Costa Rica) (MCA:98)
    FELDER'S SISTER 
    (or Rusty Sister)
    (Range: eastern Mexico to Honduras)

  201. Adelpha seriphia  ______
    Adelpha seriphia godmani  ______  (MCA:97) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Ecuador) 
    GODMAN'S SISTER 
    (or Dentate Sister)

  202. Adelpha paraena  ______ 
    Adelpha paraena massilia  ______  (MCA:97) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama) 
    Adelpha paraenia lecromi  ______ 
    (subspecies from central Panama to northern Colombia, described in 2003, called "Le'Crom's Sister"
    MASSILIA SISTER  (or Bates' Sister)
     
  203. Adelpha nea  ______
    Adelpha nea sentia  ______  (MCA:98) 
    (subspecies in southeast Mexico & Belize)
    Adelpha nea nea  ______ 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Brazil)
    NEA (or SENTIA) SISTER  (also called Scarce Sister)

  204. Adelpha donysa  ______  
    Adelpha donysa donysa ______  (MCA:98) 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico & Guatemala)
    Adelpha donysa albifilum  ______ 
    (subspecies in El Salvador & Honduras)
    DONYSA SISTER  (or Montane Sister

  205. Adelpha pithys  ______  (MCA:98)
    PITHY SISTER
    (Range: Mexico to El Salvador, maybe Honduras)

  206. Adelpha malea  ______ 
    Adelpha malea fundania  ______  (MCA:99) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Venezuela)
    FUNDANIA SISTER  (or Venezuelan Sister)

  207. Adelpha milleri  ______  (MCA:100)  (species described in 1976) 
    MILLER'S SISTER  (or Cloistered Sister)
    (Range: southeast Mexico & Belize)

  208. Adelpha salus  ______  (MCA:101)
    SALUS SISTER 
    (or Lost Sister)
    (Range: southeast Mexico to western Panama)

  209. Adelpha radiata  ______ 
    Adelpha radiata aiellae  ______ 
    (subspecies from central Panama to Ecuador, described in 1999)
    STRIATED SISTER  

  210. Adelpha hesterbergi  ______  (species described in 1999)
    HESTRBERG'S SISTER
    (Range: Costa Rica & Ecuador; also possibly Panama, western Colombia) 


    Genus HYPANARTIA

  211. Hypanartia lethe  (ph)  ______ (C:279) (D1:28) (MCA:95)
    ORANGE MAPWING
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)



    Orange Mapwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  212. Hypanartia godmani ______ (D1:28) (MCA:95)
    GODMAN'S MAPWING 
    (or Splendid Mapwing)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  213. Hypanartia dione  ______
    Hypanartia dione disjuncta  ______  (MCA:95) 
    (subspecies in Mexico, Guatemala, & Honduras, described in 2001)
    Hypanartia dione arcaei  ______  (D1:28)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    BANDED MAPWING 

  214. Hypanartia trimaculata  ______
    Hypanartia trimaculata autumna
    (includes former kefersteini)  ______  (D1:28) (MCA:95)  (subspecies from Mexico to Panama, described in 2001)
    REDDISH MAPWING
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)


    Genus SIPROETA:  These butterflies in South & Central America, and as far north as the southern US. 

  215. Siproeta (or Metamorpha) stelenes  (ph)  ______  (AZ:367) (F:202) (K:209) (PE:26)(PW:30) 
    Siproeta stelenes biplagiata  ______  CR(*) GU(*) PN(*)(sl)  (BMCR:137) (D1:28) (MCA:96) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to the Amazon; also south Florida, south Texas, as a stray further north, Cuba & the Cayman Islands)
    MALACHITE
    (Range: southern US to the Amazon Basin, and throughout the West  Indies) 

    The Malachite is on the wing all year in the tropics, it feeds on fermenting fruit.  



    Above & below: Malachites
    In the lower photo, a Malachite feeding on fruit on the ground
    during a FONT tour in Costa Rica in March 2012
    (lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse) 




  216. Siproeta epaphus  (ph)  ______  (K:209) (PW:30) (S:136)
    Siproeta epaphus epaphus  ______   CR(*)  PN(*)  (BMCR:137) (D1:28) (MCA:96) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Peru; as a stray to south Texas & southern New Mexico)
    RUSTY-TIPPED PAGE 
    (or Brown Siproeta)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru) 






    Two photos above of the Rusty-tipped Page 
    (the upper photo by Marie Grenouillet,
     the lower photo by Rosemary Lloyd during a FONT tour in Costa Rica)


  217. Siproeta superba  ______ 
    Siproeta superba superba  ______  (MCA:96) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras)
    Siproeta superba euoe ______ (D1:28) (MCA:96) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, described in 1971)
    BROAD-BANDED PAGE
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)


    Genus ANARTIA 4 species found in the southern US to Central America, and in the West Indies. These are common butterflies of the tropics. They are swift fliers, and bear some resemblance to members of the CYNTHIA genus.  

  218. Anartia amathea  (ph)  ______  (C:311)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Anartia amathea amathea  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Argentina, & on Barbados, Grenada, Antigua)
    RED PEACOCK
    (Range: Panama to Argentina, also: Trinidad & Tobago, Grenada, Barbados, Antigua) 

  219. Anartia jatrophae (ph)  ______  CR(*), GU(*), PN(*)  (C:309) (D1:28) (K:209) (MCA:94) (PE:24)(PW:30) (S:107)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)   
    Anartia jatrophae lutepicta  ______  (BMCR:137)  (subspecies in Central America)
    WHITE PEACOCK
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also West Indies)

    Anartia jatrophae is generally found in drier areas than Anartia fatima.

    As with other butterflies, the female of Anartia jatrophae is larger than the male, at times double the size. 



    White Peacock

  220. Anartia fatima ______  (K:209) (PE:24)(PW:30)
    Anartia fatima fatima  (ph)  ______  CR(*) GU(*) PN(*)(sl)  (BMCR:137) (D1:28) (MCA:94)  
    (subspecies from Texas to Colombia)
    BANDED PEACOCK
      (other names are Brown Peacock, White-banded Fatima, or Fatima)
    (Range: southern US to eastern Panama) 

    In Costa Rica, Anartia fatima is extremely common in disturbed areas such as clearings and fresh second growth, particularly where moist. 
    Some individuals with yellow bands and others with white bands are found flying together. It was assumed that the color-band difference was polymorphism. But more-recent studies have indicated that the colors are due to age.





    Two photographs of Banded Peacocks taken during FONT tours in Guatemala
    (upper photo by Marie Gardner; lower photo by Doug Johnson) 



    Genus JUNONIA:  BUCKEYES, a common name from the false eyes that are prominent on the wings. This is a widespread grouping, found in all of the global regions. The precise number of species is unknown, as there is yet more classifying to be done.

     

    A Buckeye
    (photo by Doris Potter)
     
  221. Junonia evarete  ______ CR(*)  PN(*)   (BMCR:137) (D1:28) (F:168) (K:207) (MCA:94) (PE:23)  
    TROPICAL BUCKEYE 
     
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics)

  222. Junonia genoveva  ______  (AZ:193) (K:207) (MCA:94) (PE:23)(PW:30)
    MANGROVE BUCKEYE
      (other names are West Indian Buckeye, Smoky Buckeye)
    (Range: southern US to Argentina)


    Genus VANESSA: LADY BUTTERFLIES: A widespread group of strong fliers, sometimes migratory, with bright oranges and reds. 

  223. Vanessa atalanta  (ph)  ______  (F:207)
    Vanessa atalanta rubria  ______   (AZ:187) (MCA:93) (PE:23)(PW:29)
    RED ADMIRAL
    (Range: in the New World in North America and south to Guatemala; also in the Greater Antilles)  

    In North America, the Red Admiral occurs in many open habitats, and breeds on the ubiquitous nettle.

  224. Vanessa (or Cynthia) cardui  (ph)  ______  (AZ:183) (D1:28) (K:205) (MCA:93) (PE:23)(PW:29) (S:141)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    PAINTED LADY
    (Range: nearly worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand)

     




    Painted Ladies
    (upper photo by Doris Potter;
     lower photo by Howard Eskin)

  225. Vanessa virginiensis  (ph)  ______  (AZ:181) (BMCR:143) (D1:28) (K:205) (MCA:93) (PE:23)(PW:29)
    AMERICAN LADY
    (Range: from southern Canada thru North America. In Central America in montane regions. Also in West Indies.)



    American Lady
    (photo by Doris Potter)



    Genus NYMPHALIS

  226. Nymphalis cyanomelas  ______
    MEXICAN TORTOISESHELL
    (Range: southern Mexico to El Salvador)


    Genus HYPOLIMNAS: 
    Commonly called DIADEM BUTTERFLIES, because of the row of spots around the wings which look like a necklace. Sexual dimorphism is exhibited, and females sometimes mimic DANAID butterflies. These butterflies are found in open sunny areas, villages, glades, and forest edges, and they frequent nectar feeders.  

  227. Hypolimnas misippus  (ph)  ______  CR(*)  (D1:28) (F:164)
    The MIMIC 
    (other names: Diadem Butterfly, Six-continent Butterfly, Danaid Butterfly

    Hypolimnas misippus is one of the most widespread butterflies in the world, thanks in part to human history. It is thought to have been introduced to the Americas in slave ships from Africa. 
    The sexes are completely different, with the male looking like a male Hypolimnas bolina, but with white wing marks. The female has a number of forms with mimic various DANAIDS, resembling Danaus chrysippus of the Old World, with coloration similar to Danaus glippus, the Queen.)


    Genus CHLOSYNE: PATCHES (more southern) & small CHECKERSPOTS (more northern). Most species occur in the tropics, where many of them mimic distasteful butterflies.

      
  228. Chlosyne lacinia  (ph)  ______  (AZ:153) (C:265) (K:189) (MCA:82) (PE:21)(PW:26)
    Chlosyne lacinia lacinia  ______   CR(*)  PN (sl)  (BMCR:141) (D1:29)  
    (subspecies from central Mexico to Panama) 
    BORDERED PATCH
    (Range: the southwest & south-central US to Argentina) 






    Bordered Patches photographed during a FONT Tour
    (photos by Doris Potter)


  229. Chlosyne janais  (ph)  ______  (K:189) (MCA:82) (PE:21)(PW:26)
    Chlosyne janais janais  ______   CR GU(*) PN  (BMCR:140) (D1:29)  
    (subspecies from Texas to Colombia)
    CRIMSON-PATCH CHECKERSPOT 
    (or Crimson Patch ,or Janais Patch)
    (Range: Texas to Colombia)



    Crimson-patch Checkerspot

  230. Chlosyne rosita  (ph)  ______  (AZ:365) (C:263) (K:189) (MCA:82) (PE:21)(PW:26)
    Chlosyne rosita rosita  ______  GU(*) 
    (subspecies in Chiapas, Mexico & in Guatemala) 
    ROSITA CHECKERSPOT 
    (or Rosita Patch)
    (Range: Mexico & Guatemala, and as a stray to south Texas, southeast Arizona, and to El Salvador)



    A Rosita-patch Checkerspot and other butterflies during a FONT tour in northern Mexico 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  231. Chlosyne melanarge ______ (D1:29) (MCA:83)
    CREAM-BANDED CHECKERSPOT 
    (or Black Patch)
    (Range: eastern Mexico to Costa Rica)

  232. Chlosyne hippodrome ______ (D1:29) (MCA:83)
    SIMPLE CHECKERSPOT 
    (or Simple Patch)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  233. Chlosyne poecile ______ (D1:29)
    POECILE CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela)

  234. Chlosyne erodyle  ______ 
    Chlosyne erodyle erodyle  ______ (D1:29) (MCA:83) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to northwest Costa Rica) 
    ERODYLE CHECKERSPOT 
    (or Guatemalan Patch)
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)

  235. Chlosyne gaudialis  ______
    Chlosyne gaudialia gaudialis  ______  (BMCR:140) (D1:29) (MCA:83) 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Panama)
    GAUDY CHECKERSPOT 
    (or Gaudy Patch)


  236. Chlosyne narva  ______ 
    Chlosyne narva narva  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela)
    Chlosyne narva bonpland  ______  PN(*)(sl)  (BMCR:140) (D1:29) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Ecuador)
    NARVA CNECKERSPOT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela)

  237. Chlosyne ezra  ______  (D1:29)
    EZRA CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  238. Chlosyne theona  ______  GU(*)  (AZ:145) (C:257) (D1:29) (K:193) (MCA:84) (PE:19)(PW:26)
    Chlosyne theona theona  ______
      (subspecies from Chiapas, Mexico to Nicaragua)
    Chlosyne theona minimus  ______ 
    (subspecies from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico to Honduras, described in 1998)
    Chlosyne theona costaricensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in northwest Costa Rica & southwest Nicaragua, described in 1998) 
    THEONA CHECKERSPOT
    (Range: southern US to northwest Costa Rica)

    Chlosyne theona and Chlosyne erza (both above) was in the former genus Thessalia.   


    Genus PHYCIODES: CRESCENTS:  North & South American butterflies which often have a speckled and variable pattern. Some species are sexually dimorphic. They live in open sunny meadows and pastures, and visit flowers regularly for nectar. A few species are migratory, but most are not. 

  239. Phyciodes graphica (or vesta)  ______  (AZ:161) (K:181) (MCA:92) (PE:21 & PEp:256)(PW:27)
    VESTA CRESCENT
    (Range: south-central US to Guatemala)

  240. Phyciodes phaon  ______  (AZ:163) (F:195) (K:181) (MCA:92) (P:21)(PW:28)
    Phyciodes phaon maya  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chiapas, Mexico & Guatemala)
    PHAON CRESCENT
    (Range: southern US to Guatemala)


    Genus or subgenus ANTHRANASSA 

    If a subgenus, it would be of the genus PHYCIODES

  241. Anthranassa texana  (ph)  ______  (AZ:159) (F:195) (K:183) (MCA:90) (PE:21)(PW:27)
    TEXAN CRESCENT
    (Range: southern US to Guatemala)



    A Texan Crescent photographed during a FONT Tour
    (photo by Doris Potter)


  242. Anthanassa tulcis  ______  (PW:27) (D1:30) (MCA:90)
    PALE-BANDED CRESCENT 
    (has been called Tulcis Crescent
    (Range: south Texas to Panama)

    A closely-related species to Anthanassa tulcis is Anthanassa frisia, the Cuban Crescent (PE:21)

  243. Anthanassa drusilla  ______  
    Anthanassa drusilla lelex  ______ (BMCR:140) (D1:30) (MCA:90) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama; as a stray to south Texas)
    Anthanassa drusilla drusilla  ______  (subspecies from Panama to Venezuela & Ecuador)  
    ORANGE-PATCHED CRESCENT
     


  244. Anthanassa atronia ______ (D1:30) (MCA:89)
    BROWN CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  245. Anthanassa otanes  ______  
    Anthanassa otanes otanes (or sopolis)  ______  (D1:30) (MCA:91)
      (subspecies in southern Mexico & western Guatemala to Costa Rica)  
    Anthanassa otanes fulviplaga ______  (D1:30) (BMCR:140) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    BLACKENED CRESCENT 
    (or Cloud-forest Crescent)


  246. Anthanassa crithona  ______  (D1:30)
    ORANGE-BANDED CRESCENT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Panama)

  247. Anthanassa ardys  ______ (BMCR:140) (D1:30) (MCA:90)  
    ARDYS CRESCENT 
    (or Ardent Crescent)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia; the southern Central American segregate from Nicaragua south)

  248. Anthanassa subota  ______
    CRYTIC CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Guatemala) 

  249. Anthanassa sosis (or dora)  ______  (D1:30)
    SOSIS CRESCENT
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  250. Anthanassa ptolyca ______  (K:183) (PE:21) (MCA:91)
    Anthanassa ptolyca ptolyca  ______  (D1:30)
      (subspecies from southern Mexico to Venezuela) 
    DARKENED CRESCENT 
    (or Black Crescent)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela) 

  251. Anthanassa nebulosa  ______
    Anthanassa nebulosa nebulosa  ______  (MCA:91) 
    (subspecies in Chiapas, Mexico & Guatemala) 
    NEBULOSA CRESCENT 
    (or Blurry Crescent)

  252. Anthanassa dracaena  ______  
    Anthanassa dracaena phlegias  ______  (MCA:91) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Costa Rica) 
    NOTCHED CRESCENT 

  253. Anthanassa drymaea  ______
    WEAK-BANDED CRESCENT
    (Range: southern Mexico to Honduras) 

  254. Anthanassa sitalces  ______
    Anthanassa sitalces sitalces  ______ 
    (subspecies in Chiapas, Mexico & Guatemala)
    MONTANE CRESCENT

  255. Anthanassa argentea  ______
    CHESTNUT CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Nicaragua, as a stray to south Texas)


    Genus MICROTIA

  256. Microtia elva  ______  (AZ:365) (D1:29) (MCA:85) (PW:27) (K:183)
    Microtia elva horni  ______ 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico & Guatemala)
    ELF
    (Range: southern US, as a stray, to Costa Rica) 


    Genus TEGOSA

  257. Tegosa anieta  ______
    Tegosa anieta luka  ______ 
    (subspecies from east Mexico to Honduras, as a stray to south Texas)  
    Tegosa anieta cluvia  ______  (MCA:88) 
    (subspecies in southern Mexico & Guatemala)
    Tegosa anieta anieta ______ (BMCR:141) (D1:29) (MCA:88) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela, also Trinidad)
    BLACK-BORDERED TEGOSA


  258. Tegosa nigrella  
    Tegosa nigrella nigrella  ______ 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Honduras)
    Tegosa nigrella niveonotis  ______  (D1:29) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, on the Caribbean slope) 
    NIGRELLA CRESCENT 
    (or Dark Tegosa)
    (Range; Guatemala & Costa Rica, locally)

  259. Tegosa guatemalena  ______  (MCA:88)
    GUATEMALAN TEGOSA
    (Range: Mexico, Guatemala, Belize) 


    Genus ERESIA

  260. Eresia emerantia  ______
    Eresia emerantia coela ______ (D1:30) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & northern Panama) 
    EMERANTIA CRESCENT
     

    Eresia emerantia coela is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Heliconius hecale along with Charonias Eurytele (in the PIERIDAE), Dismorphia eunoe (in the PIERIDAE), Napeogenes peredia (in ITHOMIINI in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth.     

  261. Eresia eunice  ______
    Eresia eunice mechanitis ______ (D1:30)
      (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    Eresia eunice drypetis  ______  
    EUNICE CRESCENT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Panama)

  262. Eresia ithomioides  ______
    Eresia ithomioides alsina  ______  GU(*)  (D1:29) (MCA:86) 
    (subspecies in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, western Panama)
    Eresia ithomioides eutropia (or melania) ______ (D1:30) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica, Panama, western Colombia)
    Eresia ithomioides poecilina  ______  PN(sl)  (D1:30) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    VARIABLE CRESCENT 
    (or Three-banded Crescent:
    E. i. alsina)

  263. Eresia sticta ______ (D1:30)
    COSTA RICAN CRESCENT
    (Range: Costa Rica, on the Caribbean slope, endemic)

  264. Eresia phillyra  ______ 
    Eresia phillyra phillyra  ______  (MCA:86) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Guatemala)
    Eresia phillyra nigripennis  ______(D1:29) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & possibly Panama)
    LONGWING CRESCENT 
    (or Square-tipped Crescent)

  265. Eresia clio (or clara)  ______  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Eresia clio clio  ______  (D1:30) (MCA:87) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Bolivia & Brazil)
    CLIO CRESCENT  (or Creamy Crescent)


    Genus CASTILIA

  266. Castilia eranites ______ (D1:30) (MCA:86)
    MIMIC CRESCENT 
    (or Smudged Crescent)
    (Range: southern Mexico to Venezuela)

  267. Castilia ofella ______ (D1:30)
    WHITE-DOTTED CRESCENT
    (Range: southern Mexico to Venezuela, also Trinidad)

  268. Castilia myia ______ (D1:30) (MCA:87)
    MAYAN CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  269. Castilia fulgora ______ (D1:30)
    FULGORA CRESCENT
    (Range: Costa Rica, Caribbean slope & Cordillera Central, & western Panama)

  270. Castilia griseobasalis  ______  (MCA:87)
    GRAY-BASED CRESCENT
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica) 


    Genus JANATELLA

  271. Janatella leucodesma ______ PN(sl)  (BMCR:141) (D1:30)
    WHITENED CRESCENT
    (Range: Nicaragua to Venezuela, also Trinidad) 


    Subfamily HELICONIINAE: LONGWINGS

    Mostly in the American tropics. Adults of some species are long-lived, and several are distasteful. Various other species mimic the distasteful butterflies of this group.  


    Genus PHILAETHRIA: 
    3 South & Central American species which breed on Passiflora.

  272. Philaethria diatonica (formerly  dido ______  CR(*)  PN(*)(sl)  (BMCR:127) (D1:31) (F:194) (MCA:96) (S:164)
    NORTHERN GREEN LONGWING  (or Green Heliconian, or Scarce Bamboo Page)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)  

    The underside of this HELICONID is green divided by a chocolate band. The upperside is a more vivid green, with green bars on all wings, and green spots around the hindwing.
    These butterflies generally fly high in the tree canopy, but on occasion descend to drink and take in salts from the damp ground, and females descend to lay eggs. 


    Genus DIONE:
      4 species (depending upon taxonomy) in Central & South America, with one reaching into the southern US. Typically, they have orange uppers with stunning silver marks on the undersides of the wings. They breed on many species of passion flower, Passiflora. They exploit secondary vegetation, and their numbers increase dramatically in areas where there has been rainforest destruction.  

  273. Dione moneta  (ph)  ______  (C:267) (F:143)
    Dione moneta poeyii ______  GU(*)  (BMCR:125) (D1:31) (K:155) (PE:19)(PW:23) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama, straying north into the US)
    MEXICAN SILVERSPOT 
     
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America) 



    Mexican Silverspot
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


  274. Dione juno  ______  
    Dione juno huascuma  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:125) (D1:31) (MCA:80) (S:161) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Central America)
    JUNO LONGWING 
    (or Juno Heliconian
    )
    (Range: thru Central & South America, also the Lesser Antilles) 

    Dione juno is closely related to Dryas iulia. It often occurs in the same places as the very similar Gulf Fritillary. and is said to be attracted to red and blue flowers.

  275. Agraulis (or Dione) vanillae  (ph)  ______  (C:269) (F:144) (K:157) (PE:19)(PW:23) (S:160)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Agraulis vanillae incarnata  ______  CR(*)  (AZ:121) (BMCR:125) (D1:31) (MCA:80) 
    (subspecies from the southwest US & Texas south through most of Central America)  
    Agraulis vanillae vanillae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & northern South America) 
    GULF FRITILLARY 
    (another common name, Silver-spotted Flambeau
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to South America, also West Indies) 

    Agrraulis vanillae is a widespread and familiar butterfly that visits gardens to drink nectar.
    Its fiery orange upperside is distinguished from that of Dryas iulia by the presence of numerous black dots on the forewing and a silver spotted underside.

     

    Gulf Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)



    Genus DRYADULA

  276. Dryadula phaetusa  (ph)  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:125) (D1:31) (MCA:80) (K:155) (PE:19)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    BANDED LONGWING 
    (or Banded Orange Heliconian or Banded Orange)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)



    A Banded Orange Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour


    Genus DRYAS:  A single migratory species represents this mostly Central & South American genus. 

  277. Dryas iulia  (ph)  ______  (C:301) (F:145) (K:157) (PE:19)(PW:23) (S:159)
    Dryas iulia moderata  ______  CR(*) GU(*)  PN(*)  (BMCR:125) (D1:31) (MCA:80)
    (subspecies from south Texas through Mexico and Central America, also straying further north in the US)
    JULIA  (or Julia Heliconian
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to Brazil, also West Indies)

    The uppersides of the elongated wings of Dryas iulia are orange, unmarked but for a conspicuous black blob or band in the cell area of the forewing. The undersides are a very pale brown with small white flashes.
    This butterfly visits open sunny and flowery areas (often wet ground), and breeds on the passion flower. 



    Two photos of Julia Heliconians





    Genus EUEIDES

  278. Eueides lineata ______ (D1:31) (MCA:80)
    THICK-EDGED LONGWING 
    (or White-dotted Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  279. Eueides aliphera  (ph)  ______  (S:161) 
    Eueides aliphera gracilis  ______  (BMCR:125) (D1:31) (MCA:80) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    FINE-LINED LONGWING
    (or Small Julia)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

    As indicated above, Eueides aliphera is a miniature replica of Dryas iulia, and so it is sometimes called the "Juliette".



    Fine-lined Longwing, or the Small Julia


  280. Eueides procula  ______ 
    Eueides procula asidia  ______  (MCA:80) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Nicaragua)   
    Eueides procula vulgiformis ______ (D1:31) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    DARKENED LONGWING 
    (or Nonpassionate Heliconian) 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  281. Eueides isabella (or zoracon)  (ph)  ______  (K:155) (PE:20)(PW:23) (S:159)
    Eueides isabella eva  ______  BZ(*)  CR(*)  (BMCR:126) (D1:31) (MCA:80)
    (subspecies in eastern Mexico & Central America)
    ISABELLA'S LONGWING 
    (or Isabella's Heliconian, or Isabella, or the Isabella Tiger)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin, also West Indies) 



    An Isabella's Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  282. Eueides vibilia  ______ 
    Eueides vibilia vialis ______ (D1:31) (MCA:80) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    VIBILIA LONGWING 
    (or Acting Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  283. Eueides lybia  ______
    Eueides lybia olympia  ______  (BMCR:125) (D1:31) 
    (subspecies on the Atlantic slope from Nicaragua to Colombia)
    Eueides lybia lybioides ______ (D1:31) 
    (subspecies on the Pacific slope in Costa Rica & Panama)
    SHARP-EDGED LONGWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)


    Genus HELICONIUS: LONGWINGS:  Found principally in Central & South America, reaching into the southern US. There are 15 species in Central America. The larvae feed on members of the passion flower family, Passifloraceae. The adults (the butterflies) are gregarious and have communal roosting spots. Adults feed on pollen, from which they derive amino acids, enabling them to live up to nine months. The butterflies stay very much in the same localities. They are very noticeable and found in all types of habitats.

     
  284. Heliconius (or Laparus) doris  ______ 
    Heliconius doris viridis  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:127) (D1:31) (F:160) (MCA:81) (S:162) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    DORIS LONGWING 
    (or Dot-bordered Heliconian
    , or Doris Butterfly)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Heliconius (or Laparus) doris is trimorphic, in that it occurs in 3 color varieties. Individuals of either sex can have red, green, or blue coloration, in addition to the basic black pattern with yellow blotches. 
    The butterfly occurs in forest margins and clearings.

  285. Heliconius ismenius  (ph)  ______  (BMCR:127) 
    Heliconius ismenius telchinia ______  (D1:31) (MCA:80) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    Heliconius ismenius clarescens ______  CR(*)  (D1:31) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    TIGER-STRIPED LONGWING 
    (or Tiger Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)  

    Heliconius ismenius is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Dismorphia amphiona (in the PIERIDAE), Melinaea lilis or ethra (in ITHOMIINAE in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia mechanitis (in the NYMPHALIDAE), Hypothyris euclea (in ITHOMIINAE in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth. 



    Tiger-striped Longwing  


  286. Heliconius hecale  (ph)  ______  (F:160) (MCA:81)
    Heliconius hecale zuleika  ______ CR(*)  (BMCR:126) (D1:31) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    Heliconius hecale fornarina  ______ 
    (subspecies from Chiapas, Mexico to Guatemala)
    Heliconius hecale discomaculatus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Honduras)
    Heliconius hecale melicerta  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    HECALE LONGWING 
    (or Heart-spotted Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico thru Peruvian Amazon) 

    Throughout Central & South America, Heliconius hecale has a number of races. 
    In Costa Rica, it is the most widespread of all the Heliconius species.

    Heliconias hecale is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Charonias eurytele (in the PIERIDAE), Dismorphia eunoe (in the PIERIDAE), Napeogenes peredia (in ITHOMIINI in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia coela (in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth. 



     

    Two photos above of the Hecale Longwing, or Heart-spotted Heliconian
    (upper photo by Marie Grenouillet)  

  287. Heliconius melpomene  (ph)  ______  (C:307) (F:161) (S:162)
    Heliconius melpomene rosina ______  PN(*)  (BMCR:127) (D1:32) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    Heliconius melpomene vulcanus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    MELPOMENE LONGWING 
    (or the Postman Heliconian, or the Postman)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil) 

    Heliconius melpomene is slightly larger than its close relative, Heliconius erato, the Small Postman, with which it often flies.. 
    Many species in the Heliconius genus have forms matching so closely that they very difficult to distinguish.

    Parallel races of Heliconius melpomene and Heliconius erato mimic each other throughout the Neotropics, sharing the same patterns in the same geographic areas.
    The length of the yellow ray can be used to differentiate the two species. It does not reach the edge of the wing in Heliconius melpomene.    

     

    The Melpomene Longwing, or the Postman 


  288. Heliconius cydno  ______ 
    Heliconius cydno galanthus  ______  (BMCR:126) (D1:32) (MCA:81) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica)
    Heliconius cydno chioneus ______  CR(*) (D1:32) 
    (subspecies from southeast Costa Rica to Colombia)
    CYDNO LONGWING 
    (or Grining Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 



    Cydno Longwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  289. Heliconius pachinus  ______  (D1:32)
    PACHINUS LONGWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama, on the Pacific Slope)

    Heliconius pachinus is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Heliconius hewitsoni and a diurnal moth.

  290. Heliconius erato  (ph)  ______  (F:160) (K:155) (MCA:81) (PE:19)
    Heliconius erato petiverana  ______  CR(*) GU(*) PN(*)  (BMCR:126) (D1:32)
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    Heliconius erato demophoon  ______  (subspecies in Nicaragua)
    Heliconius erato hydara  ______  (subspecies from Panama to Brazil)
    Heliconius erato venus  ______  (subspecies in the Darien region of Panama & Colombia)
    CRIMSON-PATCHED LONGWING  (or Erato Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

    Heliconius erato flies close to the ground, along forest margins and in open areas. It roosts communally at night.



    A Crimson-patched Longwing, or Erato Heliconian

  291. Heliconius sara  ______  (BMCR:127) (C:305) 
    Heliconius sara fulgidus  ______  (D1:32) 
    (subspecies from Guatemala to Panama. on the Caribbean Slope)
    Heliconius sara theudela  ______ (D1:32) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, on the Pacific Slope)
    Heliconius sara veraepacis  ______  (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica, on the Caribbean Slope)
    Heliconius sara magdalena  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to Colombia & Venezuela)  
    SARA LONGWING 
    (or Sara Heliconian, or Small Blue Grecian)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  292. Heliconius charitonia  (ph)  ______  (C:303) (F:160) (K:155) (PE:19 & PEp234)(PW:23) (S:160)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Heliconius charitonia vazquezae  ______ CR(*) GU(*)  PN(*)  (AZ:123) (BMCR:126) (D1:32) (MCA:80) 
    (subspecies in Mexico & Central America; described in 1950)
    ZEBRA LONGWING 
    (or Zebra Heliconian, or Zebra)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also the West Indies)

    Heliconius charitonia roosts in small to large clusters, adults return to the same roost night after night.
    The butterfly is very familiar to visitors of butterfly houses as it is easy to rear.



    Above & below: 2 photos of the Zebra Longwing 
    during FONT tours in Guatemala
    (the upper photo in Guatemala by Doug Johnson;
    the lower photo by Marie Gardner)



  293. Heliconius hecalesia  ______ 
    Heliconius hecalesia octavia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Nicaragua)
    Heliconius hecalesia formosus ______ (BMCR:127) (D1:32) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    FIVE-SPOTTED LONGWING
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela) 

  294. Heliconius clysonymus  ______ 
    Heliconius clysonymus montanus ______  CR(*)  PN(*)  (BMCR:126) (D1:32) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    MONTANE LONGWING 
    (or Yellow-patch Longwing)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 



    Montane Longwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  295. Heliconius sapho  ______ 
    Heliconius sapho leuce ______ (BMCR:127) (D1:32) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica, on the Caribbean Slope) 
    SAPHO LONGWING
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

  296. Heliconius hewitsoni ______ (D1:32)
    HEWITSON'S LONGWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama, on the Pacific Slope)

    Heliconius hewitsoni is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Heliconius pachinius and a diurnal moth.  

  297. Heliconius eleuchia  ______ 
    Heliconius eleuchia eleuchia ______  (BMCR:126) (D1:32) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    WHITE-EDGED LONGWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  298. Heliconius hortense  ______  (MCA:81)
    MEXICAN LONGWING 
    (or Mexican Heliconian)
    (Range: Mexico to Honduras) 

  299. Heliconius ethilla  ______ 
    Heliconius ethilla claudia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)  
    TAWNY-STRIPED LONGWING    


    Genus EUPTOIETA

  300. Euptoieta claudia  (ph)  ______  (AZ:125) (D1:32) (K:157) (MCA:79) (PE:3 & 20 & PEp:235)(PW:23)  
    VARIEGATED FRITILLARY
    (Range: Canada south thru Central America, also the West Indies) 



    Variegated Fritillary

  301. Euptoieta hegesia (or hoffmanni)  (ph)  ______  (K:157) (PE:29)(PW:23) 
    Euptoieta hegesia meridiania  ______ CR  GU(*)  PN  (AZ:127) (D1:32) (MCA:79) 
    (subspecies from south Texas to Argentina, also as a stray further north in the US)  
    MEXICAN FRITILLARY  
    (Range: southern US thru Central America, also the West Indies)



    Mexican Fritillary


    Genera ALTINOTE & ACTINOTE

  302. Altinote ozomene (or leucomelas)  ______ 
    Altinote ozomene nox  ______  (D1:32) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    LAMPLIGHT ACTINOTE
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 

    Sometimes in Costa Rica Altinote ozomene (or leucomelas) is extremely common due to mass emergences. Females approaching Inga flowers in the canopy are often seen being "dive-bombed" by males.



    Lamplight Actinote
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  303. Actinote anteas  ______ (BMCR:130) (D1:32) (MCA:78)   
    ANTEAS ACTINOTE 
    (or Doubleday's Actinote)
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela)

    Actinote anteas is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with a diurnal moth. 

  304. Actinote melampeplos ______ (D1:32)
    BOW-WINGED ACTINOTE
    (Range: in southern Mexico, Costa Rica, Ecuador)

  305. Actinote lapitha  ______ 
    Actinote lapitha calderoni  ______  (subspecies from Chiapas, Mexico to El Salvador)
    Actinote lapitha lapitha  ______  (D1:32) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    PALE ACTINOTE
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica & western Panama)

  306. Actinote guatemalena  ______  (MCA:78)
    Actinote guatemalena guatemalena  ______ (BMCR:130) (D1:32) 
    (subspecies from Chiapas, Mexico to Costa Rica)
    GUATEMALAN ACTINOTE
    (Range: Guatemala to Costa Rica)


    Genus ANETIA

  307. Anetia thirza  ______
    Anetia thirza thirza  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to El Salvador)
    Anetia thirza insignis  ______  (BMCR:180) (D1:33) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    CLOUD-FOREST KING 
    (or Cloud-forest Monarch
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 


    Subfamily DANAINAE: MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES


    Genus LYCOREA: 
    a group of HELICONID MIMICS which have long wings, long bodies, and share similar patterns.

  308. Lycorea ilione  ______ 
    Lycorea ilione albescens  ______  (BMCR:180) (D1:33) 
    (subspecies from southern Mexico to Panama) 
    CLEARWING MIMIC-QUEEN
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  309. Lycorea halia (formerly cleobaea) (ph)  ______  (F:176) (K:155) (PE:27) (S:187)
    Lycorea halia atergatis  ______  (BMCR:180) (D1:33)  
    (subspecies from Mexico to Colombia)
    TIGER MIMIC-QUEEN 
    (or Large Tiger)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru; also in the West Indies) 

    The Tiger Mimic-Queen is larger than true HELICONIDS. It occurs in wood and scrub habitats.



    A Tiger Mimic-Queen photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


    Genus DANAUS: ROYALTY:  Known also as TIGER BUTTERFLIES. There are representatives in all geographical regions of the world. More species occur in the Old World, but one of the best known butterflies of the New World is D. plexippus, the Monarch. Larvae of this genus feed on members of the milkweed and dogbane families, and render themselves poisonous to predators by storing plant poisons. There are many other butterflies that mimic the toxic members of this genus.    
     
  310. Danaus plexippus  (ph)  ______  (AZ:225) (C:37) (F:143) (K:227) (PE:3,4,27) (S:184)
    Danaus plexippus plexippus  ______  CR(*) GU(*)  (BMCR:180) (D1:33)
    (subspecies in North & Central America)  
    MONARCH
    (Range: a truly cosmopolitan species, occurring in North and South America, Australia, and the East Indies.) 

    The Monarch is a very strong flier with strong migratory tendencies in temperate regions, but not so in the tropics where it is also usually a solitary flier. 

     

    A Monarch
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  311. Danaus gilippus  (ph)  ______  (AZ:227) (F:143) (K:229) (PE:27) (S:183)
    Danaus gilippus thersippus  ______  CR(*) GU(*)  (BMCR:180) (D1:33)
    (subspecies from the US to Colombia)
    QUEEN
    (Range: southern US to Colombia; also in the West Indies)

    The Queen is not as heavily marked with black as Danaus plexippus, the Monarch.  
    Danaus gilippus is not a migrant species. 

     

    A Queen
    (photo by Howard Eskin)


  312. Danaus eresimus  (ph)  ______  (AZ:229) (C:283) (F:142) (K:229) (PE:27)
    Danaus eresimus montezuma  ______  GU (*)  (BMCR:180) (D1:33) 
    (subspecies from Texas to Colombia, as a stray further north; described in 1943)
    SOLDIER
    (Range: southern US to the Amazon Basin, also in the Antilles) 



    A Soldier photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)



    Subfamily ITHOMIINAEthis highly diverse group has been considered as a separate family, or (now by most) as a subfamily of NYMPHALIDAE.  


    Genus EUTRESIS

  313. Eutresis dilucida ______ (D1:33)
    SMOKY TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)

  314. Eutresis hypereia  ______
    Eutresis hypereia theope ______ (D1:33) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    CRISP TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 


    Genus OLYRAS: 3 species found in Central & South America

  315. Olyras crathis  ______
    Olyras crathis staudingeri ______  (D1:33) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    CRATHIS TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  316. Olyras insignis  ______
    Olyras insignis insignis  ______  (D1:33) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    INSIGNIS TIGERWING 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador) 

  317. Olyras theon  ______  
    RUSTY TIGERWING
    (Range: southeast Mexico & Guatemala)


    Genus TITHOREA:  a Neotropical genus of about 15 species

  318. Tithorea tarricina  ______
    Tithorea tarricina duenna  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Mexico & Guatemala)   
    Tithorea tarricina pinthias ______  (BMCR:184) (D1:34) (F:207) 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Panama) 
    CREAM-SPOTTED TIGERWING 
    (or Variable Prestonian)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  319. Tithorea harmonia  ______  (C:367) (S:180)
    Tithorea harmonia helicaon ______  (D1:34) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    Tithorea harmonia salvadoris  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras & El Salvador)
    Tithorea harmonia hippothous  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Mexico & Guatemala)
    Tithorea harmonia irene  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    HARMONIA TIGERWING 
    (other names have also been Black-fronted Prestonian, the Harmonius Tiger-Clearwing, the Tiger Butterfly, or the Tiger)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  320. Tithorea pacifiica  ______
    Tithorea pacifica concordia  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama)
    PACIFIC TIGERWING



    Genus AERIA

  321. Aeria eurimedia  ______
    Aeria eurimedia pacifica  ______  (BMCR:182) (D1:35) 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Costa Rica & Panama)
    Aeria eurimedia agna  ______ 
    (subspecies from Panama to northwest Venezuela)
    BANDED TIGERWING  (or Black-and-yellow Prestonian)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)


    Genus THYRIDIA

  322. Thyridia psidii  ______ 
    Thyridia psidii melantho  ______ (D1:34) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    MELANTHO TIGERWING 
    (or Clapping Ticlear)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus METHONA

  323. Methona confusa  ______  
    CONFUSA TIGERWING
    (Range: Panama)   


    Genus MELINAEA:  Central & South American butterflies similar in appearance to HELICONIUS. However, they have smaller compound eyes, and androconial hairs between their wings. There are 3 species known in Central America. Butterflies occur in many forested habitats up to 5,000 ft.

  324. Melinaea scylax ______ (D1:34)
    SCYLAX TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia, on the Pacific Slope 

  325. Melinaea lilis  (ph)  ______  (F:179) (S:181)
    Melinaea lilis imitata  ______  (D1:34
    as Melinaea ethra lilis(subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica, on the Caribbean Slope)
    Melinaea lilis parallelis  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Costa Rica & Panama, on the Caribbean Slope)
    MIMIC TIGERWING 
    (other names have been Heliconoid Ticlear or Mechanitis Mimic; also called the Army Ant Butterfly)
    (Range: southern Mexico to western Panama)
     
    Melinaea lilis has the yellow, black, and orange coloration of the "tiger-stripe" mimicry complex. 
    It lives in open flowery areas, and visits flowers for nectar.

    Melinaea lilis (or ethra) is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Heliconius ismenius (in the NYMPHALIDAE), Dismorphia amphiona (in the PIERIDAE), Hypothyris euclea (in ITHOMIINAE in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia mechanitis (in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth.  

      

    Mimic Tigerwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  326. Melinaea idae  ______ 
    Melinaea idae idae  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    IDAE TIGERWING



    Genus MECHANITIS

    Butterflies in this genus fly in bright sunlight, attracted to flowers.

  327. Mechanitis polymnia  ______  (C:369) (S:180)
    Mechanitis polymnia lycicice  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Honduras)
    Mechanitis polymnia isthmia ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:184) (D1:34) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    POLYMNIA TIGERWING 
    (or Disturbed Tigerwing)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Mechanitis polymnia frequents more disturbed habitats than most ithomiine butterflies, it is said to fly commonly along the streets of the cities and towns of Costa Rica.

  328. Mechanitis lysimnia  ______  (BMCR:184) (D1:34)
    Mechanitis lysimnia utemaia 
    ______  (subspecies from Mexico to Costa Rica)
    Mechanitis lysimnia labotas  ______ 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    Mechanitis lysimnia macrinus  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia) 
    LYSIMNIA TIGERWING
    (Range: Mexico to Venezuela) 

  329. Mechanitis menapis  ______
    Mechanitis menapis doryssus  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Mexico & Guatemala)
    Mechanitis menapis saturata ______ (BMCR:184) (D1:34) 
    (subspecies from Honduras to Panama)
    Mechanitis menapis dariensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama, described in 1977) 
    MENAPIS TIGERWING
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 


    Genus SCADA

  330. Scada zibia  ______ 
    Scada zibia xanthina  ______  PN (sl)  (BMCR:184) (D1:34) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    ZIBIA TIGERWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Peru) 


    Genus HYALIRIS: South & Central American butterflies that have characteristic "GLASSY-WINGS".

  331. Hyalyris excelsa  ______ 
    Hyalyris excelsa decumana  ______ (BMCR:183) (D1:34) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    EXCELSA TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru) 


    Genus HYPOTHYRIS

  332. Hypothyris lycaste  ______ 
    Hypothyris lycaste dionaea  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Mexico & Guatemala)
    Hypothyris lycaste callispila  ______  (D1:34) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    Hypothyris lycaste lycaste  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    LYCASTE TIGERWING
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  333. Hypothyris euclea  ______ 
    Hypothyris euclea valora  ______  GU(*)  (BMCR:183) (D1:34) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    EUCLEA TIGERWING 
    (or Common Ticlear
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

    Hypothyris euclea is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Heliconius ismenius (in the NYMPHALIDAE), Dismorphia amphiona (in the PIERIDAE), Melinaea lilis (or ethra) (in ITHOMIINAE, in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia mechanitis (in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth.  


    Genus NAPEOGENES

  334. Napeogenes peredia  ______ 
    Napeogenes peredia hemisticta ______ (D1:34) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica) 
    Napeogenes peredia hemimelanea  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    PERIDIA TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)   

    Napeogenes peredia is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Heliconius hecale along with Charonias eurytele (in the PIERIDAE), Dismorphia eunoe (in the PIERIDAE), Eresia coela (in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth. 

  335. Napeogenes tolosa  ______ 
    Napeogenes tolosa tolosa  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras)
    Napeogenes tolosa amara  ______  (D1:34) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)  
    Napeogenes tolosa mombachoensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Nicaragua)  (subspecies described in 1997)
    TOLOSA TIGERWING 
    (or Tollhouse Ticlear)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  336. Napeogenes cranto  ______ 
    Napeogenes cranto paedaretus ______ (D1:34) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    Napeogenes cranto reali  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama, described in 1968)
    CRANTO TIGERWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Peru) 

  337. Napeogenes stella  ______  (segregate of the species in Panama)
    STELLA TIGERWING



    Genus ITHOMIA

  338. Ithomia jacunda  ______ 
    Ithomia jacunda bolivari ______ (D1:35) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama, on the Caribbean Slope)
    Ithomia jacunda jacunda  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama) 
    JACUNDA CLEARWING   
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  339. Ithomia leila  ______  
    LEILA'S CLEARWING
    (Range: southeast Mexico & Guatemala) 

  340. Ithomia celemia  ______
    Ithomia celemia plaginota ______ (D1:35) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    CELEMIA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela) 

  341. Ithomia diasa  ______
    Ithomia diasa hippocrenis  ______ (BMCR:183) (D1:35) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    Ithomia diasa galata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    DIASA CLEARWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia) 

  342. Ithomia heraldica  ______ CR(*)  (BMCR:183) (D1:35)  
    HERALDICA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  343. Ithomia patilla  (ph)  ______  (BMCR:183) (D1:35)
    PATILLA CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 



    Patilla Clearwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  344. Ithomia terra  ______ 
    Ithomia terra vulcana ______ (D1:35) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    TERRA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  345. Ithomia xenos ______ (D1:35)
    XENOS CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  346. Ithomia hyala  ______  
    HYALA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  347. Ithomia iphianassa  ______
    Ithomia iphianassa panamensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    IPHINASSA CLEARWING
     


    Genus HYPOSCADA

  348. Hyposcada virginiana  ______
    Hyposcada virginiana virginiana  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Honduras)
    Hyposcada virginiana evanides ______ PN(sl)  (D1:35) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    Hyposcada virginiana adelphina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    VIRGINIANA CLEARWING 
    (or Virginia's Ticlear)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)  

  349. Hyposcada anchiala  ______  (segregate of the species in Panama)
    ANCHIALA CLEARWING

  350. Hyposcada illinissa  ______ 
    Hyposcada illinissa aesion  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    ILLINISSA CLEARWING


    Genus OLERIA

  351. Oleria paula ______ PN (sl)  (D1:35)
    PAULA'S CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 

    Oleria paula is a member of a color/pattern mimicry system with Dismorphia theucharila (in the PIERIDAE) and a diurnal moth: Dysschemia jansonius, the male.

  352. Oleria rubescens  ______  (BMCR:184) (D1:35)
    RUBESCENS CLEARWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Panama)

  353. Oleria vicina  ______  (BMCR:184) (D1:35)
    VICINA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)

  354. Oleria zelica  ______ 
    Oleria zelica pagasa ______ PN(sl)  (D1:35) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    ZELICA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)  

  355. Oleria makrena  ______  (segregate of the species in Panama)
    MAKRENA CLEARWING 

  356. Oleria thiemei  ______  
    THIEME'S CLEARWING
    (Range: Panama & Colombia)

  357. Oleria zea  ______
    Oleria zea zea  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Honduras)
    ZEA CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to Honduras & El Salvador)  


    Genus CALLITHOMIA

  358. Callithomia hezia  ______ (BMCR:182) (D1:35) 
    Callithomia hezia hezia  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras)
    Callithomia hezia hedila  ______ 
    (subspecies in southeast Mexico & Guatemala)
    Callithomia hezia smalli  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama, described in 1968)
    HEZIA CLEARWING 
    (or White-leading Ticlear
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  359. Callithomia alexirrhoe (formerly hydra) ______
    Callithomia alexirrhow megaleas ______ (D1:35) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    Callithomia alexirrhow panamensis  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    ALEX'S CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia) 

  360. Callithomia lenea  ______ 
    Callithomia lenea agrippina  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    LENEA CLEARWING


    Genus CERATINIA

  361. Ceratinia tutia  ______ 
    Ceratinia tutia dorilla ______ (D1:35) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    TUTIA CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 


    Genus DIRCENNA

  362. Dircenna jemina 
    Dircenna jemina
    (northern segregate)  ______  (from eastern Mexico to Panama)   
    Dircenna jemina chiriquensis ______ (D1:35) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, on the Pacific Slope)
    JEMINA CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  363. Dircenna dero  ______
    Dircenna dero
    (northern segregate)  ______  (in southeast Mexico & Guatemala)
    Dircenna dero euchytma ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:182) (D1:35) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Venezuela)
    DERO CLEARWING 
    (or Big-bordered Dircenna)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  364. Dircenna klugii ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:182) (D1:35) (PE:27)
    KLUG'S CLEARWING 
    (or Klug's Dircenna)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama, as a stray to south Texas)

  365. Dircenna olyras  ______
    Dircenna olyras relata ______ (BMCR:182) (D1:35) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    OLYRAS CLEARWING



    Genus GODYRIS

  366. Godyris zavaleta  ______ 
    Godyris zavaleta sesunga  ______ 
    (subspecies from southeast Mexico to Nicaragua)
    Godyris zavaleta caesiopicta
    (or sorites)  ______ (BMCR:183) (D1:35)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, on the Caribbean Slope)
    Godyris zavaleta zygia  ______  (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, on the Pacific Slope)
    VARIEGATED CLEARWING 
    (or Variegated Ticlear)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador) 

  367. Godyris nero  (was Greta nero ______  CR  PN(sl)  (D1:36) 
    NERO CLEARWING 
    (or Nero Glasswing)
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica)

  368. Godyris kedema  ______
    Godyris kedema furina   ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    KEDEMA CLEARWING


    Genus GRETA


  369. Greta polissena  ______ 
    Greta polissena umbrana  ______  (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    POLISSENA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil) 



    Polissena Clearwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  370. Greta andromica  ______ 
    Greta andromica lyra  ______  (BMCR:182) (C:371) (D1:36) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    ANDROMICA CLEARWING 
    (or Curvy-winged Greta)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  

  371. Greta annette  (ph)  ______ 
    Greta annette annette  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras)
    Greta annette championi ______ (BMCR:182) (D1:36) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama, described in 1978)
    WHITE-SPOTTED CLEARWING 
    (or White-spotted Greta)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 



    White-spotted Clearwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  372. Greta morgane  (ph)  ______ 
    Greta morgane oto  ______  GU(*)  CR  PN  (BMCR:182) (D1:36) 
    (subspecies from eastern Mexico to Panama)
    RUSTY CLEARWING 
    (or Thick-tipped Greta or Oto Glasswing)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)



    Rusty Clearwing, or Thick-tipped Greta

  373. Greta gabiglooris  ______  (species described in 2005)
    GABI'S CLEARWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to western Panama)

  374. Another Greta sp. has recently been discovered in Costa Rica. 


    Genus HYPOLERIA

  375. Hypoleria lavinia ______ 
    Hypoleria lavinia cassotis  ______ 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Honduras) 
    Hypoleria lavinia rhene  ______ (BMCR:183) (D1:36) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to western Panama) 
    Hypoleria lavinia liberia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama)
    Hypoleria lavinia vanilia  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    LAVINIA CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)


    Genus PSEUDOSCADA

  376. Pseudoscada timna (formerly utilla) ______
    Pseudoscada timna pusio  ______ (BMCR:184) (D1:36) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    Pseudoscada timna saturata  ______ 
    (subspecies in Panama & Colombia)
    TIMNA CLEARWING
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia)  


    Genus HYALENNA

  377. Hyalenna alidella  ______ 
    Hyalenna alidella exsulans  ______ 
    (subspecies in the Darien region of Panama, described in 2006)
    ALIDELLA CLEARWING 


    Genus EPISCADA
     
  378. Episcada salvinia  ______
    Episcada salvinia salvinia  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Mexico & Guatemala)
    Episcada salvinia opleri  ______  (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, described in 1978)
    SALVIN'S CLEARWING  (or Salvin's Ticlear)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)


    Genus PTERONYMIA

  379. Pteronymia alcmena  ______
    ALCEMA CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  380. Pteronymia aletta  ______
    Pteronymia aletta agalla  ______ (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama, on the Pacific Slope)
    ALETTA CLEARWING 
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  381. Pteronymia artena  ______ 
    Pteronymia artena artena  ______  CR(*)  (C:375) (D1:36) 
    (subspecies from Mexico to Panama) 
    ARTENA CLEARWING 
    (or POINTED CLEARWING)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru, also Trinidad) 

    The Pointed Clearwing is common in many forests, up to 6,000ft. Its larval host plants are woody vines called lianas, common in the tropical canopy.

  382. Pteronymia cotytto  ______   GU(*)  (D1:36)
    COTYTTO CLEARWING 
    (or BROAD-TIPPED CLEARWING)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  383. Pteronymia donella  ______  
    Pteronymia donella donata  ______ (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    DONELLA CLEARWING  


  384. Pteronymia picta  ______
    Pteronymia picta notilla  ______ (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    PICTA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  385. Pteronymia latilla  ______ 
    Pteronymia latilla fulvescens  ______ (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & western Panama)
    LATILLA CLEARWING 
    (or FULVOUS CLEARWING)

  386. Pteronymia fulvimargo ______ (D1:36)
    FULVIMARGO CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama) 

  387. Pteronymia parva  ______  (D1:36)
    PARVA CLEARWING 
    (or FOUR-SPOTTED CLEARWING)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  388. Pteronymia fumida  ______
    Pteronymia fumida fumida  ______  (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    FUMIDA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  389. Pteronymia simplex  ______
    Pteronymia simplex fenochioi  ______ 
    (subspecies from eastern Mexico to Nicaragua, described in 1978)
    Pteronymia simplex simplex  ______  (D1:36) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    SIMPLE CLEARWING
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 

  390. Pteronymia lonera  ______  (D1:36)
    LONERA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)

  391. Pteronymia hara  ______
    HARA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama) 

  392. Pteronymia obscuratus  ______  
    OBSCURE CLEARWING
    (Range: Panama)

  393. Another Pteronymia sp. has recently been discovered in Panama.


    Genus HETEROSAIS

  394. Heterosais edessa  ______ 
    Heterosais edessa nephele  ______  (D1:36)
    EDESSA CLEARWING 
    (or Edessa Glasswing)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia)

  395. Heterosais giulia  ______ 
    Heterosais giulia cadra  ______ 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    GIULIA CLEARWING 
    (or Giulia Clearwing)


    Genus ANTIRRHEA: MORPHETS

  396. Antirrhea miltiades ______ (D1:37) (F:118)
    (Range: Guatemala to the Amazon Basin)  

    Antirrhea miltiades often perches, feeds on rotting fruit and fungi.

      
  397. Antirrhea tomasia ______ (D1:37)
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)

  398. Antirrhea pteocopha pteocopha  ______  (BMCR:165) (D1:37) (F:119)  (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama) 

    Antirrhea pteocopha occurs deep in virgin cloud forest.

  399. Antirrhea philotetes lindigii  ______  (BMCR:165)  (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    WHITE-SIGNED MORPHET


    Subfamily MORPHIDAE: there are about 150 species of this grouping in tropical Central & South America


    Genus MORPHO: 
    Central & South American species which have always caught much attention, as the large, obvious males are a very bright metallic blue.   

       
  400. Morpho deidamia (formerly granadensis) ______
    Morpho deidamia polybaptus ______ (BMCR:165) (D1:38) (F:183) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama on the Caribbean slope)
    Morpho deidamia granadensis  ______  (subspecies from Panama to Colombia) 
    SCARCE MORPHO
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador) 

    Morpho deidamia is distinguished from other morpho butterflies by having most of its upper wings a light metallic blue with a dark margin (in both sexes).  

  401. Morpho helenor (formerly peleides) (ph)  ______  (F:183) (S:149)
    Morpho helenor montezuma ______    BZ(*) GU(*)  (MCA:131) 
    (subspecies from east Mexico to Honduras)
    Morpho helenor octavia  ______  GU(*) 
    (subspecies from southwest Mexico to El Salvador)
    Morpho helenor narcissus  ______  CR(*)  (D1:38) 
    (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama) 
    Morpho helenor marinita ______  CR(*)  (D1:38) 
    (subspecies from southwest Costa Rica to Panama on the Pacific slope)
    Morpho helenor zonaras ______   PN(*)  (subspecies in Panama) 
    Morpho helenor peleides  ______  PN(*) 
    (subspecies from Panama to Colombia)
    COMMON
    (or BLUE) MORPHO  (also called The Emperor)
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)  

    Morpho helenor is the most common of the morpho butterflies in Central America. It is common also in South America.
    In Costa Rica, there are 2 forms: One, M. h. narcissus, almost completely iridescent blue above, is found almost completely on the Caribbean side of the country. In the other form, M. h. marinita, on the Pacific side, the blue above is much reduced.  
    The male has more blue on the upperside than the female. This species is attracted to fermenting fruit. 



    Above & below: Common (or Blue) Morpho butterflies
    Above: the upperwings; below: the underwings 
    (lower photo by Virginia Woodhouse, during a FONT tour
     in Costa Rica in March 2012)  



    In the two photographs below, a Blue Morpho egg
    (photos by Virginia Woodhouse during a FONT tour
     in Costa Rica in March 2012)    






  402. Morpho menelaus amathonte _____  CR(*)  PN(*)(sl)  (BMCR:165) (D1:39)  (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    MENELAUS MORPHO

  403. Morpho polyphemus polyhemus  ______  (MCA:131)  (subspecies from west Mexico to El Salvador)
    Morpho polyphemus luna  _____  (MCA:131) 
    (subspecies on east Mexico & Guatemala)    
    Morpho polyphemus catarina _____   CR(*)  (D1:39) 
    (subspecies in Nicaragua & Costa Rica)  
    WHITE MORPHO
    (Range: Mexico to Costa Rica) 

  404. Morpho theseus justitae  ______  (subspecies from southern Mexico to Honduras)
    Morpho theseus heraldica ______ PN(*) (sl)  (D1:39) (MCA:131) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    SHORT-TAILED MORPHO
    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  

    Morpho theseus is pale to brown, but not white or bright blue.



    Short-tailed Morpho
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


  405. Morpho cypris aphrodile  ______  (subspecies in Honduras & Nicaragua)
    Morpho cypris bugaba ______ (BMCR:165) (D1:40) (F:182) 
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    CYPRIS MORPHO
    (Range: Honduras to Colombia)

    The sexes of Morpho cypris are completely different. The male (most often seen) is a brilliant metallic blue, with a WHITE BAND across the wings, and a series of white spots around the wing. The larger female, that rarely ventures from the rainforest canopy, is above a rich orange-yellow with a brown margin. The undersides of both sexes are brown and white.   


    Genus CAEROIS

  406. Caerois gerdrudtus ______ (D1:40) (F:127)
    BRUSH-FOOTED BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)  

    Caerois gerdrudtus is not common. It lives in the rainforest and breeds in a palm.


    Genus CATOBLEPIA

  407. Catoblepia xanthicles xanthicles  ______  PN (sl)  (D1:44)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    XANTHICLES OWL-BUTTERFLY

    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 


  408. Catoblepia orgetorix championi ______ (BMCR:169) (C:355) (D1:44)  (subspecies in Nicaragua & Costa Rica)
    ORGETORIX OWL-BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador) 


    Genus DYNASTOR

  409. Dynastor darius stygianus ______ PN (sl)  (BMCR:169) (D1:41) (MCA:132)  (subspecies from south Mexico to west Ecuador)
    BROMELIAD OWL-BUTTERFLY 
    (or DARING OWL-BUTTERFLY)

    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  410. Dynastor macrosiris strix  ______  (MCA:132)  (subspecies from south Mexico to Costa Rica)
    GREEN-EYED OWL BUTTERFLY 


    Genus NAROPE

  411. Narope testacea ______ (D1:41) (MCA:132)
    BROWN OWL-BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  412. Narope miner  ______  
    SMALL OWL-BUTTERFLY
    (Range: southern Mexico & Guatemala)
     

    Genus BRASSOLIS

     
  413. Brassolis isthmia isthmia  ______  (BMCR:168) (D1:41) (MCA:133)  (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    SMALL-HEADED OWLET 
    (or SMALL-SPOTTED OWL-BUTTERFLY)

    (Range: Guatemala to Colombia)

  414. Brassolis granadensis granadensis  ______  (subspecies from northwest Cost Rica to Ecuador on the Pacific slope)
    COLOMBIAN OWL-BUTTERFLY



    Genus MIELKELLA

  415. Mielkella singularis  ______  (MCA:133)
    MAYAN OWL-BUTTERFLY



    Genus OPSIPHANES:  1
    3 species, all with stout bodies, and thick scaled wings

  416. Opsiphanes tamarindi tamarindi ______ (BMCR:170) (D1:41) (MCA:133)  (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    HELICONIA OWLET
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  417. Opsiphanes invirae cuspidatus ______ PN (sl)  (D1:42) (MCA:133)  (subspecies from Honduras to Costa Rica)
    LOWLAND OWLET
    (Range: Honduras to the Amazon Basin) 

  418. Opsiphanes cassina chiriquensis ______ (BMCR:170) (D1:42)  (a subspecies in Costa Rica)  
    Opsiphanes cassina fabricii ______ (D1:42) (MCA:133)  (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    SPLIT-BANDED OWLET
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

  419. Opsiphanes quiteria quirinus ______ (D1:42) (MCA:133)  (subspecies from Guatemala to Panama)
    Opsiphanes quiteria panamensis ______ (D1:42)
    SCALLOPED OWLET
    (Range: Guatemala to the Amazon Basin) 

  420. Opsiphanes bogotanus alajuela  ______  (BMCR:170) (D1:43)  (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    BOGOTA OWL-BUTTERFLY

    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

    Opsiphanes bogotanus alajuela occurs in cloud forests, from 700 to 1600 meters above sea level.

  421. Opsiphanes cassiae  ______  (MCA:133)
    LINNEAN OWLET

  422. Opsiphanes boisduvalii  ______  (MCA:133)
    ORANGE OWLET


    Genus OPOPTEA

  423. Opoptera standingeri ______ (D1:43)
    STANDINGER'S OWL-BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)


    Genus SELENOPHANES

  424. Selenophanes josephus josephus ______  (D1:44)  (subspecies in Guatemala)
    Selenophanes josephus excultus  ______ 
    (subspecies in eastern Panama & Colombia)
    JOSEPHUS OWL-BUTTERFLY

    (Range: Guatemala, Panama & Colombia) 


    Genus ERYPHANIS:  6 species with "owl eyes" in Central & South America. Breeds on bamboo.

  425. Eryphanis (formerly automedon or polyxena) lycomedon ______ PN (sl)  (BMCR:169) (D1:44) (S:158)  (subspecies from Guatemala to Colombia)
    SPLIT-SPOTTED OWL-BUTTERFLY 
    (another name has been Purple Mort Bleu)
    (Range: Guatemala to southern Brazil) 

    Eryphanis lycomedon frequents forest clearings in the late afternoon and at dusk.

  426. Eryphanis aesacus buboculua ______ (BMCR:169) (D1:45) (F:150) (MCA:132)  (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    DOUBLE-SPOTTED OWL BUTTERFLY
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin) 

    Eryphanis aesacus occurs in cloud forest.


    Genus CALIGO: OWL-BUTTERFLIES

  427. Caligo telamonius (formerly memmon)  (ph)  ______  (F:128)
    Caligo telamonius memmon  ______   GU(*)   (MCA:132) 
    (subspecies from south Mexico to Nicaragua)
    Caligo telamonius menus  ______  CR(*)  (BMCR:169) (D:146)  (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    YELLOW-FRONTED OWL-BUTTERFLY  (other names are Pale Owl Butterfly and Cream Owl Butterfly
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

    With a wingspan of 13cm, Caligo telamonius is among the largest butterflies in the world. It is crepuscular, and it lives in agricultural areas, and breeds on Heliconia species and the related banana. 



    A Yellow-fronted Owl-Butterfly photographed during a FONT Tour
    in Guatemala
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  428. Caligo brasiliensis sulanus  ______  CR(*)  GU  PN (sl)  (BMCR:168) (D1:45)  (MCA:132)  (subspecies from southern Mexico to Panama) 
    ALMOND-EYED OWL-BUTTERFLY 
    (other names are BRAZILIAN OWL-BUTTERFLY or Dark Owl-Butterfly, or Magnificent Owl)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)


    Caligo brasiliensis avoids bright sunlight. It flies in the late afternoon and at dusk, and is attracted to fermenting fruit.

  429. Caligo illioneus oberon ______ (BMCR:168) (D1:46)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    DUSKY OWL-BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Illioneus Giant Owl)

    (Range: Costa Rica to )   

  430. Caligo atreus dionysos  (ph)  ______ CR  PN  (BMCR:168) (D1:46)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    YELLOW-EDGED GIANT-OWL 
    (another name is Banded Owl-Butterfly)

    (Range: Mexico to Peru)  



    Yellow-edged Giant-Owl

  431. Caligo oedipus fruhstorferi  ______  (MCA:132)  (subspecies from southern Mexico to Honduras)
    Caligo oedipus oedipus  ______  (BMCR:168) 
    (subspecies from Costa Rica to Colombia)
    BOOMERANG OWL-BUTTERFLY 
    (another name is Fruhstorfer's Owl-Butterfly

  432. Caligo uranus  ______  (MCA:132)
    YELLOW-BORDERED OWL-BUTTERFLY 
    (or Gold-edged Owl-Butterfly)
    (Range: southern Mexico to Honduras) 

  433. Caligo oileus scamander  ______  (subspecies from Guatemala to Panama)
    OILEUS OWL-BUTTERFLY


    Subfamily SATYRINAE: SATYRS & WOOD NYMPHS - the RINGLETS,
    a large group represented strongly in Central & South America


    Genus HERMEUPTYCHIA

  434. Hermeuptychia sosybius ______ (K:231) (PE:28)
    Carolina Satyr
    (Range: southeast US thru mainland tropical America)

  435. Hermeuptychia harmonia  ______  (BMCR:174)

  436. Hermeuptychia hermes  ______  (BMCR:174)



    Genus MEGISTRO

  437. Megistro rubricata ______  (AZ:215) (K:231) (PW:36)
    Red Satyr
    (Range: southwest US to Guatemala)


    Genus CITHAERIAS

  438. Cithaerias menander ______ CR  (D1:47)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)


    Genus  HAETERA

  439. Haetera macleannania ______ PN  (BMCR:174) (D1:47)
    Angela 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Panama)


    Genus DULCEDO

  440. Dulcedo polita ______ (BMCR:174) (D1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)


    Genus PIERELLA

  441. Pierella helvina incanescens ______ CR PN  (BMCR:176) (D1:47)  (subspecies from Nicaragua to Panama)
    Pierella Butterfly
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 

  442. Pierella luna pallida ______ (D1:47)  (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia) 


    Genus MANATARIA

     
  443. Manataria hercyna maculata ______ (BMCR:175) (D1:47)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)


    Genus ORESSINOMA

     
  444. Oressinoma typhla ______ (BMCR:175) (D1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 


    Genus CYLLOPSIS

  445. Cyllopsis hedemanni hedemanni ______ (D1:47)  (subspecies from Mexico to Panama)
    Tailed Gemmed-Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Panama) 

  446. Cyllopsis rogersi ______ (BMCR:174) (D1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica, probably endemic, possibly in Panama) 

  447. Cyllopsis philodice ______ (D1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)

  448. Cyllopsis argentella ______ (D1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  449. Cyllopsis pephredo ______ (D1:47)
    Big-spiked Gemmed-Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)


    Genus TAYGETIS: About 27 species of BROWNS in Central & South America. With brown or gray upperparts, and with false eyes on the underside. Mostly, they prefer shaded rainforest understory. 
     

  450. Taygetis mermeria excavata ______ (D1:47)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    Great Ur-Satyr 
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia & Brazil) 

  451. Taygetis virgilia rufomarginata ______ PN (sl) (D1:47)  (subspecies in Central America) 
    Cramer's Ur-Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  452. Taygetis celia keneza ______ PN (sl)  (D1:47)  (subspecies from Nicaragua to Colombia)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Bolivia & Brazil) 

  453. Taygetis xenana godmani ______ (D1:47)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin)  

  454. Taygetis kerea ______ (D1:47)
    Little Ur-Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Paraguay)

  455. Taygetis salvini ______ PN (sl)  (D1:47)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  456. Taygetis andromeda ______ CR  (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)

  457. Taygetis penelea ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica to the Amazon Basin) 

  458. Taygetis zimri ______ (D1:48)
    Variable Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  459. Taygetis lineata ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)

  460. Taygetis banghassi ______ (D1:50)
    (Range: Costa Rica, locally & Bolivia)


    Genus MEGEUPTYCHIA

  461. Megeuptychia antonoe ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)


    Genus EUPTYCHIA

  462. Euptychia hermes  (probably more than one species involved) ______  CR(*)
    Grass Nymph
    (Range: throughout Central & South America) 

    In Costa Rica, the Grass Nymph is the most common satyrid butterfly.

  463. Euptychia westwoodi ______ (D1:48)
    Westwood's Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  464. Euptychia jesia ______ (D1:48)
    Transgressive Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  465. Euptychia mollis ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  466. Euptychia hilara ______ (D1:48)
    Orange-cornered Satyr
    (Range: Nicaragua to Colombia)

  467. Euptychia insolata ______ PN (sl)  (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)


    Genus CISSIA:  Butterflies in this genus were formerly all placed in EUPTYCHIA

  468. Cissia alcinoe ______ PN (sl)  (D1:41)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia) 

  469. Cissia calixta ______ (D1:41)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

  470. Cissia hermes ______ (D1:41)
    (Range: Mexico thru the American tropics)  

  471. Cissia polyphemus ______ (D1:41)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Ecuador)

  472. Cissia gigas ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  473. Cissia satyrina ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  474. Cissia tiessa ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Ecuador)

  475. Cissia similis ______  (D1:48)
    Stormy Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  476. Cissia usitata ______ PN (sl) (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  477. Cissia confusa ______  (BMCR:173) (D1:48)
    Confused Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  478. Cissia pseudoconfusa ______ (BMCR:173) (D1:48)
    Gold-stained Satyr
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  479. Cissia labe ______  (BMCR:173) (D1:48)
    Rusty-spotted Satyr

    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  480. Cissia palladia ______ (D1:48)
    Butler's Satyr

    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil, also Trinidad)

  481. Cissia joycae ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica)

  482. Cissia terrestris ______ PN (sl) (D1:48)
    Terrestial Satyr

    (Range: Nicaragua to the Amazon Basin)

  483. Cissia drymo ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica)

  484. Cissia agnata ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica)

  485. Cissia gomezi ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica)

  486. Cissia libye ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)

  487. Cissia metaleuca ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  488. Cissia hesione ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  489. Yphtimoides  (formerly Cissia) renata ______ (D1:48)
    Renata's Satyr

    (Range: Mexico to Ecuador)

  490. Cissia gulnare ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)


    Genus CHLOREUPTYCHIA

  491. Chloreuptychia arnaea ______ PN (sl) (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)


    Genus MEGEUPTYCHIA

  492. Megeuptychia antonoe ______ PN (sl) (D1:48)
    Canopy Satyr

    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)


    Genus DRUCINA

  493. Drucina leonata ______ (D1:49) (F:144)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)  (In cloud forest)

    Drucina leonata occurs in cloud forest.


    Genus DIORISTE

     
  494. Dioriste tauropolis ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Mexico to Panama)

  495. Dioriste cothon ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)

  496. Dioriste cothonides ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)


    Genus ERETRIS

  497. Eretris hulda ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  498. Eretris suzannae ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica & western Panama)


    Genus PEDALIODES

  499. Pedaliodes perperna ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela)

  500. Pedaliodes petronius ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Colombia)

  501. Pedaliodes dejecta ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Mexico to Colombia)

  502. Pedaliodes manis ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Venezuela)

  503. Pedaliodes ereba cremera ______ (D1:49)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama) 
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia)  

  504. Pedalioces triaria ______ (D1:49)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)


    Genus OXEOSACHISTUS

  505. Oxeosachistus hilaria euriphyle ______ (BMCR:175) (D1:50)  (subspecies in Costa Rica)
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama)

  506. Oxeosachistus puerta submaculatus ______ (BMCR:176) (D1:50)  (subspecies in Costa Rica & Panama)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Colombia) 



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