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A List and Photo Gallery
of selected

Butterflies
in Brazil, Argentina
and Paraguay

including the area of
Iguazu Falls



Noting those seen during 
Focus On Nature Tours 
with an (*)



This regional list of South American butterflies compiled by Armas Hill


The area of Iguazu Falls, where the countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay meet, is one of the best places in the world to see butterflies - with a large variety, and many of them in large numbers. 
In the following list, butterflies coded "ARne" are those occurring at Iguazu Falls.

Also included in this list are butterflies in southeastern Brazil, including the state of Rio de Janeiro. Butterflies in that area include those of the Atlantic Forest, and places such as the Itatiaia & Serra dos Orgaos National Parks, the Tres Picos State Park, and the area of "Regua", the Reserva Ecologica de Guapiacu, a fine destination for butterfly & bird tours north of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
Butterflies coded in this list with "BRse" are from the 2011 listing in the article "Preliminary Analysis of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of the Tres Picos State Park, Rio de Janiero, Brazil", a collaboration by the following people: A. Soares, J. Bizarro, C. Bastos, N. Tangerini, N. Silva, A. da Silva, & G. Silva.
That list is one of the first extensive local Brazilian butterfly checklists, resulting from considerable work, using data sorted, screen, and stored in museum specimen labels, from the last 50 to 70 years.     
         

The two photos here
(above & below) were both taken during the FONT tour at Iguazu in August 2008. 
The upper right photo is of a butterfly with English names of either the TURQUOISE EMPEROR or the SAPPHIRE. Its scientific name is: Doxocopa laurentia.
The photo below is of Iguazu Falls on the Argentine side. The moisture in the air near the falls is much to the liking of the butterflies.

Photos in this list include those of these butterflies: Polydamas Swallowtail, Androgeus Swallowtail, Southern Dogface, White-angled Sulphur, Cloudless Sulphur, Large Orange Sulphur, Two-spotted Prepona, Turquoise Emperor, Small Beauty, Orion Cecropian, Red Rim, Red Cracker, Florida Purplewing, Ruddy Daggerwing, Spotlight Catone, the Widespread "88", Malachite, Rusty-tipped Page, White Peacock, Bordered Patch, Gulf Fritillary, Fine-lined Longwing, Banded Longwing, Julia, Crimson-patched Longwing, Zebra Longwing, Variegated Fritillary, Monarch, Soldier, Tiger Mimic-Queen, Achilles Morpho, Helenor Morpho, Brazilian Owl

 

Among the Butterfly groupings in this list, links to:

Swallowtails:  Family PAPILIONIDAE   with the genera: Battus (Pipevine Swallowtails), Eurytides (Kite Swallowtails), Papilio (Fluted Swallowtails), Parides (Cattlehearts) 

Whites, Yellows, Sulphurs, and allies:  Family PIERIDAE
  

Mimic-whites: Subfamily DISMORPHIINAE  
with the genera: Dismorphia, Enantia, Pseudopieris

Subfamily PIERINAE, TrIbe ANTHOCHARIDINI   with the genus Hesperocharis

Whites and allies: Subfamily PIERINAE, Tribe PIERINI  with the genera: Archonias, Ascia, Catasticta, Daptoneura, Ganyra, Glutophrissa, Itaballia, Leptophobia, Melete, Pereute, Pieriballia

Sulphurs:  Subfamily COLIADINAE   with the genera: Anteos, Aphrissa, Colias, Eurema, Leucidia, Phoebis, Pyristia, Rhabdodryas

Hairstreaks, Blues:  Family LYCAENIDAE 

Hairstreaks:  Subfamily THECLINAE  with the genera: Allomaitia, Arawacus, Arcas, Arumecla, Atlides, Calycopis, Celmia, Contrafacia, Chlorostrymon, Cyanophrys, Electrostrymon, Erora, Evenus, Iaspis, Lamprospilus, Laothus, Megathecla, Michaelus, Ministrymon, Ocaria, Oenomaus, Ostrinotes, Panthiades, Parrhasius, Pseudolycaena, Rekoa, Siderus, Strephonota, Strymon, Symbiopsis, Thepytus, Theritas, Thestius, Tmolus, Ziegleria

Blues:  Subfamily POLYOMMATINAE   with the genera: Elkalyce, Hemiargus, Leptotes, Zizula

Metalmarks:  Family RIODINIDAE, Subfamilies EUSELASLINAE & RIODININAE   with the genera: Adelotypa, Ancyluris, Anteros, Apodemia, Argyrogrammana, Audre, Baeotis, Calephelis, Caria, Catocyclotis, Chalodeta, Charis, Chorinea, Cremna, Dachetola, Detritivora, Echydna, Emesis, Eurybia, Euselasia, Isapis, Juditha, Lasaia, Lemonias, Leucochimona, Melanis, Menander, Mesene, Mesosemia, Metacharis, Napaea, Notheme, Nymphidium, Panara, Parcella, Periplacis, Peropthalma, Pirascca, Rhetus, Sarota, Stalachtis, Stichelia, Symmachia, Synargis, Syrmatia, Theope, Thisbe  

Brushfoots:  Family NYMPHALIDAE

Snout: Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE   with the genus: Libytheana

Preponas:  Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe PREPONINI   with the genera: Agrias, Archaeoprepona, Prepona

Leaf Butterflies:  Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe ANAEINI   with the genera: Consul, Hypna, Fountainea, Siderine, Zaretis

Emperors: Subfamily APATURINAE  
with the genus: Doxocopa 

Beauties, Lady Butterflies, Mapwings: Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe NYMPHALINI   with the genera: Colobura, Hypanartia, Smyrna, Vanessa

Cecropians: Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe Coeini  with the genus: Historis

Red Rim:  Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe BIBLIDINI   with the genus: Biblis 

Crackers and allies:  Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe AGERONIINI   with the genera: Ectima, Hamadryas 

Purplewings and allies:  Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPICALLINI  with the genera: Catonephele, Cybdelis, Eunica, Myscella, Nessaea

Daggerwings:  Subfamily CYRESTINAE
  
with the genus: Marpesia     

Sailors:  Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EUBAGINI  
with the genus: Dynamine

Banners and allies:  Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPIPHILINI 
with the genera: Epiphile, Nica, Pyrrhogyra, Sea, Temenis

Eighty-Eights:  Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe CALLICORINI   with the genera: Callicore, Diaethria, Haematera, Paulogramma

Sisters:  Subfamily LIMENITIDINAE, Tribe LIMENITIDINI
   
with the genus: Adelpha  

Malachite, Page, Peacocks:  Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe VICTORININI   with the genera: Anartia, Metamorpha, Siproeta  

Buckeye, Mimic:  Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe JUNONIINI  with the genera: Hypolimnas, Junonia

Patches, Checkerspots, Crescents:  Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe MELITAEINI  with the genera: Chlosyne, Eresia, Ortilia, Tegosa, Telenassa

Longwings:  Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe HELICONIINI   with the genera: Agraulis, Dione, Dryadula, Dryas, Eueides, Heliconius, Philaethria

Fritillaries:  Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ARGYNNINI   with the genus: Euptoita

Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ACRAEINI   with the genus: Actinote

Milkweed Butterflies: Subfamily DANAINAE   with the genera: Danaus, Ituna, Lycorea    

Clearwings: Subfamily Ithomiinae
   with the genera: Aeria, Callithomia, Dircenna, Episcada, Epityches, Greta, Heterosais, Hypoleria, Hypothyris, Ithomia, Mechanitis, Melinea, Methona, Napeogenes, Oleria, Placidina, Pseudoscada, Pteronymia, Scada, Thyridia, Tithorea 

Morphos:  Subfamily Morphidae
  
with the genera: Antirrhea, Blepelenes, Morpho   

Owls:  Subfamily Brassolidae
  with the genera: Brassolis, Caligo, Catoblepia, Dasyophthalma, Dynastor, Eryphanis, Narope, Opoptera, Opsiphanes
 

Satyrs: Subfamily Satyrinae
 
with the genera: Archeuptychia, Capronnieria, Chloreuptychia, Cissia, Eteona, Euptychia, Forsterinaria, Godartiana, Hermeuptychia, Magneuptychia, Manataria, Moneuptychia, Pareuptychia, Paryphthimoides, Pharneupytchia, Pierella, Praepedaliodes, Splendeuptychia, Taygetis, Yphthimoides, Zischraia      

Skippers:  Family HESPERIIDAE

Open-winged Skippers:  Subfamilies EUDAMINAE & PYRGINAE  with the genera in EUDAMINAE: Aguna, Astraptes (Flashers), Autochton, Bungalotis, Chiodes, Cogia, Dyscophellus, Narcosius, Nascus, Phanus, Phocides, Polygonus, Polythrix, Proteides, Ridens, Salatis, Samientola, Spathielpia, Telemiades (Flats), Typhedanus, Urbanus (Long-tailed Skippers)
with the genera in PYRGINAE: Achlyodes, Aethilla, Anastrus, Anisochoria, Antigonus, Bolla, Carrhenes, Celaenorrhinus, Chiomara, Codatractus, Cycloglypha, Diacus, Ebrietas, Elbella, Epargyreus, Erynnis (True Duskywings), Gesta, Gorgopas, Gorgythion, Grais, Granilla, Helias, Heliopetes & Heliopyrgus (Large White Skippers), Milanion, Minoniades, Mylon, Myscelus, Mysoria, Nisoniades, Noctuana, Oechydrus, Ouleus, Pachyneuria, Pellicia, Pyrdalus, Pyrgus (Checkered Skippers), Pythonides, Polyctor (Tufted Skippers), Pyrrhopyge, Quadrus, Sostrata, Staphylus, Theagenes, Timochares, Trina, Viola, Xenophane, Zera  

Branded (or Grass) Skippers:  Subfamily Hesperiinae  with the genera: Anthoptus, Arita, Argon, Atalaopedes, Callimormus, Calpodes, Carystoides, Carystus, Cobalopus, Cobalus, Conga, Corticea, Cymaenes, Cynea, Decinea, Enosis, Eutychide, Evansiella, Hylephila, Justinia, Lento, Lerodea, Levina, Ludens, Lycas, Lychnuchoides, Lychnuchus, Methionopsis, Miltomiges,  Mnasitheus, Moeris, Naevolus, Nicohiades, Nyctelius, Onophas, Orses, Panoquina, Papias, Paracarystus, Parphorus, Perichares, Phanes, Pheraeus, Polities, Pompeius, Propertius, Psoralis, Pyrrhopygopsis, Quasimellanus, Remella, Saliana, Saniba, Saturnus, Sodalia, Synapte, Talides, Thespieus, Thracides, Tirynthia, Tisias, Vacerra, Vehilius, Venas, Vertica, Vettius, Vinius, Virga, Wallengrenia, Xeniades, Zariaspes, Zenis


Codes relating to illustrations in various books: 


Numbers noted as (C:xx) refer to pages in "A World of Butterflies", with text by Brian Cassie, and photographs (superb) by Kjell Sandved.

Numbers noted as (DA:xx) refer to pages in "Butterflies of South America", by Bernard D'Abrera. 

Numbers noted as (DV1:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 1): Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae", by Philip J. DeVries.   

Numbers noted as (DV2:xx) refer to plates in "The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History (Volume 2): Riodinidae", by Philip J. DeVries.

Numbers noted as (F:xx) refer to pages in "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Butterflies", by Dr. John Feltwell.  

Numbers noted as (K:xx) refer to pages in the "Kaufman Focus Guide to Butterflies of North America", by Jim Brock & Kenn Kaufman.

Numbers noted as (MB:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas Bonaerenses" ("Butterflies of Buenos Aires"), in Argentina, by Gustavo Canals. 

Numbers noted as (MM:xx) refer to pages in "Mariposas de Misiones" ("Butterflies of Misiones"), in Argentina, by Gustavo Canals. (This book includes butterflies at Iguazu Falls in Argentina & Brazil, one of the prime locations for observing them in South America.)    

Numbers noted as (PE:xx) refer to plates in "Eastern Butterflies, the Peterson Field Guides", the 1998 edition, by Paul Opler & Vichai Malikul. 

Numbers noted as (S:xx) refer to pages in the "Smithsonian Handbook, Butterflies & Moths", by David Carter.


Additional Codes:

AR:  in Argentina
ba:  in the province of Buenos Aires 
ne:  in the northeast, particularly in the province of Misiones, including IGUAZU FALLS   

BR:  in Brazil
am: in the Amazon basin 
se:   in the southeast, including the Atlantic Forest and sometimes including IGUAZU FALLS

Argentine (AR) & some Brazilian (BR) common names are in the list beneath the scientific names & those names that exist in English. English translations of the Spanish & Portuguese names are also given (or will be here later).

(ph):  species with a photo in the FONT website  
  
 

Links:

Information about upcoming FONT tours in: 
Brazil    Argentina & Chile
Or by month in: 
2015    or:  by geographic locations worldwide

A List & Photo Gallery of Brazil Birds, in 4 parts
Part #1: Tinamous to Doves   
Part #2: Macaws to Flycatchers    
Part #3: Antshrikes to Woodcreepers
   
Part #4: Vireos to Grosbeaks
  
A List & Photo Gallery of Argentina Birds, in 2 parts
Part #1: Tinamous to Flycatchers
    Part #2: Antshrikes to Grosbeaks  


Mammals & Other Wildlife in South America  (with some photos)  

A List & Photo Gallery of South America Butterflies, in 5 parts:
Swallowtails     Whites, Sulphurs, allies    Hairsteaks, Blues, Metalmarks  
Brushfoots
    Skippers

Other Lists & Photo Galleries of Butterflies & Moths 

Alphabetical Directory of Butterflies by Genus with Photos in the FONT Website 


List of selected Butterflies:

          Family PAPILIONIDAE: SWALLOWTAILS (and allies): 
        
 
       
  
Worldwide, there are totally about 700 known species of Swallowtails.


       
   Genus BATTUS: the PIPE-VINE SWALLOWTAILS  

  1. Battus polydamas polydamas  (ph)  ______ ARne  BRse  (DA:19) (DV1:1) (F:38) (K:37) (MM:140) (PE:5) (S:55)  (subspecies in the mainland Americas)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    POLYDAMAS SWALLOWTAIL (also called The Gold Rim, or Black Page) (Note Polydamas was a Trojan prince.)
    AR common name: Polydamas
    (Range: throughout the Americas & the Antilles) 

    In the tropics, Battus polydamas is continuously brooded. Butterflies live about a week.



    Battus polydamas, or the Polydamas Swallowtail

  2. Battus polystictus galenus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Battus polystictus polystictus ______ ARne  (MM:141) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Polysticto

  3. Battus crassus crassus  ______  BRne

  4. Battus madyes ______ (DA:19)
    (Range: Ecuador to Bolivia & northern Argentina)


    Genus PARIDES: CATTLEHEARTS

  5. Parides sesostris sesostris  ______  (DA:27) (DV1:2) (F:70)  (subspecies in Amazonas)
    Emerald-patched Cattle Heart
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia, possibly north-central Argentina, in Misiones)  

  6. Parides agavus  ______ ARne  BRse  (DA:23) (MM:142)
    AGAVUS CATTLEHEART
    AR common name: Agavo
    (Range: central Brazil to northeast Argentina & Paraguay)

  7. Parides bunichus  (ph)  ______
    Parides bunichus bunichus  ______  BRse
    Parides bunichus diodorus  ______  BR
    Parides bunichus perrhebus  ______  ARne  (MM:143)
    AR common name at Iguazu: Viudita del Norte (
    translates to "Northern Widow")



    Parides bunichus diodorus photographed during a FONT tour
    in Minas Gerais, Brazil 
    (identification due to Fernando Penco)


  8. Parides anchises nephalion ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:144)
    AR common name: Prudente (
    translates to "Prudent") (name relates to nephalios, Greek for prudent) 

  9. Parides acanius  ______  BRse

  10. Parides proneus  ______  BRse

  11. Parides tros tros  ______  BRse

  12. Parides zacynthus zacynthus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  13. Parides neophilus eurybates ______ ARne  (MM:145)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Escama Roja  ("Red Scale")

  14. Parides erlaces  ______ (DA:29)  
    (Range: Ecuador & Peru to northern Argentina)


    Genus EURYADES:
      species confined to middle latitudes of South America. Apparently "primitive" butterflies, closely related to the Australian CRESSIDA.


  15. Euryades duponcheli ______ (DA:32) 
    (Range: southern Brazil to northern Argentina, Paraguay, & Uruguay)


    Genera EURYTIDES, PROTESILAUS, NEOGRAPHIUM, MIMOIDES:  the KITE SWALLOWTAILS:  
    About 50 species confined to the New World. 
    Some mimic PARIDES and HELICONIUS butterflies. 
    Others have long tails, hence the name "Kite Swallowtails". 
    They are fast-fliers, and engage in mud-puddling. 

  16. Eurytides bellerophon  ______  BRse

  17. Eurytides dolicaon deicoon  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 

  18. Eurytides iphitas  ______  BRse

  19. Protesilaus (was Eurytides) stenodesmus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:148)
    AR common name: Espadachin Comun  ("Common Swordsman")
    BR common names: Veleiro, Argonauta, Pandorga

  20. Protesilaus (was Eurytides) protesilaus  ______  (DV1:3) 
    Protesilaus protesilaus protesilaus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Protesilaus protesilaus nigricornis  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:149) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    GREAT KITE SWALLOWTAIL
    AR common name: Espadachin  ("Swordsman")
    BR common names: Veleiro, Argonauta, Pandorga
    (Range: Mexico to Paraguay & northern Argentina)   

  21. Protesilaus (was Eurytides) helios ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:150)
    AR common name: Helios 
    (Helios, in Greek mythology, was the god of the sun.)

  22. Protesilaus (was Eurytides) telesilaus telesilaus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  23. Neographium (was Eurytides) asius  ______  BRse

    The genus for this and the following species has also been said to Protographium.

  24. Neographium (was Eurytides) thyastes thyastes  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  25. Mimoides lysithous lysithous  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)  
    Mimoides lysithous rurik  ______ ARne 
    (MM:146)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Rurik  (Rurik was the Scandinavian founder of the Russian Empire, who became the Prince of Novgorod in 862.)    

  26. Mimoides protodamas ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:147)
    AR common name: Falso Polysticto  ("False Polysticto")
      (referring to this butterfly's similarity with Battus polystictus, commonly called Polysticto)


    Genus: PAPILIO:
    the FLUTED SWALLOWTAILS: one of the most widespread of genera, with over 200 species. Most are tropical. Most have tails. Many are migratory. 

    "Papilio" is the Latin word for "butterfly".

    Subgenus HERACLIDES: the GIANT SWALLOWTAILS
    Subgenus PTEROURUS: the TIGER SWALLOWTAILS

  27. Papilio thoas nealces  (ph)  ______  (C:295) (DV1:4) (K:38 text) (PE:6)  (subspecies from Nicaragua to Brazil)
    Papilio thoas brasiliensis  ______ 
    ARne  BRse  (DA:34) (MM:151)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)  
    THOAS SWALLOWTAIL 

    AR common name: Toas Grande  (Toas in mythology was a Trojan hero.)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also: Cuba, Jamaica, Trinidad) 

    Papilio thoas is in the Heraclides subgenus, in the thoas species-group. 



    A Thoas Swallowtail photographed during a FONT tour in Brazil

  28. Papilio astyalus astyalus  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (C:299) (DV1:4) (F:54) (K:43) (MM:152) (PE:6)
    BROAD-BANDED SWALLOWTAIL 
    (also called Astyalus, or Lycophron Swallowtail)
    AR common name: Astyalos 
    (Astyalos in mythology was the name of a Trojan.)
    BR common names: Male: Pequeno Caixao de Deunto  Female: Viuva
    (Range: southern US to Argentina)  

    Papilio astyalus is found in areas forested with tropical hardwoods. Like many Papilio, the caterpillars breed on citrus.

    Papilio astyalus is in the Heraclides subgenus, in the thoas species-group.  

  29. Papilio androgeus  (ph)  ______  ARne  (DA:33) (DV1:4) (F:52) (K:41) (MM:153) (PE:6)
    ANDROGEUS SWALLOWTAIL 
    (or Queen Page)
    AR common name: Androgeo 
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, also in the West Indies) 

    The female of Papilio androgeus tends to be reclusive, not often seen. The male is much of the time in the forest canopy, occasionally coming down to mud-puddle.

    Papilio androgeus is in the Heraclides subgenus, in the thoas species-group.



    Above: the male Androgeus Swallowtail
    Below: the female Androgeus Swallowtail
    (lower photo by Jorge Bizarro)




  30. Papilo hectorides ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:154)
    AR common name: Hector 
    (Hector, in mythology, was a Trojan hero.)
    BR common name of the dark female: Viuvinha

    Papilio hectorides is in the Heraclides subgenus, in the torquatus species-group. 

  31. Papilio himeras himeras  ______  BRse

    Papilio himeras
    is in the Heraclides aubgenus, in the torquatus species-group.

  32. Papilio torquatus polybius  ______  ARne  BRse  (DA:35) (DV1:4) (MM:155)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    BAND-GAPPED SWALLOWTAIL
    AR common name: Polibio 
    (Polibio, who lived from 206-122 B.C., was a Greek historian and politician.) 
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia, Paraguay, & northeast Argentina)  

    The female of Papilio torquatus is polymorphic, with the white spot on the forewing & the shape and color of the pink patch on the hindwing variable.

    Papilio torquatus is in the Heraclides subgenus, in the torquatus species-group.

  33. Papilio scamander grayi  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Papilio scamander scamander  ______  ARne  (MM:157) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Escamandro 
    (referring to its scientific name, Escamandro is a river in Asia Minor, and the name of a Greek god) 

    Papilio scamander is in the Pteroourus subgenus, in the scamander species-group.

  34. Papilio menatius cleotas ______  ARne  BRse  (DA:37) (DV1:5) (MM:158)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Lunares Rojos  (
    translates to "Red Beauty Spots")
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil, Paraguay, & northeast Argentina) 

    Papilio menatius is in the Pterourus subgenus, in the homerus species-group. 

  35. Papilio anchisiades  (ph)  ______  (DV1:6) (F:52) (K:43) (MM:156) (PE:5) (S:48)
    Papilio anchisiades capys  ______  ARne  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    RUBY-SPOTTED
    (or RED-SPOTTED) SWALLOWTAIL  (other names are Anchisiades Swallowtail and Mourning Rose)
    AR common name: Mancha Rubi  (
    translates to "Ruby-spotted")
    (Range: Texas to Argentina)  

    The Ruby-spotted Swallowtail is often found at citrus trees. 

    Papilio anchisiades is in the Heraclides subgenus, in the anchisiades species-group.



    Ruby-spotted Swallowtail
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Family PIERIDAE 
    most are predominantly white, yellow, or orange in color, and are often referred to as WHITES, YELLOWS, or SULPHURS
    Worldwide, approximately 1,000 species of WHITES & SULPHURS have been described.



    Group of Pieridae during a FONT Brazil Tour
    in Mato Grosso do Sul
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


    Subfamily DISMORPHIINAE: MIMIC WHITES

    A long-winged, tropical group.


    Genus PSEUDOPIERIS: 
    2 species which can favor mountainous habitats, especially in Peru and Ecuador on the western slopes of the Andes.   


  36. Pseudopieris nehemia negemia  ______  ARne  BRse  (DA:53) (DV1:6) (MM:163)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    CLEAN MINIC-WHITE
    AR common name: Nehemias 
    (Nehemias was a Jewish leader who lived in the 5th Century B.C. He had an honorary position in the Persian king's court Artajerjes. In 444 B.C,, he was designated Judah's governor and was authorized to reconstruct Jerusalem.)
    BR common name: Floco de Neve ("Snowflake")
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil) 


    Genus DISMORPHIA: 
    With about 40 species that are remarkable mimics of various distasteful butterflies. The patterning is variable. Sexual dimorphism is marked in the species in this genus. 

  37. Dismorphia crisia crisia   ______  BRse  (DV1:6)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    CLOUD-FOREST MIMIC-WHITE
    (Range: southern Mexico to Brazil) 

  38. Dismorphia amphione astynome  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  39. Dismorphia theucharila ______ (C:363) (DV1:7)
    PIERID MIMIC 
    (this species looks like an ithomiine clearwing - D1:35)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  40. Dismorphia thermesia thermesia ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:161)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Bonita Perlada  (
    translates to "Pearled Pretty")

    The coloring on the ventral surface and the stylized outline of Dismorphia thermesia are unusual in this family. 

  41. Dismorphia astyocha ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:162)
    AR common name: Bonita  (
    translates to "Pretty")

    The bright coloring and the stylized outline of Dismorphia astyocha are uncommon in its family.

  42. Dismorphia melia ______  (DA:52)
    (Range: southern Brazil)

    Dismorphia melia is a mimic of the two ACRAEID species Actinote thalia & Actinote parapheles, to which it bears a very strong resemblance.   


    Genus ENANTIA: closely related to DISMORPHIA, but not as strongly sexually dimorphic. Sun-and-flower loving species, often encountered in numbers on flowers, usually at the end of the rainy season.       

  43. Enantia licinia ______ (DV1:7)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  44. Enantia melite  ______  (DA:53) (DV1:7)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Enantia melite melite  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    (Range: Mexico to Uruguay) 

    Enantia melite is a most variable butterfly.

  45. Enantia lina psamathe ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:159)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    WHITE MIMIC-WHITE  
    AR common name: Bonita Blanca (
    translates to "White Pretty") 

  46. Enantia clarissa ______ ARne  (MM:160)
    AR common name: Clarisa

  47. Enantia limnorina  ______  BRse  (DA:52)
    (Range: southern Brazil)


    Subfamily PIERINAE, Tribe ANTHOCHARIDINI


    Genus HESPEROCHARIS

  48. Hesperocharis anguitea anguitea  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  49. Hesperocharis emeris  ______  BRse

  50. Hesperocharis erota  ______  BRse 

  51. Hesperocharis hirlanda fulvinota  ______  (DA:55)  (subspecies in southern Brazil)
    (Range: Colombia to the Guianas, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil) 


    Subfamily PIERINAE, Tribe PIERINI: Whites and allies


    Genus ARCHONIAS: 
    3 species. A most interesting genus of PIERIDS. Considered to be involved in mimetic associations with PAPILIONID and HELICONID butterflies and with a species of ARCTIID day-flying moth.

    Comparatively slow-flying, with a fondness for settling on leaves in the sunshine or visiting flowering shrubs, where they spend substantial time & effort on one or two blooms.

  52. Archonias brassolis  ______
    Archonias brassolis negrina
    (formerly A. bellona)  ______ (DA:63) (DV1:7) (F:82)  (subspecies in Ecuador - this race said to resemble a day-flying ARCTIID moth) 
    Archonias brassolis tereas  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil)
    CRIMSON-PATCHED CATTLEHEART-MIMIC
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil, in Sao Paulo & Rio Grande do Sul) 

    Archonias brassolis looks like a mimic of a female Parides swallowtail. It lives in open parts of rainforests. 

  53. Archonias monuste orseis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus CATASTICTA

  54. Catasticta bithys  ______  BRse

  55. Catasticta huebneri  ______  BRse


    Genus PEREUTE: 
    About 8 species of the most subtly beautiful PIERIDS from any region of the world, with the outstanding colors being the soft rose-pinks, blue-grays, and cadmium yellow streaks and patches. 
    They can be remindful of the Indo-Australian DELIAS group (the JEZEBELS) in their appearance and behavior.  


  56. Pereute antodyca  ______  BRse

  57. Pereute swainsoni  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:164)
    AR common name: Embustera  (
    translates to "Lying")  (so-called because its dark coloration is uncommon in the PIERIDAE family; this butterfly is more like a NYMPHALIDAE)


    Genus GLUTOPHRISSA: 
    2 species said now, for structural reasons, to be distinct from the Oriental APPIAS (the GULLS)

  58. Glutophrissa drusilla drusilla ______  ARne  BRne  (DA:67) (DV1:12) (K:53) (MM:167) (PE:7)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    TROPICAL WHITE  (another names is FLORIDA WHITE)
    AR common name: Lechera Grande  (
    translates to "Big Milky") 
    (Range: southern US, Central & South America, also West Indies) 


    Genus LEPTOPHOBIA: 
    15-16 species whose general characteristic is the silvery-white color of the hindwing underside. Found from moderate to high elevations (to 9,000 ft. or 3,000 meters).

  59. Leptophobia aripa balidia  ______  ARne  BRse  (DV1:12) (MM:165)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    COMMON GREEN-EYED WHITE 
    AR common name: Blanquita  (
    translates to "Little White")
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil & northern Argentina) 

  60. Leptophobia eleusis eleusis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)  


    Genus MELETE

  61. Melete lycimnia (ph)  ______
    Melete lycimnia paulista ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:166) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    Melete lycimnia flippantha  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    COMMON MELWHITE  (or Creamy White)
    AR common name: Manteca  (
    translates to "Butter")  (referring to the coloring on the ventral hindwing)  



    Melete lycimnia, or the Common Melwhite
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


    Genus PIERIBALLIA

  62. Pieriballia viardi molione ______  ARne  (MM:169)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    PAINTED WHITE
    AR common name: Sayju Manchada  ("Spotted Sayju") 
    (Sayju is a Guarani word meaning "pale, yellowish".)
     


    Genus ITABALLIA

  63. Itaballia demophile  ______ (DV1:12)
    CROSS-BARRED WHITE
    (Range: Mexico to Paraguay) 


    Genus DAPTONEURA:  about 10 species of brightly-colored and strong-flying PIERIDS, given to extraordinary seasonal and local variation, thus making it difficult to determine precisely what are good species or races or even aberrations.

  64. Daptoneura lycimnia pantoporia  ______ (DA:75)  (subspecies in southern Brazil & Paraguay)
    (Colombia, Venezuela, & the Guianas to Paraguay; also Trinidad) 
     


    Genera ASCIA
    and GANYRA:  Large plain white butterflies with some brown or gray markings especially in the females.

  65. Ganyra (was Ascia) josephina josepha  ______  (DV1:12) (PE:8)
    GIANT WHITE
    (Range: Central & South America, also the West Indies) 

  66. Ascia monuste orseis  ______  ARne  (DV1:12) (K:53) (MM:168) (PE:8)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    GREAT SOUTHERN WHITE
    AR common name: Sayju 
    (Sayju is a Guarani word meaning "pale, yellowish".)
    BR common name: Borboleta da Couvre 

    (Range: southern US, Central & South America, also the Antilles) 

    The migrating females of Ascia monuste are almost totally gray in color, while non-migratory females are largely yellowish-white with dark brown margins.

  67. Ganyra phaloe endeis   ______  BRse  (DA:68)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    (Range: Brazil to the Guianas, also Peru & Paraguay)   

    The former Ascia buniae has been merged into Ganyra phaloe. It occurs in northeast Brazil & northeast Argentina.
    Southern Brazilian forms of Ganyra phaloe have strong markings.    
     

    Subfamily COLIADINAE: SULPHURS
    300 species worldwide


    Genus LEUCIDIA

  68. Leucidia elvina  ______  BRse


    Genus COLIAS: SULPHURS  

    This genus in South America tends to occupy temperate and/or high altitude habitats. Essentially, this genus, of 10 species, is Holarctic (North American/Eurasian).  


  69. Colias lesbia lesbia ______ ARne  BR  (DA:56) (MM:170)
    LUCEN'S BUTTERFLY
    AR common name: Isoca de la Alfalfa
    BR common names: Borboletinha de Alfafa and Borboletinha Alaranjada 
    (Range: Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego)


    Genus ANTEOS: ANGLED SULPHURS
    often found flying high over the canopy or along rivers 

  70. Anteos clorinde  (ph)  ______ ARne  BRse  (DV1:8) (F:78) (K:77) (MM:171) (PE:10) (S:71)
    WHITE-ANGLED SULPHUR 
    (other names are Clorinde or the Ghost Brimstone
    AR common name: Anteo  (Anteo, in Greek mythology, was a giant.) 
    (Range: Mexico to Paraguay & northeast Argentina)



    White-angled Sulphur
    (photo by Doug Johnson)

  71. Anteos menippe  ______  BRse


    Genus PHOEBIS: GIANT SULPHURS: 
     
    the most conspicuous tropical sulphurs,  common, and found in open areas & forest edges, adult males cluster on moist sand along rivers & streams 


  72. Phoebis philea philea ______ ARne  BRse  (DA:58) (DV1:8) (F:105) (K:75) (MM:173) (PE:10) (S:70)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    ORANGE-BARRED SULPHUR
      (other names are: Yellow Apricot and Morning)
    AR common name: Mananita  (referring to the color of the wings, the same as that of a clear sky at daybreak)
    (Range: southern United States to southern Brazil & ne Argentina) 

    In addition to visiting flowers, males of Phoebis philea visit wet sand and mud, probably to obtain sodium. This general habit of many PIERIDS has been known since Henry Walter Bates was on the Amazon. 

  73. Phoebis sennae  (ph)  ______  (C:247) (DA:57) (DV1:9) (F:105) (K:75) (PE:10)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Phoebis sennae sennae  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Phoebis sennae marcellina  ______ ARne  (MM:172)
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    CLOUDLESS SULPHUR
    AR common name: Febo
    BR common name: Casca da Limao
    (Range: southern US to Argentina, also in Antilles) 

    Phoebis sennae can be abundant in both lowlands & highlands. It prospers in open land.



    Phoebis sennae, the Cloudless Sulphur

  74. Phoebis neocypris neocypris ______ ARne  (MM:175)
    TAILED SULPHUR
    AR common name: Ciprina
    (one of the names of the goddess Venus)  

  75. Phoebis argante argante ______ ARne  BRse  (DV1:9) (F:104) (MM:174)
    APRICOT SULPHUR 
    (has been called the Argante Giant Sulphur or Argante)
    AR common name: Yema  (meaning the yolk of an egg)
    BR common name: Gema de Ovo 
    (also meaning yolk)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) (there's another subspecies in the West Indies)

  76. Phoebis agarithe  (ph)  ______  (DV1:9) (F:104) (K:75) (PE:10)
    LARGE ORANGE SULPHUR
    (Range: southern US to Brazil)



    A female Large Orange Sulphur


    Genus APHRISSA 

  77. Aphrissa (was Phoebis) statira  ______  (DV1:9) (F:80) (PE:10)
    Aphrissa statira statira ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:177) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    STATIRA SULPHUR 
    (other names are Yellow Migrant and Migrant Sulphur)
    AR name: Manifestante  (referring to their habit of meeting in assemblies, as do demonstrators)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil; there are several other subspecies in the West Indies)


    Genus RHABDODRYAS 

  78. Rhabdodryas (was Phoebis) trite banksi ______  ARne  BRse  (DV1:8) (MM:176)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    STRAIGHT-LINED SULPHUR
    AR common name: Hoja Amarilla  (
    translates to "Yellow Leaf")
      (referring to the coloration & pattern on the ventral side, similar to a leaf)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina; also in the West Indies)  

    When Rhabdodryas trite rests with its wings folded, it blends into the vegetation background and becomes invisible to predators.    


    Genera EUREMA
    and PYRISITIA: SMALL YELLOWS 

  79. Eurema proterpia ______  (DA:61) (DV1:10) (F:97) (K:69) (PE:11)
    TAILED ORANGE
    (or Little Jaune)
    (Range: southern US, thru Central & South America, also the Antilles) 

    There are seasonally different forms of Eurema proterpia of both sexes: wet season & dry season forms. 

  80. Eurema mexicana ______ (DV1:10) (F:97) (K:73) (PE:11)
    MEXICAN YELLOW
    (Range: southern US, thru Central & South America) 

  81. Eurema albula albula  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Eurema albula sinoe  ______ ARne  (DV1:10) (MM:179) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    WHITE YELLOW 
    (has been called GHOST YELLOW)
    AR common name: Alba (translates to "White")
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil & ne Argentina, also West Indies)  

  82. Eurema arbela arbela  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  83. Eurema deva deva  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:180)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Limoncito  (
    translates to "Small Lemon")
    BR common name: Canarinho  (
    translates to "Small Canary") 


  84. Eurema nise tenella  ______  ARne  BR:se  (DV1:10) (K:71) (MM:182) (PE:11)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    MIMOSA YELLOW 
    (also called Jamaican Sulphur)
    AR common name at Iguazu: Limoncito del Nordeste  (
    translates to "Northeastern Small Lemon") 
    (Range: southern US to Argentina, also West Indies) 

  85. Eurema daira daira  ______  (DA:60) (DV1:10) (F:96) (K:71) (PE:11)  (subspecies in the mainland of the Americas) 
    BARRED YELLOW
    (also called Barred Sulphur)
    (Range; southern US to Uruguay, also West Indies)  

    Eurema daira is subject to seasonal dimorphism in both sexes.

  86. Eurema elathea flavescens ______ ARne  BRse  (DV1:10) (MM:178)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    BANDED YELLOW
    AR common name: Limoncito Adornado  (
    translates to "Small Decorated Lemon")
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil & northeast Argentina, also West Indies) 

  87. Pyrisitia (was Eurema) leuce leuce ______  ARne  BRse  (DA:59) (MM:181)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    LEUCE YELLOW 
    AR common names: Limoncito Manchado (
    translates to "Spotted Small Lemon") and Limoncito Dos Puntos (translates to "Two-spotted Small Lemon")
    (Range: Panama to Argentina; also the West Indies)

  88. Eurema phiale paula  ______  BRse  (DA:60)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)   
    (Range: in Colombia & Bolivia and east to southeast Brazil)

    Eurema phiale is subject to seasonal dimorphism.



    Family LYCAENIDAE (GOSSAMER WINGS)
     including: HAIRSTREAKS, BLUES
     
    Throughout the world but mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. The sexes often differ in coloration, and the undersides usually differ from the upper surfaces.
    Among several distinct groups are the HAIRSTREAKS, with tails and bright eyespot markings on the hindwings, creating a "false head" at the rear, to divert attackers. 
    Thus far, worldwide, about 5,000 species in this family have been discovered and named. Caterpillars of many of these species are closely associated with ants.


    Subfamily THECLINAE: HAIRSTREAKS


    Genus ALLOMAITIA 
    (genus created in 1964) 

  89. Allomaitia strophius (formerly A. pion)  ______  BRse  (PE:text)
    STROPHIUS HAIRSTREAK
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)


    Genus ARAWACUS

  90. Arawacus ellida  ______  BRse

  91. Arawacus meliboeus  (ph)  ______  BRse
    MELIBOEUS STRIPESTREAK



    the Meliboeus Stripestreak, Arawacus meliboeus
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)


    Genus ARCAS

  92. Arcas ducalis  ______  BRse

  93. Arcas imperialis  ______  BRse


    Genus ARUMECLA 
    (genus created in 2004) 

  94. Arumecla aruma  ______  BRse


    Genus ATLIDES

  95. Atlides cosa  ______  BRse

  96. Atlides polybe  ______  BRse  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)

  97. Atlides zava  ______  BRse


    Genus CALYCOPIS

  98. Calycopis caulonia  ______  BRse

  99. Calycopis gentilla  ______  BRse


    Genus CELMIA 
    (genus created in 1991)

  100. Celmia celmus  ______  BRse


    Genus CONTRAFACIA
    (genus created in 1989)

  101. Contrafacia imma  ______  BRse


    Genus REKOA: 
    A small genus of blue butterflies in Central & South America. 

  102. Rekoa marius  ______  BRse  (PE:text)
    MARIUS HAIRSTREAK 
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

  103. Rekoa palegon ______ ARne  BRse   (MM:191) (PE:text)
    GOLD-BORDERED HAIRSTREAK 
    (other names have been:  Palegon Hairstreak or Curved Band Blue)
    AR common name: Azul Banda Curva  (translates to "Curve-banded Blue")
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

  104. Rekoa malina ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:192)
    AR common name: Azul Banda Recta  (translates to "Straight-banded Blue")

  105. Rekoa stagira ______ ARne  (MM:193)
    SMUDGED HAIRSTREAK 
    AR common name: Aristolteles  ("Aristotle")
    (re the scientific name: Stagira is the city where Aristotle was born.)

  106. Rekoa meton  ______  BRse


    Genus CHLOROSTRYMON

  107. Chlorostrymon telea  (ph)  ______ (PE:text)
    TELEA HAIRSTREAK 
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)



    Telea Hairstreak
    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen)

  108. Chlorostrymon simaethis  (ph)  ______  (K:117) (PE:13)
    Chlorostrymon simaethis sarita  ______  ARne  (MM:202) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    SILVER-BANDED HAIRSTREAK 
    (or Simaethis Hairstreak)
    AR common name: Banda de Plata 
    (referring to the silver band on the ventral surface)
    (Range: southern US to Argentina, also in the West Indies) 



    Silver-banded Hairstreak
    (photo courtesy of Michiel Koomen)


    Genus OCARIA

  109. Ocaria ocrisia  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:199)  (PE:text)
    BLACK HAIRSTREAK 
    (or Ocrisia) (re the name: Ocrisia was a noble Roman, Servio Tulio's mother, the 6th Roman emperor.) 
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)


  110. Ocaria thales  ______  BRse


    Genus CYANOPHRYS: TROPICAL GREEN HAIRSTREAKS 
    (genus created in 1961)

  111. Cyanophrys acaste ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:194)
    AR common name: Acasto 
    (In Greek mythology, Acasto was the son of Pelias.)

  112. Cyanophrys herodotus ______ ARne  BRse  (K:117) (MM:195) (PE:13)
    TROPICAL GREENSTREAK 
    (or Tropical Green Hairstreak
    AR common name: Herodoto  (referring to Herodoto, a Greek historian in the 5th Century BC)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil  & northeast Argentina)

  113. Cyanophrys remus ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:196)
    DOUBLE-LINED EMERALD
    AR common name: Remo 


  114. Cyanophrys amyntor  ______  BRse


    Genus ERORA

  115. Erora campa  ______  BRse


    Genus EVENUS

  116. Evenus coronata ______ (S:88)
    HEWITSON'S BLUE HAIRSTREAK 

  117. Evenus batesii  ______  BRse

  118. Evenus regalis  ______  BRse


    Genus IASPIS

  119. Iaspis talayra  ______  BRse


    Genus LAMPROSPILUS

  120. Lamprospilus badaca  ______  BRse

  121. Lamprospilus nubilum  ______  BRse

  122. Lamprospilus arza  ______  BRse


    Genus LAOTHUS 
    (genus created in 1997)

  123. Laothus phydela  ______  BRse


    Genus MEGATHECLA 
    (genus created in 2002)

  124. Megathecla cupentus  ______  BRse


    Genus MICHAELUS 
    (genus created in 1979)

  125. Michaelus jebus


    Genus PANTHIADES

  126. Panthiades hebracus  ______  BRse


    Genus PARRHASIUS

  127. Parrhasius orgia orgia  ______ ARne  (MM:197)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    VARIABLE HAIRSTREAK 
    AR common name: Orgia


  128. Parrhasius polibetes  ______  BRse


    Genus PSEUDOLYCAENA

  129. Pseudolycaena marsyas  ______  BRse  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 


    Genus OENOMAUS:
    Hairstreaks of North & South America, relatively large and with iridescent colors. Live in lightly wooded areas.

     
  130. Oenomaus ortygnus ______ (PE:text)
    AQUAMARINE HAIRSTREAK 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  131. Oenomaus rustan ______ (F:260)
    (Range: Honduras to Brazil)


    Genus TMOLUS: Dimorphic tailed hairstreaks with dark uppers and light undersides. 

  132. Tmolus echion ______ ARne  BRse  (F:278) (K: 119) (MM:206) (PE:13)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    RED-SPOTTED HAIRSTREAK 
    (other names: Echion Hairstreak, Four-spotted Hairstreak) 
    AR common name: Tmolos  (Larger Lantana Butterfly
    ) (In mythology, Tmolos was the father of Tantalo.)
    (Mexico to Brazil & northeast Argentina) 

  133. Tmolus cydrara  ______  BRse


    Genus MINISTRYMON: 
    Hairstreaks of North & South America that have adaptations for living in deserts. Breed on mesquites, spiny trees, and shrubs of the Proposis genus, which grow in deserts, especially by watercourses. The colors of the butterflies are blue, gray, and black.  

  134. Ministrymon azia ______  (K:119) (PE:13)
    GRAY MINISTREAK 
    (or Azia Hairstreak)
    (Range: south Texas to southern Brazil, also West Indies)

  135. Ministrymon una ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:204)
    PALE HAIRSTREAK
    AR common name: Frotadora Palida  (
    translates to "Pale Rubber")

  136. Ministrymon cleon  ______  BRse


    Genus OSTRINOTES 
    (genus created in 1997)

  137. Ostrinotes sophocles  ______  BRse

  138. Ostrinotes tympania  ______  BRse


    Genus SIDERUS

  139. Siderus tephraeus ______ (PE:text)
    PEARLY-GRAY HAIRSTREAK 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  140. Siderus philmna  ______  BRse


    Genus STREPHONOTA 
    (genus created in 1997)

  141. Strephonota elika  ______  BRse

  142. Strephonota sphinx  ______  BRse

  143. Strephonota tephraeus  ______  BRse  


    Genus ELECTROSTRYMON

  144. Electrostrymon endymion ______ ARne  (MM:201)
    ENDYMION HAIRSTREAK 
    (re the name: Endymion in Greek mythology was a shepherd who lulled in perpetual sleep.)  


    Genus STRYMON: SCRUB HAIRSTREAKS:  In both North & South America. Butterflies exhibit seasonal variation. 

  145. Strymon melinus ______ (C:181) (F:274) (K: 93) (PE:15) (S:90)  
    GRAY HAIRSTREAK 

    The Gray Hairstreak is widely distributed, southern Canada to South America, living in many different types of open habitat. It has been recorded breeding on over 50 species of plants.

  146. Strymon rufofusca ______ (K:123) (PE:15)
    RED-CRESCENT SCRUB-HAIRSTREAK 
    (or Reddish Hairstreak
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, also Grenada)

  147. Strymon yojoa  ______  BRse  (K:123) (PE:15)
    YOJOA SCRUB-HAIRSTREAK 
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

  148. Strymon istapa  (ph)  ______  (K:121) (PE:14) 
    Strymon istapa istapa  ______  ARne  
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MALLOW SCRUB-HAIRSTREAK 
    (Range: southern US to South America)



    Strymon istapa, or the Mallow Scrub-Hairstreak
    photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  149. Strymon bazochii ______ ARne  (K:123) (MM:207) (PE:15)
    LANTANA SCRUB-HAIRSTREAK 
    (or Bazochii Hairstreak)
    AR common name: Azul del Camara  (
    translates to "Smaller Lantana Butterfly") (refers to one of the host plants, Lantana camara)  
    (Range: south Texas to Paraguay & ne Argentina, also in the Greater Antilles)

  150. Strymon mulucha ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:208)
    MOTTLED SCRUB-HAIRSTREAK
    AR common name: Frotadora Linea Blanca (
    translates to "White Line Rubber") (refers to the white hyphen on the forewings below)

  151. Strymon astiocha ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:209)
    GRAY-SPOTTED SCRUB-HAIRSTREAK
    AR common name: Astiocha

  152. Strymon eurytulus ______ ARne  (MM:210)
    AR common name: Frotadora  (
    translates to "Rubber")  (refers to a peculiar behavior as this butterfly drinks)

  153. Strymon megarus ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:211)
    MEGARUS SCRUB-HAIRSTREAK
    AR common name: Taladro de la Pina  (
    translates to "Pineapple Drill") (refers to the host plant) 

  154. Strymon ziba  ______  BRse 


    Genus SYMBIOPSIS
      (genus created in 1971)

  155. Symbiopsis strenua  ______  BRse


    Genus THEPYTUS

  156. Thepytus thyrea  ______  BRse


    Genus THERITAS

  157. Theritas deniva  ______  BRse

  158. Theritas hemon  (ph)  ______  BRse
    HEMON BLUE HAIRSTREAK



    Hemon Blue Hairstreaks, female & male 
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  159. Theritas triquetra  ______  BRse


    Genus THESTIUS

  160. Thestius azaria  ______  BRse


    Genus ZIEGLERIA 
    (genus crated in 1993)

  161. Ziegleria hesperitis  ______  BRse


    Subfamily POLYOMMATINAE: BLUES

    Very small butterflies, mostly blue above. Females of many are browner.


    Genus LEPTOTES

     
  162. Leptotes cassius  (ph)  ______  (K:127) (PE:16) (S:99) 
    Leptotes cassius cassius  ______  ARne  BRse
      (MM:215) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)  
    CASSIUS BLUE
    AR common name: Azul Litacea  
    (Range: southern US to South America, also in the West Indies)

    The males of Leptotes cassius are a light lilac-blue, the females are mainly white.



    Leptotes cassius, or the Cassius Blue 
    (photos by Marie Gardner)






    Genus ZIZULA:  A genus of Blues 

  163. Zizula cyna ______ ARne  BRse  (F:279) (K:127) (MM:213) (PE:15)
    CYNA BLUE
    AR common name: Miri 
    (a Guarani word meaning "small")
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina)

    Zizula cyna occurs in dry and scrubby areas. It is one of the smallest butterflies. It sways from side to side when perched.


    Genus HEMIARGUS: Commonly called "eyed blues", these butterflies occur in both North & South America. 
    This common name is from 2 or 3 eye-spots on the undersides of the hindwings. 
    They breed on a wide variety of members of the pea family, Leguminosae.

       
  164. Hemiargus ceraunus ______ (K:129) (PE:15)
    CERAUNUS BLUE
    (Range: southern US to South America, also in the West Indies)

  165. Hemiargus hanno hanno  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:214)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    HANNO BLUE
    AR common name: Miri Manchada  (
    translates to "Spotted Miri") (the spots are on the hind wings below)


    Genus ELKALYCE  (genus created in 1996)

  166. Elkalyce cogina  ______  BRse



    Family RIODINIDAE, Subfamilies EUSELASIINAE and RIODININAE: METALMARKS:  
    Named for the gold, silver, or copper-colored metallic scales on the wings of many of the species 
    About 1,300 species are known, found mainly in the American tropics.
    Habitually, these butterflies land on the undersides of foliage, with their wings spread wide open. 


    Genus EUSELASIA: 
    A large group of over 100 species of metalmarks in Central and South America. They often sexually dimorphic, and often have a pattern of lines and waves on their undersides.

  167. Euselasia hygenius occulta  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:216)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Simuladora  (
    translates to "Pretender") 
    (name refers to similarity with some SATYRINAE)

  168. Euselasia utica ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:217)
    AR common name: Nemi Naranja  (
    translates to "Orange Nemi")  (Nemi is a Guarani word meaning hidden. The butterfly rests on the underside of leaves, with wings folded.) 

  169. Euselasia eugeon ______ ARne  (MM:218)
    AR common name: Patas Amarillas  (
    translates to "Yellow Legs")

  170. Euselasia thucydides thucydides  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 


    Genus ADELOTYPA

  171. Adelotypa bolena  ______  BRse

  172. Adelotypa leucophaea  ______  BRse


    Genus ANTEROS

  173. Anteros renaldus notius  ______  BRse


    Genus APODEMIA

  174. Apodemia castanea  ______  BRse


    Genus BAEOTIS

  175. Baeotis melanis  ______  BRse


    Genus DACHETOLA

  176. Dachetola azora  (ph)  ______  BRse



    Dachetola azora
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)


    Genus DETRITIVORA 
    (genus created in 2002)

  177. Detritivora gynaea  ______  BRse


    Genus ECHYDNA 
    (genus created in 2002)

  178. Echydna chaseba  ______  BRse

  179. Echydna punctata  ______  BRse  


    Genus PANARA

  180. Panara phereclus  ______  BRse  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)

  181. Panara ovifera  ______  BRse

    Panara ovifera
    is an endangered species.

  182. Panara soana soana  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus PEROPTHALMA

  183. Peropthalma tullius ______ (DV2:3)
    TULLIUS METALMARK
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)


    Genus PIRASCCA  (genus created in 1996)

  184. Pirascca sagaris satnius  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus LEMONIAS

  185. Lemonias zygia zygia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus LEUCOCHIMONA

  186. Leucochimona icare matatha  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus MESOSEMIA
    :  More than 60 species in mostly South America, characterized by quite prominent eye-spots on the forewing, giving a face-like appearance. Unusual for butterflies, they tend to hop through vegetation rather than fly.

  187. Mesosemia odice  odice ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:219)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Ojitos  (
    translates to "Little Eyes")

  188. Mesosemia acuta  ______  BRse

  189. Mesosemia friburgensis  ______  BRse

  190. Mesosemia minos tetrophthalma  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  191. Mesosemia nyctea fluminensis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 


    Genus METACHARIS

  192. Metacharis lucius  ______  BRse

  193. Metacharis ptolomaeus  ______  BRse


    Genus NAPAEA

  194. Napaea eucharila ______ (DV2:5)
    WHITE-STITCHED METALMARK 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  195. Napaea umbra  ______  BRse  (DV2:5)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  196. Napaea orpheus  ______  BRse


    Genus EURYBIA: 
    dark-colored Neotropical metalmarks with a conspicuous eye-spot on the forewing.

  197. Eurybia unxia ______ (DV2:6)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Bolivia & Brazil)  

  198. Eurybia elvina ______ (DV2:6)
    BLIND SHEENMARK
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  199. Eurybia tephrias ______ ARne  (MM:221)
    AR common name: Goteada  (translates to "Dripped") 
    (the name refers to the butterfly's white spots)

  200. Eurybia molochina molochina  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  201. Eurybia misellivestris  ______  BRse

  202. Eurybia pergaea  ______  BRse  


    Genus CHORINEA

  203. Chorinea octauius ______ (DV2:7)
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil)  

  204. Chorinea heliconides  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:224)
    AR common name: Puntilla Negra  (
    translates to "Black Lace")


    Genus CREMNA

  205. Cremna thasus ______ (DV2:7)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  206. Cremna alector  ______  BRse


    Genus NOTHEME

  207. Notheme erota agathon  (ph)  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Notheme erota angelius  ______ ARne  (DV:2:7) (MM:225) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    EROTA METALMARK
    AR common name: Redondita  (
    translates to "Small Round")  (refers to the peculiar posture when at rest)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 



    Erota Metalmark
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)


    Genus ANCYLURIS: 
    Mostly South American, up to 20 species.
    Many are black with contrasting red or white bands on the upperwings.  

  208. Ancyluris tedea ______ ARne  (MM:222)
    AR common name: Cinta Roja  ("Red Ribbon") 

    In the book "Butterflies of Misiones", in 2003: there was the first mention of Ancylurus tedcea in Argentina. 


    Genus RHETUS: 
    4 mostly South American species with long hindwings. 

  209. Rhetus dysonii ______ (DV2:8)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil) 

  210. Rhetus arcius  ______  (DV2:8) (F:268)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1763) 
    Rhetus arcius arcius  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    SWORD-TAILED METALMARK
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia & Brazil) 

  211. Rhetus periander eleusinus  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (DV2:8) (MM:223)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    VARIABLE BEAUTYMARK  (or Periander Swordtail)
    AR common name: Eleusinian 
    (re the name: Eleusinian inhabited Eleusis, an Attica port nw of Athens) 
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)   



    Variable Beautymark (or Periander Swordtail)
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus SYRMATIA:  Mostly South American metalmarks, having an unmistakable shape with incredibly long, drawn-out hindwings.

      
  212. Syrmatia nyx  ______  BRse  (DV2:9)
    SPOTTED TAILWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil, also Trinidad)

  213. Syrmatia aethiops ______ (DV2:9)
    WHITE-TIPPED TAILWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)


    Genus ISAPIS

  214. Isapis agyrtus ______ (DV2:9)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)


    Genus MELANIS :  called "Mulattos" in Argentina

  215. Melanis pixe ______ (C:327) (DV2:9) (K:151) (PE:17)
    RED-BORDERED PIXIE 
    (or Pixie)
    (Range: Texas, in the lower Rio Grande valley, to Brazil) 


  216. Melanis xenia ______ ARne  (MM:234)
    AR common name: Mulata Dentada  (
    translates to "Toothed Mulatto")  ("toothed" refers to the irregular bands on the dorsal surface)  

  217. Melanis smithiae ______ ARne  (MM:235)
    Melanis smithiae xarifa  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    AR common name: Mulata Puntas Naranja  (
    translates to "Orange-tipped Mulatto")

  218. Melanis aegates cretiplaga ______ ARne  (MM:236)
    AR common name: Mulata Mancha Blanca  ("White-spotted Mulatto")

  219. Melanis unxia unxia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus CARIA

  220. Caria castalia  ______  BRse
    Caria castalia marsyas  ______  ARne  (MM:232) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Brillantina  ("Brilliantine")
    (referring to its brilliant green coloration) 

  221. Caria plutargus ______ ARne  (MM:233)
    AR common name: Brillantina y Naranja  ("Brilliantine and Orange") 
    (with orange spots)


    Genus PARCELLA

  222. Parcella amarynthina  ______ (DV2:10) (MM:226)
    ORANGE-BANDED METALMARK 
    AR common name: Falsa Redondita  ("False Small Round",
    refers to its similarity with Notheme erota angellus
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina) 


    Genus CHARIS

  223. Charis auius ______ (DV2:11)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)

  224. Charis gynaea ______ (DV2:11)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil) 


    Genus CALEPHELIS: SCINTILLANT METALMARKS: 
    only in the Americas, mostly in the tropics, many species bewilderingly similar 

  225. Calephelis nilius ______ ARne  (MM:227)
    AR common name: Lineas Celestes  ("Sky-blue Lines")


    Genus ARGYROGRAMMANA

  226. Argyrogrammana venilia ______ (DV2:13)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil) 


    Genus MESENE:
    mostly South American, about 20 species.

     
  227. Mesene phareus  ______  (DV2:13) (F:255) (S:102)
    CELL-BARRED METALMARK
    (or CRAMER'S MESENE)
    (Range: Mexico to Peru & Brazil) 

    Mesene phareus is strikingly beautiful, the male a deep red with black borders, the female a lighter color and larger.

  228. Mesene monostigma ______ ARne  (MM:250)
    AR common name: Diminuta Manchada  ("Spotted Tiny")

  229. Mesene pyrippe pyrippe  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Mesene pyrippe sanguilenta ______ ARne  (MM:251) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Diminuta Naranja y Parda  ("Orange and Brown Tiny") 


  230. Mesene epaphus ______ ARne  (MM:252)
    Mesene epaphus epaphus  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    AR common name: Diminuta Narania  ("Orange Tiny")


  231. Mesene simplex celetes ______ ARne  (MM:253)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Diminuta Amarilla  ("Yellow Tiny")

  232. Mesene florus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus SYMMACHIA  

  233. Symmachia accusatrix ______ (DV2:14)
    FEATHERED FIESTAMARK
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  234. Symmachia probetor  ______ (DV2:14)
    RED-LEAD FIESTAMARK 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  235. Symmachia menetas menetas ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:249)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Simaquia Meridional  (
    translates to "Southern Simaquia") ("Simaquia" refers to the name of the genus)  

    In the book, "Butterflies of Missiones", 2003: the first sighting was noted of Symmachia menetas in Argentina.


    Genus STALACHTIS

  236. Stalachtis susanna  ______  BRse
      


    Genus STICHELIA

  237. Stichelia sagaris ______ (DV2:14)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil, also Trinidad)

  238. Stichelia bocchoris suavis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus SAROTA

  239. Sarota myrtea  ______ (DV2:15)
    WHITE-CHEEKED JEWELMARK
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  240. Sarota psaros  ______ (DV2:15)
    PEARLY JEWELMARK 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  241. Sarota gyas ______ (DV2:15)
    (Range: Honduras to Brazil)

  242. Sarota chrysus  ______  BRse 


    Genus CHALODETA

  243. Chalodeta lypera ______ (DV2:15)
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil)

  244. Chalodeta chaonitis ______ (DV2:15)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil, also Trinidad)

  245. Chalodeta theodora  (ph)  ______  BRse
    Chalodeta theodora theodora  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:231) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    THEODORA METALMARK
    AR common name: Lineas Brilliantes  ("Shiny Lines")



    Theodora Metalmark
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  246. Chalodeta chelonis  ______  BRse


    Genus LASAIA

  247. Lasaia oileus ______ (DV2:16)
    (Range: Honduras to Peru & Brazil)

  248. Lasaia agesilas agesilas  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Lasaia agesilas esmeralda ______ ARne  (MM:229) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Hovy 
    (the name is a Guarani word meaning "blue", referring to the coloring of the male)

  249. Lasaia arsis ______ ARne  (MM:230)
    AR common name: Hovy Salpicada  ("Splashy Hovy") 
    (Hovy, as noted above, is a Guarani word meaning "blue".)


    Genus EMESIS:  a complicated genus of METALMARKS, also known as TANMARKS, that need further work

  250. Emesis tenedia  ______  (DV2:17) (K:151) (PE:text)
    FALCATE METALMARK 
    (or Falcate Emesia)
    (Range: south Texas to Brazil) 

  251. Emesis ocypore zelotes  ______  ARne  BRse  (DV2:16) (MM:239)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    DARK TANMARK   
    AR common name: Acrobata Morena  ("Dark Acrobat")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

  252. Emesis mandana ______ (DV2:17)
    GREAT TANMARK
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  253. Emesis cypria ______ (DV2:17)
    ORANGE-STRIPED TANMARK
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia) 

  254. Emesis diogenia ______ ARne  (MM:237)
    AR common name: Diogenia 
    (Diogenia, in mythology, was Celeo's daughter.)  

  255. Emesis russula ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:238)
    AR common name: Acrobata Rojiza  (
    translates to "Reddish Acrobat")

  256. Emesis neemias ______ ARne  (MM:240)
    AR common name: Acrobata Brillantina  (
    translates to "Brilliant Acrobat")

  257. Emesis fatimella fatimella  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  258. Emesis lupina melancholica  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
     

    Genus THISBE

  259. Thisbe irenea ______ (DV2:18)
    SAILOR'S
    (or IRENIA) LEMMARK 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 


    Genus JUDITHA

  260. Juditha molpe ______ (DV2:18)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  261. Juditha azon azon  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus CATOCYCLOTIS

  262. Catocyclotis aemulius  ______  BRse  (DV2:18)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil) 


    Genus SYNARGIS: 
    Tailless mostly South American LYCAENIDS, often with an interesting black and white coloration.

     
  263. Synargis calyce  ______  BRse
    Synargis calyce brennus ______ ARne  (MM:241) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Nemi 
    (Nemi is a Guarani word meaning "hidden")

  264. Synargis victrix ______ ARne  (MM:242)
    AR common name: Nemi Demarcada  ("Demarcated Nemi")

  265. Synargis phliasus phliasus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus AUDRE

  266. Audre gauchoana ______ ARne  (MM:244)
    AR common name: Colage Parda  (
    translates to "Brown Patchwork")

  267. Audre notialis ______ ARne  (MM:245)
    AR common name: Colage Irregular  (
    translates to "Irregular Patchwork")

  268. Audre chilensis ______ ARne  (MM:246)
    AR common name: Colage Meridional  (
    translates to "Southern Patchwork")


    Genus MENANDER

  269. Menander menander nitida  ______  BRse (DV2:20)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    SHINING-BLUE GRAYLER    
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)  

  270. Menander pretus pretus  ______  BRse  (DV2:20)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    GREENISH GRAYLER 
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil) 


    Genus PERIPLACIS: 
    Mostly South American LYCAENIDS with strongly angled wings, and with brown and blue coloration.

  271. Periplacis glaucoma splendida ______ (DV2:20) (F:262)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)


    Genus NYMPHIDIUM

  272. Nymphidium mantus ______ (C:357) (DV2:22)
    MANTUS METALMARK 
    (also called BLUE NYMPHIDIUM)
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil, also Trinidad)

  273. Nymphidium azanoides  ______ (DV2:22)
    AZANOIDES METALMARK
    (Range: Costa Rica & Panama, Ecuador & Brazil)  

  274. Nymphidium ascolia ______ (DV2:22)
    CREAMY METALMARK
    (Range: Guatemala to Bolivia & Brazil)

  275. Nymphidium lisimon  ______  BRse


    Genus THEOPE

  276. Theope pedias  ______ (DV2:24)
    EXTROVERTED THEOPE 
    (also called YELLOW-BOTTOMED THEOPE)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  277. Theope lycaenina  ______ (DV2:25)
    GRAY THEOPE
    (Range: Costa Rica to eastern Brazil)


    Family NYMPHALIDAE: BRUSHFOOTS
    Cosmopolitan, with subfamilies range from 8 to 25, depending upon taxonomic treatment.
    This is the most diverse family of butterflies, with approximately 6,000 known species worldwide. Brushfoot butterflies appear 4 rather than 6-legged as their 2 front legs are much reduced.  


    Subfamily LIBYTHEINAE:  SNOUTS


    Genus LIBYTHEANA

  278. Libytheana carinenta  ______  (C:281) (DV1:20) (F:175) (K:223) (PE:18) (S:146)
    Libytheana carinenta carinenta  ______ 
    ARne  BRse  (MM:255)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AMERICAN (or SOUTHERN) SNOUT  (or SNOUT BUTTERFLY)
    AR common name: Picuda
    (Range: southern US to Argentina) 


    Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe PREPONINI


    Genus AGRIAS

  279. Agrias claudina annetta  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus PREPONA

  280. Prepona pylene pylene  ______  ARne  (MM:259)
    MOTTLED PREPONA 
    (or Pylene)

  281. Prepona deiphile deiphile  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 

  282. Prepona laertes laertes  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus ARCHAEOPREPONA

  283. Archaeoprepona amphimachus amphimachus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  284. Archaeoprepona demophon  ______  (C:347) (DV1:14)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Archaeoprepona demophon demophon  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:256) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast  Argentina) 
    ONE-SPOTTED PREPONA
     
    AR common name: Demofonte  (re the name: Demofonte was a fortune-teller consulted by Alexander the Great.)  
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 

  285. Archaeoprepona demophoon  (ph)  ______ 
    Archaeoprepona demophoon antimache  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Archaeoprepona demophoon demophoon  ______ ARne  (MM:257) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    TWO-SPOTTED PREPONA
    (or Demophoon)  (re the name: Demophoon, in mythology, was Teseo's son.) (another name is Silver King Shoemaker)
    AR common name: Demophoon
    (Range: southern Mexico to northern Argentina) 

    Archaeoprepona demophoon lives in the canopy of the rainforest. It is probably one of the fastest-flying butterflies in its range (the American tropics). It is said to have a smell like vanilla (maybe from its food source).

    A photographer's account: "I have observed and photographed it, but always from a great distance, and always as a solitary butterfly, sitting with its wings open in the sun, like a drop of metallic blue paint on the green foliage high in the trees."    



    Two-spotted Prepona (or Demophoon) (also called Silver King Shoemaker)
    (photo courtesy of Junji Nakamura who sent us this picture of a butterfly that had been her mother's since the 1950s)

  286. Archaeoprepona meander castonna  ______  BRse  (S:119)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    THREE-TONED PREPONA 
    (or MEANDER PREPONA)  (was called BANDED KING SHOEMAKER)

    In flight, Archaeoprepona meander makes a crackling sound.

  287. Archaeoprepona chalciope ______ ARne  (MM:258)
    AR common name: Calciope


    Subfamily CHARAXINAE, Tribe ANAEINI : LEAF BUTTERFLIES


    Genus SIDERONE

  288. Siderone marthesis  ______  (DV1:13)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  289. Siderone galanthis galanthis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 


    Genus HYPNA

  290. Hypna clytemnestra huebneri ______  ARne  BRse  (DV1:15) (MM:260)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    SILVER-STUDDED LEAFWING 
    (another name is JAZZY LEAFWING)
    AR common name: Clitemnestra  (re the name: Clitemnestra was Agamenon's wife.)
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)  


    Genus CONSUL

  291. Consul fabius drurii  ______  ARne  BRse  (DV1:15) (MM:261)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    TIGER LEAFWING
    AR common name: Mbopi 
    (this name is Guarani word meaning "bat", referring to its peculiar shape when flying near the tops of trees)
    (Range: Mexico to Amazon Basin)  


    Genera  MEMPHIS & FOUNTAINEA:  
    About 100 species, which occur in Central America. They resemble the genus ANAEA, to which they are closely related.
    These butterflies are with crytic undersides that are leaf-like. They reside in the forest, and are powerful fliers.   

  292. Memphis xenocles   ______  (DV1:17)
    Memphis xenocles marginalis  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    CAROLINA LEAFWING

    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  293. Memphis moruus  (ph)  ______  (DV1:18) 
    Memphis moruus stheno  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Memphis moruus coerulescens  (ph) ______ ARne  (MM:265) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BLUE LEAF 
    (a northern subspecies is called BOISDUVAL'S LEAFWING
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)

      

    Memphis moruus, or the Blue Leaf 
    (photo by Sherry Nelson) 


  294. Memphis acidalia victoria  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  295. Memphis appias  ______  BRse

  296. Memphis basilia drucei  ______  BRse

  297. Memphis leonida editha  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil,  described in 1961)

  298. Memphis otrere  ______  BRse

  299. Memphis philumena corita  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 

  300. There is at least one other species of Memphis in southeast Brazil.

  301. Fountainea halice halice  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  302. Fountainea ryphea  (ph)  ______
    Fountainea ryphea phidile  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    RYPHEA LEAFWING



    Fountainea ryphea, the Ryphea Leafwing
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


    Genus ZARETIS

  303. Zaretis isidora isidora  (ph)  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    ISIDORA LEAFWING



    Above & below: the Isidora Leafwing,
    showing upperwings & underwings
    (photos by Sherry Nelson)




  304. Zaretis itys itylus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 


    Subfamily APATURINAE:  EMPERORS


    Genus DOXOCOPA


  305. Doxocopa laure ______ (C:285) (DV1:20) (K:225) (PE:24)
    SILVER EMPEROR  (or LAURE)

    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  306. Doxocopa linda mileta ______ ARne  (MM:266)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    RARE EMPEROR
    AR common name: Linda  (
    translates to "Cute")

  307. Doxocopa agathina vacuna ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:267)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Turqui  (
    translates to "Turquoise")

  308. Doxocopa kallina ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:268)
    AR common name: Indigo

  309. Doxocopa laurentia laurentia  (ph) (*) ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:269)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    TURQUOISE EMPEROR 
    (or SAPPHIRE DOXOCOPA 
    AR common name: Zafiro  (translates to "Sapphire")















    A Turquoise Emperor, or Sapphire Doxocopa, Doxocopa laurentia,
    photographed during the FONT tour at Iguazu Falls in August 2008
    (photo by Pamela Sims) 


  310. Doxocopa zunilda zunilda ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:270)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    DINGY EMPEROR
    AR common name: Zunilda



    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe NYMPHALINI  


    Genus COLOBURA

  311. Colobura dirce  (ph)  ______  (C:291) (DV1:21) (S:114)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Colobura dirce dirce  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:271)
     (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    SMALL BEAUTY 
    (also called The Mosaic or the DIRCE BEAUTY)
    AR common name: Cebrita
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America, also the West Indies) 



    Small Beauty 



    Genus SMYRNA

  312. Smyrna blomfildia  (ph)  ______  (DV1:21) (K:225) (PE:26)
    Smyrna blomfildia blomfilda  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:273) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    BLOMFILD'S BEAUTY
    AR common name: Dibujada   
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 



    Smyrna blomfildia, or the Blomfild's Beauty
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus HYPANARTIA

  313. Hypanartia lethe  (ph)  ______  BRse  (C:279) (DV1:28) (MM:324)
    ORANGE MAPWING
    AR common name: Lete 
    (refers to the scientific name; Lethe, in mythology, was Oleno's wife who turned into a stone)  
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)



    Above & below: Hypanartia lethe, or the Orange Mapwing
    (upper photo by Sherry Nelson; lower photo by Jorge Bizarro)




  314. Hypanartia bella  ______  BRse  (MM:325)
    AR common name:  Bella  (
    translates to "Beautiful")


    Genus VANESSA: LADY BUTTERFLIES

  315. Vanessa (or Cynthia) cardui  (ph)  ______ (DV1:28) (K:205) (PE:23) (S:141)
    PAINTED LADY
    (Range: worldwide, except for Australia and New Zealand) 



    Painted Lady

  316. Vanessa carye ______ ARne  (MM:321)
    AR common name: Dama Cuatro Ojos  (
    translates to "Four-eyed Lady")

    translates to "Four-eyed Lady")

  317. Vanessa braziliensis ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:322)
    AR common name: Dama Dos Ojos  (
    translates to "Two-eyed Lady")

    translates to "Two-eyed Lady")

  318. Vanessa myrinna ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:323)
    AR common name: Dama Fajada  (
    translates to "Banded Lady") translates to "Banded Lady") (refers to the postmedian band on the upper rear wings)


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe COEINI


    Genus HISTORIS

  319. Historis odius  (ph)  ______  (DV1:21) (PE:text) 
    Historis odius odius  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:272) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    ORION CECROPIAN 
    (also called Stinky Leaf Wing
    AR common name: Popeno: (a Guarani word meaning "gigantic") 
    (Range: throughout Central & South America; in North America, a rare stray to Florida)  



    Historis odius, or the Orion Cecropian

  320. Historis acheronta acheronta  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe BIBLIDINI


    Genus BIBLIS

  321. Biblis hyperia  (ph)  ______  (C:319) (DV1:21) (F:124) (K:215) (PE:25)
    Biblis hyperia hyperia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Biblis hyperia nectanabis  (ph) (*)  ______  ARne  (MM:291) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    RED RIM
    AR common name: Alas Sangrantes  ("Crimson-banded Black")
    (Range: Mexico to the Argentina, also the West Indies) 



    Red Rim


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe AGERONIINI:  CRACKERS and allies


    Genus HAMADRYAS: CRACKERS:
    species in this genus are called "crackers" because of the noise the males make in flight; in general CRACKERS are also called CALICOS. 

  322. Hamadryas februa  (ph) (*)  ______  (DV1:21) (F:158) (K:217) (PE:26) 
    Hamadryas februa februa  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:284)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    GRAY CRACKER  (or some places called The Cracker) (also called Common Calico)  
    AR common name: Pororo Ocelos Rojos  ("Red eye-spotted Pororo")  ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles".)  
    (Range: southern US to Argentina) 

    Hamadryas februa occurs along forest edges. Not at flowers, but at rotting fruit, dung, and mud. 



    Hamadryas februa, or the Gray Cracker

  323. Hamadryas feronia  (ph)  ______ (C:259) (DV1:21) (K:217) (PE:26)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Hamadryas feronia feronia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)    
    VARIABLE CRACKER
      (also called Blue Cracker)
    (Range: southern US to Brazil) 



    A Variable Cracker photographed during a FONT South American tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  324. Hamadryas ipthime  ______ (DV1:21) (PE:26)
    Hamadryas ipthime ipthime  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    BROWNISH CRACKER 
    (also called Ringless Blue Cracker)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  325. Hamadryas fornax  ______  (DV1:21) (F:158)
    Hamadryas fornax fornax  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:287) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    YELLOW CRACKER 
    (or Yellow-skirted Cracker
    AR common name: Pororo Mancha Ocre  ("Ochre-spotted Pororo") 
    ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles")
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

    Hamadryas fornax is smaller than other crackers, and with a number of subspecies. In moist rainforest, it occurs along trails and rivers.

  326. Hamadryas amphinome  (ph)  ______  (DV1:22) (F:157) (PE:26)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    Hamadryas amphinome amphinome  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:286) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    RED CRACKER 
    AR common name: Pororo Mancha Roja  ("Red-spotted Pororo") 
    ("Pororo" is a  Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles") 
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

    Hamadryas amphinome occurs in rainforests.



    Red Cracker (red is on the other side of the wings)

  327. Hamadryas epinome ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:285)
    AR common nmae: Pororo 
    (a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles") 

  328. Hamadryas arete  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:288)
    AR common name: Pororo Azul  ("Blue Pororo")  
    ("Pororo" is a Guarani word meaning "that crackles" or "that sparkles")



    Hamadryas arete
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro) 

  329. Hamadryas laodamia laodamia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus ECTIMA

  330. Ectima thecla thecla ______ ARne  (MM:289)
    AR common name: Pororo Mini 
    (referring to the similarity with the butterflies of the genus HAMADRYAS called "Pororo"; "Mini" relates to its smaller size.)


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPICALLINI:  PURPLEWINGS and allies


    Genus EUNICA

    60 species in Central & South America that live in primary forest

     
  331. Eunica tatila  (ph)  ______  (DV1:22) (K:215) (PE:25) 
    Eunica tatila bellaria  ______  ARne  (MM:317)  
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    FLORIDA PURPLE WING
      (or Large Purple Wing, or simply Purple Wing)
    AR common name: "Dulce"  (
    translates to "Sweet")   
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, also West Indies) 

     

    Eunica tatila, the Florida Purplewing

  332. Eunica monima ______ (DV1:22) (K:215) (PE:25)
    DINGY PURPLE WING
    (Range: US & Mexico thru Central & South America, also the Antilles & Bahamas) 

  333. Eunica maja maja  (ph)  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:316)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Maja



    the female Maja Purplewing, Eunica maja maja
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)  

  334. Eunica eburnea ______ ARne  (MM:318)
    AR common name: Marfil  (
    translates to "Ivory")  (The scientific name, eburnea, means "ivory, or like it") 


    Genus CYBDELIS

  335. Cybdelis phaesyla ______  ARne  (MM:309)
    AR common name: Abanderada  (
    translates to "Standard-bearer")  (alludes to the pattern on the upper fore wings, like Argentina's flag)


    Genus CATONEPHELE 

  336. Catonephele numilia  (ph)  ______  (DV1:25) (S:139)
    Catonephele numila penthia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)   
    Catonephele numila neogermanica  ______ ARne  (MM:292)  
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    STOPLIGHT CATONE 
    (or BLUE-FROSTED CATONE (has also been called Grecian Shoemaker)  
    AR common name: Terciopelo Manchado ("Spotted Velvet")
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)   
    Catonephele numila neogermanica  ______ ARne  (MM:292)  
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    STOPLIGHT CATONE 
    (or BLUE-FROSTED CATONE (or BLUE-FROSTED CATONE (has also been called Grecian Shoemaker)  
    AR common name: Terciopelo Manchado ("Spotted Velvet")
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil & Argentina) 



    A Spotlight Catone, or Blue-frosted Catone,   
    or Grecian Shoemaker, or "Spotted Velvet"
    (photographed during the FONT August 2009 tour in southeast Brazil) 


  337. Catonephele acontius caeruleus ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:293)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina, described in 1985)
    AR common name: Terciopelo Fajado (
    translates to "Banded Velvet")translates to "Banded Velvet") 

  338. Catonephele sabrina  ______  BRse


    Genus MYSCELIA

  339. Myscelia orsis  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:315)
    AR common name: Yin-Yang 
    (This name is because the male & female are very different, but yet they are of course complimentary, as in the universal principle of the yin and the yang in Taoism.) 


    Subfamily CYRESTINAE: DAGGERWINGS


    Genus MARPESIA: DAGGERWINGS

    A genus of mostly Central and South American butterflies, but also occurs in Africa. Called "daggerwings" after the long tail on each hindwing. 

  340. Marpesia coresia (or zerynthia) (ph)  ______  (DV1:23) (K:219) (PE:25)
    Marpesia coresia zerynthia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    WAITER DAGGERWING
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America) 



    A Waiter Daggerwing photographed during a FONT South American tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  341. Marpesia merops ______ (DV1:23)
    SPOT-BANDED DAGGERWING
    (Range: Guatemala to Brazil)

  342. Marpesia petreus  (ph) (*)  ______  (DV1:23) (F:177) (K:219) (PE:25) (S:123)
    Marpesia petreus petreus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:320) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    RUDDY DAGGERWING  (also called Southern Daggertail)
    AR common name: Daga
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America)  

    Marpesia petreus visits flowers and mud-puddles.



    Ruddy Daggerwing

  343. Marpesia chiron  (ph)  ______  (C:273) (DV1:23) (K:219) (PE:25)
    Marpesia chiron marius  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:319)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    MANY-BANDED DAGGERWING
    AR common name: Mario 
    (refers to the subspecific name; the only race found in Argentina)
    BR common name: Cambaxirra 
    (Range: southern US, Central & South America, also West Indies) 



    the Many-banded Daggerwing, Marpesia chiron
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  344. Marpesia themistocles themistocles  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EUBAGINI:  SAILORS 


    Genus DYNAMINE

  345. Dynamine agacles  ______  (DV1:24)
    Dynamine agacles agacles  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:303) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    PALE SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota Ribeteada  (
    translates to "Edged Drop")
    (Range: Costa Rica to Argentina)  

  346. Dynamine mylitta ______ (DV1:24)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central and South America)  

  347. Dynamine artemisia  ______  (C:289) 
    Dynamine artemisia artemisia ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:308) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    SMALL-EYED SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota de Monoculo 
    (translates to "Drop with Monocle", has a large "eyespot" with a band, like a monocle)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina) 

  348. Dynamine glauce ______ (DV1:24)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central and South America)

  349. Dynamine myrrhina ______ ARne  (MM:301)
    AR common name: Gota de Luz  (
    translates to "Light Drop")

  350. Dynamine coenus coenus ______ ARne  (MM:302)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Gota Blanca  (
    translates to "White Drop")

  351. Dynamine athemon maeon  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Dynamine athemon athemaena ______ ARne  (MM:304) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Gota con Linea  (
    translates to "Drop with Line")

  352. Dynamine tithia tithia  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:305)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    BLUE SAILOR
    AR common name: Gota Ciega  (
    translates to "Blind Drop")



    Above & below: the Blue Sailor
    (photos courtesy of Sherry Nelson)




  353. Dynamine postverta postverta  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:306)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    FOUR-SPOTTED SAILOR 
    (a northern subspecies is called MEXICAN SAILOR 
    AR common name: Gota Ocelada  (translates to "Eye-spotted Drop") 

  354. Dynamine aerata ______ ARne  (MM:307)
    AR common name: Gota de Anteokos 
    (translates to "Drop with Glasses")


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe EPIPHILINI:  BANNERS and allies


    Genus PYRRHOGYRA

  355. Pyrrhogyra neaerea  ______ 
    Pyrrhogyra neaerea ophni  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Pyrrhogyra neaerea arge  ______  ARne  (MM:310) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)

    AR common name: Pore Pyta   


    Genus SEA 
    (genus created in 1950)

  356. Sea sophronia  ______  BRse  


    Genus TEMENIS

  357. Temenis laothoe  ______  (DV1:24)
    Temenis laothoe bahiana  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Temenis laothoe santina  ______ ARne  (MM:313) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    ORANGE BANNER 
    AR common name: Mocha (
    translates to "Blunt")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 


    Genus NICA

  358. Nica flavilla flavilla ______ ARne  (DV1:24) (MM:314)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    LITTLE BANNER 
    AR common name: Aritos  (
    translates to "Small Rings")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  


    Genus EPIPHILE

  359. Epiphile orea orea  ______  ARne  BRse  (DV1:24) (MM:311)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Marcada Azul  (
    translates to "Blue Marked")
    (Range: Costa Rica to northern Argentina)  

  360. Epiphile hubneri ______ ARne  (MM:312)
    AR common name: Marcada Anaranjada  (
    translates to "Orange Marked")


    translates to "Orange Marked")


    Subfamily BIBLIDINAE, Tribe CALLICORINI:  "EIGHTY-EIGHT" BUTTERFLIES


    Genus DIAETHRIA

  361. Diaethria clymena  ______  (C:317)
    Diaethria clymena janeira  (ph) (*)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:294) 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    WIDESPREAD EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Ochenta y Ocho  (
    translates to "Eighty-Eight") 
    (Range: subtropical & tropical Latin America) 



    An "Eighty-eight Butterfly", Diaethria clymena, 
    photographed during the FONT tour in southeast Brazil in August 2009    


  362. Diaethria eluina eluina  (*)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:295)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Ochenta y Ocho Azul  (
    translates to "Blue Eighty-Eight")

  363. Diaethria candrena candrena  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:296)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    CANDRENA EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Ochenta  (
    translates to "Eighty")



    A Candrena Eighty-eight, or more appropriately "Eighty"
    Diaethria candrena
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  364. Diaethria marchalii ______ (DV1:25)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil)


    Genus CALLICORE

  365. Callicore pygas pygas  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Callicore pygas thamyras  (ph) (*)  ______ ARne  (MM:297) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    PYGAS EIGHTY-EIGHT
    AR common name: Para Guasu 
    (re the name: "Para" & "Guasu" are Guarani words meaning, respectively, "full of colors" and "big") 



    Pygas Eighty-eight, photographed at Iguazu Falls
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)


  366. Callicore hydaspes  (ph) (*)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:298)
    HYDASPES EIGHTY-EIGHT 
    AR common name: Para Mini 
    (re the name: "Para" & "Mini" are Guarani words meaning, respectively, "full of colors" and "small")



    Hydaspes Eighty-eight, photographed at Iguazu Falls
    on a person's thumb
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  367. Callicore sorana sorana  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:299)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Para Zigzag  ("Zigzag Para")


  368. Callicore astarte codomannus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  369. Callicore hydarnis  ______  BRse

    Callicore hydarnis is an endangered species. 


    Genus PAULOGRAMMA

  370. Paulogramma pyracmon pyracmon  ______  ARne  (MM:300)
    AR common name: Para Mediana  ("Medium Para")



    Genus HAEMATERA

  371. Haematera pyrame  ______  (DV1:25)
    Haematera pyrame pyrame ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:290) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Llamarada (
    translates to "Blaze")
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Llamarada (
    translates to "Blaze")
    (Range: Nicaragua to northern Argentina)  



    Subfamily LIMENITIDINAE, Tribe LIMENITIDINI: SISTERS

    Adults often characterized by flap-and-glide flight. 
     


    Genus ADELPHA

  372. Adelpha zea ______ ARne  (DV1:27) (MM:282)
    AR common name: Zea
    (Range: Mexico to the Argentina)  

  373. Adelpha lycorias lycorias  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:274)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    PINK-BANDED SISTER
    AR common name: Mancha Bermellon  (
    translates to "Vermilion Spot")



    the Pink-banded Sister, but for this subspecies Adelpha lycorias lycorias,
    the name "Vermilion Spot" is appropriate.
    That is the English translation of the Spanish name, Mancha Bermellon.
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro) 

  374. Adelpha syma  (*) ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:275)
    AR common name: Syma

  375. Adelpha mythra ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:276)
    AR common name: Mithra  (re the name: Mithra was a Persian god.)

  376. Adelpha malea goyama  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:277)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Goyama

  377. Adelpha abia  (ph)  ______ ARne  (MM:278)
    ABIA SISTER
    AR common name: Abia



    the Abia Sister, Adelpha abia

  378. Adelpha barnesia barnesia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  379. Adelpha cocala didia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  380. Adelpha cytherea aea  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  381. Adelpha erotia erotia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  382. Adelpha iphiclus  (ph)  ______ 
    Adelpha iphiclus ephesa  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    IPHICLUS SISTER  

     

    the Iphiclus Sister, Adelpha iphiclus 

  383. Adelpha plesaure plesaure  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  384. Adelpha radiata radiata  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)   

  385. Adelpha serpa serpa  (ph)  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:279)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    a northern subspecies, from Mexico to Venezuela, A. s. celerio, is called CELERIO SISTER 
    CELADON SISTER 
    AR common name: Serpa



    the Celadon Sister, Adelpha serpa serpa 
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  386. Adelpha falcipennis ______ ARne  (MM:280)   
    AR common name: Adelfa Ocre

  387. Adelpha thessalia indefecta  ______  ARne  (MM:281)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AR common name: Tesala del Nordeste  ("Northeastern Tesela") 
       

  388. Adelpha melona pseudarete  ______ ARne  (MM:283)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    MELLONA SISTER
    AR common name: Melona
     


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe VICTORININI


    Genus SIPROETA (or METAMORPHA)

  389. Siproeta (or Metamorpha) stelenes  (ph)  ______  (DV1:28) (F:202) (K:209) (PE:26)
    Siproeta stelenes meridionalis  (*)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:329)
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    MALACHITE
    an AR common name: Itaovy guasu  (
    translates to "Large Emerald") (from Guarani words, alluding to its color, size, and beauty)  
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, and in the West  Indies)  

    The Malachite is on the wing all year in the tropics. It feeds on fermenting fruit.  



    Above & below: Malachites

    The photo below was taken during the FONT tour in Brazil in May 2011.
    (photo by Patricia Yoder) 




  390. Siproeta epaphus trayja  (ph) (*)   ______  ARne  BRse  (DV1:28) (K:209) (MM:320) (S:136)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    RUSTY-TIPPED PAGE
    (or Brown Siproeta
    AR common name: Epafos Moreno ("Dark Epafos")  (referring to Epafos who in mythology, was Jupiter's son.)
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina) 

     

    Siproeta epaphus, or the Rusty-tipped Page
    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd during a FONT tour)


    Genus ANARTIA

  391. Anartia amathea  (ph)  ______  (C:311) 
    Anartia amathea roesella  (*) ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:327) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    RED PEACOCK
     
    AR common name: Princesa Roja  (
    translates to "Red Princess")
    (Range: Panama to Argentina, also: Trinidad & Tobago, Grenada, Barbados, Antigua) 

  392. Anartia jatrophae  (ph)  ______  (C:309) (DV1:28) (K:209) (PE:24) (S:107) (species described by Linnaeus in 1763)
    Anartia jatrophae jatrophae  (*) ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:326) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    WHITE PEACOCK
    AR common name: Princesa Perlada 
    (Princesa, or Princess, is the common Spanish name for the ANARTIA genus butterflies; "Perlada" refers to the wing coloring.)  
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also West Indies)  



    Anartia jatrophae, or the White Peacock


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe JUNONIINI


    Genus JUNONIA: BUCKEYES 

  393. Junonia evarete  (ph)  ______  (K:207) (PE:23) 
    Junonia evarete evarete  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Junonia evarete hilaris  ______  ARne  (MM:328)
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)  
    TROPICAL BUCKEYE
    AR common name: Pavo Real  ("Peacock")
    (another name: Genoveva)  
    (Range: southern US to Argentina) 



    Junonia evarete, or the Tropical Buckeye
    (photo by Sherry Nelson) 



    Genus HYPOLIMNAS

  394. Hypolimnas misippus  (ph)  ______ (DV1:28) (F:164)
    THE MIMIC
    (other names: Diadem Butterfly, Six-continent Butterfly, Danaid Butterfly
    (Range: distributed worldwide) 

    The female of Hypolimnas misippus resembles Danaus chrysippus of the Old World, with coloration similar to Danaus glippus, the Queen.


    Subfamily NYMPHALINAE, Tribe MELITAEINI


    Genus CHLOSYNE: PATCHES

      
  395. Chlosyne lacinia  (ph) (*)  ______  (C:265) (DV1:29) (K:189) (PE:21)
    Chlosyne lacinia saundersi  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:337)
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    BORDERED PATCH
    AR common name: Naranjita 
    (Range: US to northern Argentina)  

    Chlosyne lacinia has a very variable pattern. It prefers sunny places and feeds on nectar. 



    the Bordered Patch, the subspecies Chlosyne lacinia saundersi  
    This subspecies, in southeast Brazil and the Iguazu area, has more orange in the upperwings than other subspecies, hence the common name there of "Naranjita".  
    (above photo by Jorge Bizarro)



    Genus TEGOSA

  396. Tegosa frisia hermas ______ ARne  (MM:331)
    AR common name: Salpicada  (
    translates to "Splashy")

  397. Tegosa claudina ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:332)
    AR common name: Claudina


    Genus TELENASSA 
    (genus created in 1981)

  398. Telenassa teletusa teletusa  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus ORTILIA: CRESCENTS 

  399. Ortilia ithra  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:333)
    AR common name: Mbatara 
    (a Guarani word meaning "lead-colored, with short white lines)

  400. Ortilia velica durnfordi  ______ ARne  (MM:334)
    AR common name: Marroncita  (
    translates to "Small Brown")

  401. Ortilia dicoma  ______  ARne  (MM:335)
    AR common name: Alitas Largas  (
    translates to "Long Wings")  


    Genus ERESIA

  402. Eresia eunice eunice  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  403. Eresia lansdorfi ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:336)
    AR common name: Falsa Erato ("False Erato") 
    (name refers to its resemblance to Heliconius erato phyllis



    Above & below: Eresia lansdorfi. the "False Erato",
    photographed at Iguazu Falls
    (photos by Sherry Nelson) 





    Subfamily HELICONIINAE: LONGWINGS

    Mostly in the American tropics. Adults of some species are long-lived, and several are distasteful. Various other species mimic the distasteful butterflies of this group.  


    Genus PHILAETHRIA: 
    2 nearly identical species which may be differentiated only by comparing their underwings.

  404. Philaethria dido ______  (DA:92)
    (Range: southern Mexico to Brazil; also Trinidad)

    The costal margins and the transverse band of the hindwings of Philaethria dido are chocolate-colored.  

  405. Philaethria wernickei ______  ARne  (DA:text) (MM:340)
    AR common name: Itaovy Rabona  (
    translates to "Tailess Itaovy") (Itaovy is a Guarani word meaning "emerald".)   
    (Range: southern Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina)

    The costal margins and the transverse band of the hindwings of Philaethria wernickei are gray.



    Genus DIONE

  406. Dione moneta  (ph)  ______  (C:267) (DV1:31) (F:143) (K:155) (PE:19)
    MEXICAN SILVERSPOT
    (or Mexican Silver-spotted Fritillary)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America) 

  407. Dione juno  ______  (DV1:31) (S:161) 
    Dione juno juno  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Dione juno suffumata ______  ARne  (MM:343)
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    JUNO LONGWING  (or SILVER SPOT)  
    AR common name: Juno Oscura  (translates to "Dark Juno") (Juno in mythology was a Greek goddess, and dark is in comparison with another Argentine subspecies.)
    (Range: thru Central & South America, also the Lesser Antilles) 

    Dione juno is closely related to Dryas iulia. It often occurs in the same places as the very similar Gulf Fritillary, and is said to be attracted to red and blue flowers.


    Genus AGRAULIS:  a single well-known species which occurs in a number of races throughout its vast range.

  408. Agraulis vanillae  (ph)  ______  (C:269) (DA:93) (DV1:31) (F:144) (K:157) (PE:19) (S:160)
    Agraulis vanillae maculosa  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:341) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    GULF FRITILLARY (another name, particularly in the West Indies: Silver-spotted Flambeau)
    AR common name: Espejitos  (
    translates to "Mirrors") (referring to the silver spots on the ventral side, that appear as fragments of a mirror)
    BR common name: Pingos de Prata
     
    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to South America, also West Indies) 
     
    Agraulis vanillae is a widespread, familiar butterfly that visits gardens to drink nectar.
    Its fiery orange upperside is distinguished from Dryas iulia by the presence of numerous black dots on the forewing and a silver spotted underside. 






    Two photographs of the Gulf Fritillary, with the upper photo showing the "mirrors" 
    (upper photo by Doris Potter; lower photo by Howard Eskin)



    Genus DRYADULA

  409. Dryadula phaetusa  (ph)  ______ ARne  (DV1:31) (K:155) (MM:344) (PE:19) (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    BANDED LONGWING
    (or BANDED ORANGE HELICONIAN, or Banded Orange)
    AR common name: Faetusa 
    (referring to Phaetusa, who in mythology was the Sun's daughter, and Phaeton's sister.) 
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)



    A Banded Longwing, or Banded Orange Heliconian photographed during a FONT tour in Brazil


    Genus DRYAS

  410. Dryas iulia  (ph)  ______  (C:301) (DA:94) (DV1:31) (F:145) (K:157) (PE:19) (S:159) 
    Dryas iulia alcionea  ______  ARne(*)  (MM:342) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    JULIA HELICONIAN 
    (or Julia
    AR common name: Julia 

    (Range: southern US thru American tropics to Brazil, also West Indies) 

    Dryas iulia visits open sunny and flowery areas, often wet ground. It breeds on the passion flower. 



    Two photos of Julia Heliconians; the lower photo during a FONT tour in Brazil




    Genus EUEIDES: a genus of about a dozen species that's remarkable for the lack of conformity of its members. Some resemble DANAIDAE (Ituna), ACRAEIDAE (Actinote), ITHOMIIDAE (Mechanitis) and the genus HELICONIUS.  

  411. Eueides aliphera  (ph)  ______  (DA:94) (DV1:31) (S:161) 
    Eueides aliphera aliphera  ______  ARne  BRam  BRse  (MM:348) 
    (subspecies in much of Brazil & in northeast Argentina)
    FINE-LINED LONGWING 
    (or SMALL JULIA)
    AR common name: Pequena Julia  (translates to "Small Julia") 
    (A miniature of Dryas julia, both in wing shape and the variations of markings.)   
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, including Trinidad & Tobago) 

    As indicated above, Eueides aliphera is a miniature replica of Dryas iulia, and so is sometimes called the "Juliette". 

     

    The Fine-lined Longwing, or Small Julia

  412. Eueides isabella  (ph)  ______  (DV1:31) (K:155) (PE:20) (S:159) 
    Eueides isabella dianasa  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:349) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    ISABELLA'S LONGWING  (or ISABELLA'S HELICONIAN or Isabella, or Isabella Tiger
    AR common name: Isabel Meridional  (translates to "Southern Isabel")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina, also West Indies) 



    Isabella's Longwing
    (photo by Marie Gardner)

  413. Eueides pavana  ______  BRse

  414. Eueides vibilia  ______ (DV1:31)
    Eueides vibilia vibilia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    VIBILIA LONGWING
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)


    Genus HELICONIUS: LONGWINGS

     
  415. Heliconius ricini  ______  BRam  (S:163)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) (was thought fro a long time to belong in the genus Eueides
    RICINI LONGWING
    (Range: the Amazon basin in northern Brazil, and in other nearby countries) 

    Heliconius ricini is a relatively small Heliconius with short antennae. It prefers more open, savanna-type habitats than most Heliconius species.
    Unlike many Heliconius species, H. ricini does not have any sympatric congeners that closely resemble it, although it does have a superficial resemblance to the allopatric Heliconius himera & Heliconius clysonymus.    

  416. Heliconius hecale ______  (DA:100) (DV1:31) (F:160)
    HECALE LONGWING 
    (also called HEART-SPOTTED HELICONIAN
    (Range: Mexico to the Guianas, Amazonas, & the eastern side of the Andes in Bolivia; throughout Central & South America, with a number of races)   

    Members of a color/pattern mimicry system with Heliconius hecale include: Charonias Eurytele (in the PIERIDAE), Dismorpha eunoe (in the PIERIDAE), Napeogenes peredia (in ITHOMIINI in the NYMPHALIDAE), Eresia coela (in the NYMPHALIDAE), and a diurnal moth.  



    Helcale Longwing


  417. Heliconius melpomene ______ (C:307) (DA:101) (DV1:32) (F:161) (S:162)
    MELPOMENE LONGWING 
    (also called POSTMAN HELICONIAN or the POSTMAN)
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

    Heliconius melpomene is slightly larger than its close relative & nearly identical butterfly, Heliconius erato. Many species in this genus have forms matching so closely that they very difficult to distinguish. 
    Heliconius melpomene flies with Heliconius erato.

    Parallel races of the two species Heliconius melpomene & Heliconius erato mimic each other throughout the Neotropics, sharing the same patterns in the same geographic areas. 
    The length of the yellow ray in the hindwing can be used to differentiate the two species. It does not reach the edge of the wing in Heliconius melpomene.     



    The Postman, or the Melpomene Longwing


  418. Heliconius erato  (ph)  ______  (DA:103,104) (DV1:32) (F:160) (K:155) (PE:19)
    Heliconius erato phyllis  ______  ARne(*)  BRse  (MM:345)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)  
    CRIMSON-PATCHED LONGWING  (also called ERATO HELICONIAN, or the SMALL POSTMAN
    AR common name: Erato  (Erato was, in mythology, one of the nine muses; she presided over erotic poetry.)
    a BR common name: Castanha Vermelha     
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)  

    Heliconius erato flies close to the ground, along forest margins and in open areas. It roosts communally at night.



    Crimson-patched Longwing 

  419. Heliconius charithonia  (ph)  ______  (C:303) (DA:105) (DV1:32) (F:160) (K:155) (PE:19) (S:160)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767)
    ZEBRA LONGWING 
    (also called ZEBRA HELICONIAN or the ZEBRA)
    (Range: southern US thru Central & South America, also the West Indies)

    The Zebra Heliconian is a graceful butterfly is a common sight in gardens and at roadside flowers. It roosts in small to large clusters, returning to the same roost night after night. It is very familiar to visitors of butterfly houses as it is easy to rear.



    A Zebra Longwing photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Doug Johnson)


  420. Heliconius besckei ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:346)
    TAWNY-STRIPED LONGWING
    AR common name: Alemana  (
    translates to "German")  (in that the coloring of the butterfly is like the German flag)  

  421. Heliconius ethilla narcaea  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:347)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    ETHILIA LONGWING
    AR common name: Arcoiris  (
    translates to "Rainbow") 
    BR common name: Maria Boba

  422. Heliconius numata robigus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  423. Heliconius sara apseudes  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ARGYNNINI: FRITILLARIES


    Genus EUPTOIETA

  424. Euptoieta claudia hortensia  (ph)  ______  ARne  (D1:32) (K:157) (MM:338) (PE:20)
    VARIEGATED FRITILLARY
    AR common name: Hortensia 
    (the subspecific epithet)  
    (Range: Canada thru Central & South America, also the West Indies) 



    Variegated Fritillary
    (photo by Howard Eskin)  


  425. Euptoieta hegesia  (ph)  ______  (DV1:32) (K:157) (PE:29) (PW:23)
    Euptoieta hegesia meridiania  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:339) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    MEXICAN FRITILLARY
    AR common name: Falsa Hortensia 
    ("False Hortensia") (alluding to its resemblance to Euptoieta claudia hortensia, with the common name Hortensia)   


    Subfamily HELICONIINAE, Tribe ACRAEINI


    Genus ACTINOTE

  426. Actinote surima surima ______ ARne  (MM:350)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa Anaranjada  (
    translates to "Orange Lazy")  (name refers to its type of flight)

  427. Actinote thalia pyrrha ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:351)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa Base Amarilla  (
    translates to "Yellow Base Lazy")  (name refers to its type of flight)

  428. Actinote melanisans ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:352)
    AR common name: Perezosa Base Translucida  (
    translates to "Translucent Base Lazy")  (name refers to its type of flight)

  429. Actinote pellenea pellenea  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Actinote pellenea calymma  ______  ARne  (MM:353) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa  (
    translates to "Lazy")  (name refers to its type of flight)

  430. Actinote mamita elena ______ ARne  (MM:354)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Perezosa de Elena  ("Elena's Lazy") 
    (name refers to its type of flight)

  431. Actinote carycina  ______  BRse

  432. Actinote conspicua  ______  BRse

  433. Actinote dalmeidai  ______  BRse  (species described in 1996)

  434. Actinote parapheles  ______  BRse

  435. Actinote quadra  ______  BRse

    Actinote quadra
    is an endangered species.

  436. Actinote rhodope  ______  BRse  

  437. There is at least 1 undescribed species of Actinote in southeast Brazil. 


    Subfamily DANAINAE: MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES


    Genus ITUNA: a single species, distinctive 

  438. Ituna ilione lamira ______  (DA:79)
    (Range: Central America to northern Argentina)

    The Ituna ilione sexes are similar. The semi-transparent wings are similar to ITHOMIIDS, but this species has a much greater size. It is often seen floating effortlessly for long distances, at a uniform height above the ground, until a shrub with flowers distracts it from its reverie. Then, it becomes immediately ensconced, oblivious to all else, as it spends long minutes refreshing itself.    


    Genus LYCOREA: 
    Remarkable
    HELICONID MIMICS. They resemble Heliconius ethilla, but can be distinguished by their larger size in both sexes, and in the male, the presence of a tuft of extrusible "hair-pencils" at the tip of the abdomen.

  439. Lycorea ilione  ______  (DV1:33)
    Lycorea ilione ilione  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:415) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    CLEARWING MIMIC-QUEEN
    AR common name: Reina Cristalina  (
    translates to "Crystalline Queen")
    BR common name: Grande Vitral
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

  440. Lycorea halia (formerly cleobaea) discreta  (ph) ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:414)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    TIGER MIMIC-QUEEN 
    AR common name at Iguazu: Halia del Noreste  (
    translates to "Northeastern Halia")  (In mythology, Halia was a Nereid.)



    A Tiger Mimic-Queen photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


    Genus DANAUS: ROYALTY

  441. Danaus plexippus  (ph)  ______  (C:37) (DA:80) (DV1:33) (F:143) (K:227) (PE:27) (S:184)
    Danaus plexippus erippus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:416)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    MONARCH
    AR common name: Monarca 
    (Another Spanish common name is: Oruga de las Asclepias
    (Range: a truly cosmopolitan species, occurring in North and South America, Australia, and the East Indies.) 

    The Monarch is a very strong flier with strong migratory tendencies in temperate regions, but not in the tropics where it is usually a solitary flier. 



    Monarch 
    (photo by Howard Eskin)

  442. Danaus eresimus plexaure  (ph)  ______  ARne  (C:283) (DV1:33) (F:142) (K:229) (MM:417) (PE:27)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    SOLDIER 
    AR common name: Emperatriz  (translates to "Empress")

    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina, also in the Antilles) 



    A Soldier photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Marie Gardner)


  443. Danaus gilippus  (ph)  ______  (D1:33) (F:143) (K:229) (PE:27) (S:183)
    Danaus gilippus gilippus  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:418) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    QUEEN
    AR common name: Reina  (
    translates to "Queen")  
    (Range: southern US to northern Argentina)  



    A Queen
    (photo by Howard Eskin)



    Subfamily ITHOMIINAE  
    this highly diverse group has been considered as a separate family, or (now by most) as a subfamily of NYMPHALIDAE.  


    Genus AERIA

  444. Aeria olena  ______  BRse  


    Genus CALLITHOMIA

  445. Callithmia lenea methonela  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus TITHOREA: 
    a Neotropical genus of about 15 species

  446. Tithorea tarricina ______ (DV1:34) (F:207)
    CREAM-SPOTTED TIGER-CLEARWING
    (or CREAM-SPOTTED TIGERWING
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)  

  447. Tithorea harmonia  ______  (C:367) (DV1:34) (S:180)
    Tithorea harmonica pseudonyma  ______  ARne  (MM:397)  
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    HARMONIA TIGER-CLEARWING 
    (also called Tiger Butterfly, or the Tiger)
    AR common name: Armoniosa 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 


    Genus THYRIDIA:  4 species, 3 of which strongly resemble species in the genus  METHONA. These species are separated from those in that genus by the presence of white marginal spots on both surfaces of the hindwing. In METHONA they only occur on the underside. THYRIDA species are generally larger than METHONA.  

  448. Thyridia hippodamia cetoides ______  (DA:85)
    (Range: Peru, Brazil) 

    Thyridia hippodamia can be difficult to separate from Methonia species.

  449. Thyridia psidii  ______  (DV1:34)
    Thyridia psidii hippodamia  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Thyridia psidii pallida  ______  ARne (MM:401) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Palida  (
    translates to "Pale")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  


    Genus MECHANITIS:  8 to 10 species of distinctively shaped ITHOMIIDS, some of which have extremely long wings and abdomens, making them look rather like dragonflies. 

  450. Mechanitis isthmia ______ (S:180)
    COMMON MECHANITIS

    Mechanitis isthmia flies in bright sunlight, attracted to flowers.

  451. Mechanitis lysimnia  ______  (DA:85) (DV1:34) 
    Mechanitis lysimnia lysimnia  ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:399) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina & southeast Brazil) 
    LYSIMNIA TIGERWING
    AR common name: Multicolor  (
    translates to "Multicolored")
    (Range: Honduras to northern Argentina)   

  452. Mechanitis polymnia casabranca  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus MELINEA

  453. Melinea ethra  ______  BRse

  454. Melinea ludovica paraiya  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus METHONA

  455. Methona themisto  ______  BRse 


    Genus HETEROSAIS

  456. Heterosais edessa  ______  BRse


    Genus HYPOLERIA

  457. Hypoleria adasa adasa  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus HYPOTHYRIS: 
    8 to 10 species of CLEARWINGS, with some species showing delicate combinations of yellows & Orange-browns especially at the anal angle of the hindwings. 

  458. Hypothyris euclea laphria  ______  ARne  (DV1:34) (MM:406)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    EUCLEA TIGERWING
    AR common name: Yvoty 
    (a Guarani word for "flower")
    (Range: Mexico to northern Argentina)  

  459. Hypothyris ninonia daeta ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:407)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Yvoty Moroti
      (Guarani words are Yvorty meaning "flower" and Moroti meaning "white") 


    Genus ITHOMIA: 
    40 to 45 species of clear-winged butterflies with the most beautiful opalescent reflections when viewed in an oblique light.

  460. Ithomia agnosia zikani   ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:404)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Cristalina Mancha Blanca  (
    translates to "White-spotted Crystalline") 

  461. Ithomia drymo ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:405)
    AR common name: Cristalina Guion Negro  (
    translates to "Black Hyphen Crystalline")


    Genus DIRCENNA

  462. Dircenna dero  ______  (DV1:35)
    Dircenna dero rheo  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Dircenna dero celtina  ______  ARne  (MM:409) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DERO CLEARWING
    AR common name: Celtina 
    (In mythology, Celtina had a baby with Hercules called Celto, that gave rise to the Celts) 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)


    Genus EPITYCHES

  463. Epityches eupompe  ______  BRse



    Genus EPISCADA: 
    15 to 18 species of mostly clearwinged butterflies, with 1 or 2 with orange-brown and yellow colored opaque qualities.

  464. Episcada carcinia ______ (DA:89)
    (Range: southern Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, & Uruguay)

  465. Episcada hymenaea hymenaea  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:410)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Cristalina  (
    translates to "Crystalline")

  466. Episcada clausina striposis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  467. Episcada philoclea  ______  BRse


    Genus GRETA 

  468. Greta polissena ______ (DV1:36)
    POLISSENA CLEARWING
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil)  


    Genus NAPEOGENES

  469. Napeogenes rhezia yanetta  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus OLERIA

  470. Oleria aquata  ______  BRse


    Genus PLACIDINA

  471. Placidina euryanassa  ______  BRse


    Genus PTERONYMIA

  472. Pteronymia euritea  ______  BRse

  473. Pteronymia sylvo  ______  BRse


    Genus PSEUDOSCADA

  474. Pseudoscada erruca  ______  BRse


    Genus SCADA

  475. Scada karschina karschina  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Subfamily MORPHIDAE: 
    there are about 150 species of this grouping in tropical Central & South America

    Genus MORPHO: 
    about 80 showy species. These Central & South American species have always drawn much attention, as the large, obvious males are a very bright metallic blue.   

       
  476. Morpho achilles achilles  (ph) (*)  ______  ARne  BRam  BRse(*)  (MM:355)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina & southern Brazil) 
    ACHILLES MORPHO 
    (also called Blue-banded Morpho, or Banded Blue Morpho)
    AR common name: Pora 
    (this name is a Guarani word meaning "beautiful".)
    BR common name: Capitao do mato
    (Range: in nearly all of Neotropical South America)



    Morpho achilles, photographed during the FONT tour in Brazil in March 2009.
    (photo by Patricia Yoder)



    Another photo of Morpho achilles, taken during the FONT tour in southeast Brazil in August 2009.
    This time with a mango on which it had been feasting.


  477. Morpho aega aega  ______  ARne(*)  BRse  (MM:356)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    AEGA MORPHO 
    (another name is BLUE SILK)
    AR common name: Vera   
    BR common names: Seda Azul, Corcovado, Telao de Seda, Azulao
    (Range: in Brazil, Argentina, & Paraguay)

  478. Morpho epistrophus epistrophus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)  
    Morpho epistrophus argentina  ______ ARne  (MM:357) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    EPISTROPHUS WHITE MORPHO

    A
    R common name: Moroti  (this name: is a Guarani word meaning "white".)   

  479. Morpho helenor  (ph)  ______ 
    Morpho helenor achillaena  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Morpho helenor violacea  (ph) (*)  ______  BRse(*) 
    (subspecies in southern Brazil)
    COMMON MORPHO  (also called HELENOR MORPHO)
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)   



    A Helenor, or Common Morpho photographed during a FONT tour in Brazil in May 2011
    (photo by Patricia Yoder)

  480. Morpho anaxiba  ______  BRse

  481. Morpho athena  ______  BRse  (species described in 1966)

  482. Morpho hercules  ______  BRse

  483. Morpho menelaus coeruleus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  484. Morpho portis portis  ______  BRe  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus ANTIRRHEA

  485. Antirrhea archaea  ______  BRse


    Genus BLEPOLENIS

  486. Blepolenis batea batea  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Subfamily BRASSOLIDAE

    Genus BRASSOLIS  (this genus & others that follow here:  "The OWLS")

  487. Brassolis astyra astyra  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  488. Brassolis sophorae vulpeculus  ______  ARne  (MM:360)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Zorra  ("Fox")  (derived from the scientific name of the subspecies, vulpeculus)
    BR common name: Borboleta do Coqueiro 


    Genus DYNASTOR: 
    3 magnificent species

     
  489. Dynastor darius stygianus  ______  (DV1:41)  (subspecies from Guatemala to Ecuador)
    Dynastor darius ictericus  ______  ARne  (MM:361) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DARING OWL-BUTTERFLY
    AR common name: Dario 
    (derived from the scientific name, darius)
    (Range: Mexico to the Amazon Basin)  


    Genus DASYOPHTHALMA:  3 species in central & southern Brazil

  490. Dasyophthalma creusa creusa  ______  BRse  (DA:140)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    (Range: central & southern Brazil, maybe adjacent Paraguay)

    Dasyopthhalma creusa can only be encountered in the first few months of the year, in the deepest forest. It is one of the most commonly taken butterflies on baits. Moth collectors have reported it coming to bait even at night.  

  491. Dasyophthalma delanira  ______  BRse

    Dasyophthalma delanira
    is an endangered species.

  492. Dasyophthalma rusina principesa  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus NAROPE

  493. Narope cyllene ______ ARne  (MM:358)
    AR common name: Cilenia  (the Cilenos, in mythology, were the inhabitants of Mount Cilene.)

  494. Narope cyllastros  ______  BRse


    Genus OPOPTERA

  495. Opoptera syme  ______  BRse


    Genus OPSIPHANES: 
    13 species, all with stout bodies, and thick scaled wings. Occur from Mexico to Paraguay (& in Trinidad). The male wingshape reminiscent of the Afrotropical CHARAXES. The behavior is much like that of other BRASSOLIDS. Most of the species in this genus strongly resemble each other. Most of these species are not common.  

  496. Opsiphanes invirae  ______  (DV1:42) 
    Opisphanes invirae pseudophilon  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Opsiphanes invirae amplificatus ______ ARne  (MM:359) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    LOWLAND OWL-BUTTERFLY 
    AR common name: Fantasma  (
    translates to "Ghost")
    (Range: Honduras to northern Argentina)  

  497. Opsiphanes cassiae crameri  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  498. Opisiphanes quitera meridionalis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus CATOBLEPIA

  499. Catoblepia amphirhoe  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:363)
    AR common name: Fantasma Grande  (translates to "Big Ghost")


    Genus ERYPHANIS:  6 species with "owl eyes" in Central & South America. Breeds on bamboo.

  500. Eryphanis reevesii  ______ ARne  (MM:366)
    Eryphanis reevesii reevesii  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    AR common name: Sombra Azul  (
    translates to "Blue Shadow")

  501. Eryphanis automedom amphimedom  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus CALIGO: 
    20 to 30 species of among the largest and most striking butterflies in the world. The species in this genus can usually be distinguished from each other by the pattern and coloration of the upper wings

    Butterflies in the genus CALIGO avoid bright sunlight. They often fly in the late afternoon and at dusk. They are attracted to fermenting fruit.   

  502. Caligo eurilochus  ______  BRam  
    FOREST GIANT-OWL
    (Range: from Mexico to the Amazon basin) 

  503. Caligo brasiliensis  (ph)  ______  BRse
    Caligo brasiliensis brasiliensis  ______  ARne  (DA:1430 (DV1:45)  (MM:367) 
    (subspecies in Brazil)
    BRAZILIAN OWL
    (or ALMOND-EYED OWL)  
    AR common name: Lechucita de Brazil  ("Brazilian Little Owl") 

    (Range: Guatemala to northern Argentina) 



    An Owl Butterfly in Brazil

  504. Caligo illioneus  ______  (DA:text) (DV1:46)
    Caligo illioneus illioneus  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    Caligo illioneus pampeiro ______ ARne  (MM:368) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    DUSKY OWL-BUTTERFLY
    AR common name: Lechucita  (
    translates to "Little Owl")
    (Range: Costa Rica to northern Argentina)

  505. Caligo arisbe fulgens  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Subfamily SATYRINAE: SATYRS
    a large group represented strongly in Central & South America


    Genus ARCHEUPTYCHIA  (genus created in 1964)

  506. Archeuptychia cluena  ______  BRse


    Genus CAPRONNIERIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  507. Capronnieria galesus  ______  BRse


    Genus CHLOREUPTYCHIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  508. Chloreuptychia arnaca  ______  BRse


    Genus ETEONA

  509. Eteona tisiphone  ______  BRse


    Genus EUPTYCHIA

  510. Euptychia mollina  ______  BRse


    Genus FORSTERINARIA 
    (genus created in 1973)

  511. Forsterinaria necys  ______  BRse

  512. Forsterinaria quantius  ______  BRse

  513. Forsterinaria stelligera  ______  BRse


    Genus GODARTIANA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  514. Godartiana byses  ______  BRse 


    Genus HERMEUPTYCHIA

  515. Hermeuptychia hermes ______ ARne  BRse  (D1:41: Cissia hermes) (MM:385)  
    HERMES SATYR
    AR common name: Hermes

    The Hermes Satyr is closely related to the Carolina Satyr, of North America, Hermeuptychia sosybius  (K:231) (PE:28) 


    Genus MAGNEUPTYCHIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  516. Magneuptychia libye  ______  BRse  (species described by Linnaeus in 1767, in a different genus) 


    Genus MANATARIA

  517. Manataria maculata ______ (D1:47)
    WHITE-SPOTTED SATYR
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  518. Manataria hercyna hercyna ______ ARne  (MM:369)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Franja Crema  (
    translates to "Cream Band")


    Genus MONEUPTYCHIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  519. Moneupychia griseldis  ______  BRse

  520. Moneupychia paeon  ______  BRse

  521. Moneupychia soter  ______  BRse


    Genus PARYPHTHIMOIDES 
    (genus created in 1964)

  522. Paryphthimoides phronius  ______  BRse

  523. Paryphthimoides poltys  ______  BRse


    Genus PHARNEUPYTCHIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  524. Pharneupytchia innocentia  ______  BRse


    Genus PIERELLA

  525. Pierella lamia lamia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  526. Pierella nereis  ______  BRse


    Genus PRAEPEDALIODES 
    (genus created in 1964)

  527. Praepedaliodes phanias  ______  BRse


    Genus SPLENDEUPTYCHIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  528. Splendeuptychia ambra  ______  BRse

  529. Splendeuptychia doxes  ______  BRse

  530. Splendeuptychia hygina  ______  BRse

  531. A yet undescribed species of Splendeuptychia has been found in southeast Brazil.      


    Genus TAYGETIS: 
    About 27 species of browns in Central & South America. With brown or gray upperparts, and with false eyes on the underside. Mostly, they prefer shaded rainforest understory.  

  532. Taygetis mermeria ______ (D1:47)
    GREAT SATYR
    (Range: Mexico to Bolivia & Brazil) 

  533. Taygetis virgilia ______  BRse  (D1:47)
    STUB-TAILED SATYR 
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil) 

  534. Taygetis celia ______ (D1:47)
    (Range: Nicaragua to Bolivia & Brazil) 

  535. Taygetis kerea ______ (D1:47)
    (Range: Guatemala to Paraguay)

  536. Taygetis andromeda ______ (D1:48)
    (Range: Mexico thru Central & South America)

  537. Taygetis sylvia ______ ARne  (MM:370)
    SYLVIA'S SATYR
    AR common name: Silvia 
    (referring to the scientific name, sylvia)

  538. Taygetis rufomarginata ______ ARne  (MM:371)
    RUSTY-MARGINED SATYR
    AR common name: Rojiza  (
    translates to "Reddish")

  539. Taygetis acuta ______ ARne  (MM:372)
    AR common name: Puntiguda  (
    translates to "Pointed")

  540. Taygetis ypthima ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:373)
    AR common name: Ganchuda  (
    translates to "Hook-shaped")

  541. Taygetis laches marginata ______ ARne  BRse  (MM:374)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Andromeda 
    (refers to an erroneously applied scientific name)

  542. Taygetis sosis  ______  BRse


    Genus CISSIA: 
    butterflies in this genus were formerly all placed in EUPTYCHIA  
     
  543. Cissia palladia ______ (D1:48)
    PALLADIA (or BUTLER'S) SATYR
    (Range: Nicaragua to Brazil, also Trinidad)

  544. Cissia thobiei ______ ARne  (MM:392)  (may be a subspecies of Cissia myncea)
    AR common name: Cisea


    Genus PAREUPTYCHIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  545. Pareuptychia (formerly Cissia) metaleuca  ______  (D1:48)
    ONE-BANDED SATYR
    (Range: Mexico to Brazil)

  546. Pareuptychia ocirrhow interjecta  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil, described in 1952)


    Genus YPHTHIMOIDES  (genus created in 1964)

  547. Yphthimoides borasta  ______  BRse

  548. Yphthimoides maepius maepius  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus ZISCHKAIA 
    (genus created in 1964)

  549. Zischkaia pronophila  ______  BRse  
      


    Family HESPERIIDAE: SKIPPERS 

    A very large family (3,000 species throughout the world) of stout-bodied short-winged butterflies that resemble day-flying moths. The adult butterfly's flight resembles a 'skipping' motion when going from flower to flower. Their forewings are closed above their back when they are settled.


    Subfamily EUDAMINAE


    Genus PHOCIDES


  550. Phocides pigmalion  ______  (K:267) (PE:30) 
    Phocides pigmalion hewitsonius  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:37)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    MANGROVE SKIPPER
    AR common name: Saltain de Hewitson  ("Hewitson's Skipper")  
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, also Florida & West Indies) 

  551. Phocides palemon (formerly polybius) ______ (C:253) (K:267) (PE:30) (S:42)
    GUAVA SKIPPER

    Phocides palemon has a striking plumage. It feeds on Guava and related species. 

  552. Phocides pialia pialia  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Phocides pialia maximus  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  553. Phocides charon ______ ARne  (MM:38)
    AR common name: Charon

  554. Phocides polybius polybias  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)  
    Phocides polybius phanius  ______ ARne  (MM:39) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Phanias


    Genus PHANUS

  555. Phanus australis  ______  BRse  (species described in 1965)

  556. Phanus vitreus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:40)
    AR common name: Vitrea


    Genus POLYTHRIX

  557. Polythrix octomaculata  ______  (K:271) (PE:30)
    Polythrix octomaculata octomaculata  ______  ARne  (MM:47)  
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    EIGHT-SPOTTED LONGTAIL
    (or Polythrix)
    AR common name: Tuju  (a Guarani word, referring to the brown coloration of the butterfly, allowing it to be camouflaged when it rests on mud) 
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, also Haiti) 

  558. Polythrix caunus  ______  BRse


    Genus PROTEIDES


  559. Proteides mercurius  (ph)  ______  BRse  (K:273) (PE:30)
    Proteides mercurius mercurius  ______  ARne  (MM:41) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina) 
    MERCURIAL SKIPPER
    AR common name: Mercurio
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, and West Indies. Strays north to southern US.) 


    Genus EPARGYREUS

  560. Epargyreus socus socus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 

  561. Epargyreus clavicornis clavicornis  ______  ARne  (MM:42)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    SMALL-SPOTTED SILVERDROP
    AR common name: Saltarin Coloso  (
    translates to "Colossus Skipper")

  562. Epargyreus edxadeus ______ (K:273) (PE:text) 
    BROKEN SILVERDROP 
    (or Exadeus Skipper)
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)


    Genus POLYGONUS  

  563. Polygonus leo  ______  (K:267) (PE:30) 
    Polygonus leo leo  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:43) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    HAMMOCK SKIPPER
    AR common name: Leo
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, also Florida & West Indies)

  564. Polygonus manueli manueli  ______  ARne  (MM:44) (PE:text)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MANUEL'S SKIPPER
    AR common name: Manuel
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, and West Indies)

  565. Polygonus savigny savigny  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus CHIOIDES

  566. Chioides catillus ______ (C:377) (K:271) (PE:30) 
    Chioides catillus catillus  ______  BRse
      (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    WHITE-STRIPED LONGTAIL
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, and West Indies (Jamaica)) 


    Genus AGUNA 

  567. Aguna asander  ______  (K:273) (PE:30) 
    Aguna asander asander  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:45)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    GOLD-SPOTTED AGUNA
    AR common name: Asander
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, and West Indies)

  568. Aguna metophis ______ (K:273) (PE:30) 
    TAILED AGUNA
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

  569. Aguna williamsi  ______  ARne  (MM:46)
    WILLIAM'S LONGTAIL 
    AR common name: Coludo de Williams


    Genus ANASTRUS

  570. Anastrus ulpianus  ______  BRse


    Genus TYPHEDANUS 

  571. Typhedanus undulatus ______  BRse  (K:271) (PE:30) 
    MOTTLED LONGTAIL
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)


    Genus CODATRACTUS

  572. Codatractus aminias  ______  ARne  (MM:48)
    AR common name: Jetapa 
    (a Guarrani word, meaning "scissors", referring to the tails) 


    Genus URBANUS: LONG-TAILED SKIPPERS

  573. Urbanus proteus  (ph)  ______   (K:269) (PE:30) (S:36)  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758) 
    Urbanus proteus proteus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:49) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    (COMMON) LONG-TAILED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Coludo Verdoso  (
    translates to "greenish-tailed")
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, also Florida & West Indies)



    Above & below: the Common Long-tailed Skipper.
    The lower photo is the nominate subspecies, Urbanus proteus proteus
    (upper photo by Rise Hill; lower photo by Jorge Bizarro)




  574. Urbanus pronus ______ (PE:text)
    PRONUS LONGTAIL
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

  575. Urbanus esmeraldus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:50) (PE:text)
    ESMERALDA LONGTAIL  
    AR common name: Coludo Esmeralda  (
    translates to "Emerald Longtail")
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)

  576. Urbanus dorantes  (ph)  ______  (K:269) (PE:30) 
    Urbanus dorantes dorantes  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:51) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    DORANTES LONGTAIL 
    (or Skipper)
    AR common name: Coludo Manchas Doradas  (translates to "Lilac-banded Longtail") 
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, also Florida & West Indies)



    A Dorantes Longtail photographed during a FONT tour 
    (photo by Rise Hill)

  577. Urbanus teleus  ______  ARne  BRse  (K:269) (MM:53) (PE:30)
    TELEUS LONGTAIL
    AR common name: Coludo Linea Blanca 
    (referring to the white line on the forewing and tail) 
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina)

  578. Urbanus simplicius  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:52) (PE:text)
    PLAIN LONGTAIL
    AR common name: Coludo Simple  (
    translates to "Simple Longtail")
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)



    A Plain Longtail photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Rise Hill)


  579. Urbanus procne ______  BRse  (K:269) (PE:30)
    BROWN LONGTAIL
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, strays elsewhere in the southwest US)

  580. Urbanus doryssus albicuspis  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:54) (PE:30)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)  
    WHITE-TAILED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Punta Blancas  (
    translates to "White Tips")
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina)

  581. Urbanus belli  ______  BRse

  582. Urbanus esta  ______  BRse  (species described in 1952)


    Genus ASTRAPTES: FLASHERS

  583. Astraptes fulgerator  (ph)  ______  (K:279) (PE:30)
    Astraptes fulgerator fulgerator  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:55) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    TWO-BARRED FLASHER 
    (or Flashing Astraptes)
    AR common name: Relampagueante  (meaning "he who throws out light", referring to the bright blue coloration)
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina)



    The Two-barred Flasher, Astraptes fulgerator
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)

  584. Astraptes alardus  ______  (K:279) (PE:text)
    Astraptes alardus alardus  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)   
    FROSTED
    (or WHITE) FLASHER
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, also Cuba, rarely north to southern Texas)

  585. Astraptes anaphus  ______  (K:279) (PE:text) 
    Astraptes anaphus anaphus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:59) 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    YELLOW-TIPPED
    (or YELLOW) FLASHER
    AR common name: Cola Amarilla  (translates to "Yellow Tail")
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, rarely north to southern Texas)

  586. Astraptes naxus  ______  BRse

  587. Astraptes talus  ______  BRse

  588. Astraptes fulviluna  ______  ARne  (MM:56)
    AR common name: Brillante  (translates to "Flashy")

  589. Astraptes creteus siges  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:57)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    WHITENED FLASHER
    AR common name: Mancha de Tiza  (
    translates to "Chalk Spot")  

  590. Astraptes elorus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:58)  
    AR common name: Elorus


    Genus AUTOCHTON

  591. Autochton bipunctatus  ______  BRse

  592. Autochton longipennis  ______  BRse

  593. Autochton neis  ______  BRse

  594. Autochton reflexus  ______  BRse

  595. Autochton sulfureolus  ______  BRse

  596. Autochton zarex  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:60)
    SHARP BANDED-SKIPPER
    AR common name: Saltarin Franja Blanca  (
    translates to "White-banded Skipper")


    Genus SARMIENTOLA

  597. Sarmientoia haywardi  ______  ARne  (MM:61)  (species described in 1967)
    AR common name: Dormilona Zigzag  (
    translates to "Zigzag Sleepyhead")


  598. Sarmientola phaselis  ______  BRse


    Genus NASCUS

  599. Nascus phocus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:62)
    AR common name: Foco 
    (from the scientific name)


    Genus BUNGALOTIS

  600. Bungalotis astylos  ______  BRse

  601. Bungalotis midax  ______  BRse


    Genus CELAENORRHINUS

  602. Calaenorrhinus similis  ______  BRse 
    Calaenorrhinus similis similis  ______  ARne  (MM:63) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name:  Terca  (meaning "obstinate", referring to the "obstinate habit" of always resting in the same places that are used to sunbathe)


    Genus TELEMIADES:  the FLATS

  603. Telemiades laogonus laogonus  ______  ARne  (MM:64)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Laogono  (from the scientific name)

  604. Telemiades amphion marpesus  ______  ARne  (MM:65)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Anfion    


    Genus DYSCOPHELLUS

  605. Dyscophellus euribates ______ (PE:text)
    EURIBATES SKIPPER
    (Range: Costa Rica to Brazil, rarely north to Texas)

  606. Dyscophellus ramusis damias  ______  BRse


    Genus SPATHILEPIA 

  607. Spathilepia clonius  ______  BRse  (K:277) (PE:31)
    FALCATE SKIPPER
    (Range: south Texas & Mexico to Argentina) 


    Genus COGIA 

  608. Cogia calchas  ______  BRse  (K:265) (PE:31)
    MIMOSA
    (or CALCHAS) SKIPPER
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina)

  609. Cogia hippalus______ (K:259) (PE: text)
    ACACIA SKIPPER 
    (Range: southwest US to Brazil) 


    Genus RIDENS

  610. Ridens fulima  ______  BRse


    Genus SALATIS

  611. Salatis salatis  ______  BRse


    Subfamily PYRGINAE 


    Genus PYRRHOPYGE

  612. Pyrrhopyge thericles rileyi  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  613. Pyrrhopyge charybdis charybdis  _____  ARne  (MM:32)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Diablito  (translates to "Little Devil")
    BR common name: Diabinho

  614. Pyrrhopyge pelota  ______  ARne  (MM:33)
    AR common name: Monsenor  (
    translates to "Monsignor")


    translates to "Monsignor")


    Genus ELBELLA  (genus created in 1951)

  615. Elbella intersecta losca  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus MIMONIADES

  616. Mimoniades montana  ______  BRse

  617. Mimoniades ocyalus  ______  BRse

  618. Mimoniades versicolor versicolor  ______  BRse


    Genus MYSORIA

  619. Mysoria barcastus barta  ______  ARne  (MM:34)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Obispo  (translates to "Bishop")


    Genus MYSCELUS

  620. Myscelus epimachia epimachia  (ph)  ______  BRse
    EPIMACHIA GLORY



    The Epimachia Glory, or Myscelus epimachia
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  621. Myscelus santhilarius  ______  BRse

  622. Myscelus amystis epigona  ______  ARne  (MM:35)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Epigono
    BR common name: Leque  (
    translates to "Fan")   


    Genus GRANILLA

  623. Granilla paseas paseas  ______  ARne  (MM:36)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Paseas 


    Genus POLYCTOR

  624. Polyctor polyctor polyctor  (ph)  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    POLYCTOR TUFTED SKIPPER 



    The Polyctor Tufted Skipper. Polyctor polyctor
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus CYCLOGLYPHA

  625. Cycloglypha enega  ______  BRse

  626. Cycloglypha thrasibulus thrasibulus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  627. Cycloglypha tisias  ______  BRse


    Genus DIACUS

  628. Diacus lacaena  ______  BRse


    Genus NISONIADES

  629. Nisoniades rubescens ______ (K:275) (PE:text)
    PURPLISH-BLACK SKIPPER
    (Range: north Mexico to Brazil) 

  630. Nisoniades bipuncta  ______  BRse

  631. Nisoniades macarius  ______  ARne  (MM:66)
    MACARIUS TUFTED-SKIPPER 
    AR common name: Macario



    Genus NARCOSIUS

  632. Narcosius colossus granadensis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus NOCTUANA

  633. Noctuana diurna  ______  BRse


    Genus OECHYDRUS

  634. Oechydrus chersis evelinda  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus PACHYNEURIA

  635. Pachyneuria inops  ______  BRse


    Genus PELLICIA 

  636. Pellicia dimidiata ______ (PE:text)
    MORNING GLORY TUFTED-SKIPPER 
    (or MORNING GLORY PELLICIA)
    (Range: north Mexico to Argentina)

  637. Pellicia costimacula costimacula  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  638. Pellicia vecina vecina  ______  ARne  (MM:67)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Vecina


    Genus VIOLA

  639. Viola violella  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:68)  
    AR common name: Manchadita  (
    translates to "Little Spotted")


    Genus BOLLA

  640. Bolla catharina  ______  BRse

  641. Bolla atahualpai  ______  ARne  (MM:69)
    ATAHUALLPAI SOOTYWING
    AR common name: Atahualpa
    (Range: Panama to Argentina) 









    Genus SOSTRATA

  642. Sostrata bifasciata bifasciata  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:81) (PE:text)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    METAL-STUDDED SKIPPER 
    (another names is BLUE-STUDDED SKIPPER
    (another names is BLUE-STUDDED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Saltarin Lavanda  (translates to "Lavander Skipper")  
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, rare stray to far-southern Texas)



    Genus STAPHYLUS

  643. Staphylus ascalon  ______  ARne  (MM:70)
    AR common name: Ascalonita

  644. Staphylus melaina  ______  ARne  (MM:71)
    AR common name: Oscura  (
    translates to "Dark")

  645. Staphylus incisus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:72)
    AR common name: Saltarin Ocraceo  (
    translates to "Ochraceus Skipper")  


    Genus THEAGENES

  646. Theagenes dichrous  ______  BRse


    Genus TRINA

  647. Trina geometrina geometrina  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:73)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Geometrica  (
    translates to "Geometrical") 


    Genus GORGOPAS

  648. Gorgopas petale  ______  BRse


    Genus GORGYTHION

     
  649. Gorgythion begga begga  ______  ARne  BRse  (K:275) (MM:74) (PE:text)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    VARIEGATED
    (or BEGGA) SKIPPER
    AR common name: Beggina
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, strays to far-southern Texas)

  650. Gorgythion beggina escalophoides  ______  ARne  (MM:75)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BEGGINA SKIPPER
    AR common name: Beggina


    Genus OULEUS

  651. Ouleus fridericus riona  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:76)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Kamba 
    (a Guarani word meaning "a dark-skinned person")


    Genus ZERA

  652. Zera zera zera  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  653. Zera tetrastigma erisichthon  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)   

  654. Zera hyacinthinus servius  ______  ARne  (MM:77)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    BRUISED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Jacinto  


    Genus QUADRUS

  655. Quadrus cerialis  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:78)
    COMMON BLUE-SKIPPER
    AR common name: Saltarin de Ceres  ("Ceres' Skipper")   


    Genus PYRDALUS

  656. Pyrdalus corbulo corbulo  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus PYTHONIDES

  657. Pythonides jovianus fabricii  ______  BRse

  658. Pythonides lancea  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:79)
    AR common name: Lanza 
    (translates to  "Lance"


    Genus MILANION

  659. Milanion leucaspis  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:80)
    AR common name: Escudo Blanco  (
    translates to "White Shield") 


    Genus MYLON

  660. Mylon pelopidas  ______  BRse

  661. Mylon menippus  ______  ARne  (MM:82)
    AR common name: Menipo



    Genus CARRHENES

  662. Carrhenes canescens pallida  ______  ARne  (K:295) (MM:83) (PE:31)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    HOARY SKIPPER
    AR common name: Encanecida
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina)


    Genus XENOPHANES 

  663. Xenophanes tryxus  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (K:295) (MM:84) (PE:32)
    GLASSY-WINGED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Jenofanes
    (Range: north Mexico to Argentina, periodically in far-south Texas)



    The Glassy-winged Skipper, Xenophanes tryxus
    (photo by Sherry Nelson)



    Genus ANTIGONUS

  664. Antigonus erosus  ______  BRse

  665. Antigonus liborius areta  ______  ARne  (MM:85)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Areta


    Genus AETHILLA

  666. Aethilla eschina coracina  ______  ARne  (MM:86)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Coracina  (a word meaning "a small reinforcement covering the heart on the left-side of an armor")  


    Genus ANISOCHORIA

  667. Anisochoria pedaliodina polysticta  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  668. Anisochoria sublimbata  ______  ARne  (MM:87)
    AR common name: Ala Cortada  (
    translates to "Cut Wing")  (referring to shape of the forewing apex)   


    Genus ACHLYODES

  669. Achlyodes thraso (formerly mithridates) ______ (C:251) (K:275) (PE:31)
    SICKLE-WINGED SKIPPER
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, also West Indies)

  670. Achlyodes busirur rioja  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:88)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Busiris

  671. Achlyodes mithridates thraso  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:89)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Saltarin Gancho  (
    translates to "Hooked Skipper") (referring to the shape of the forewing apex)


    Genus GRAIS

  672. Grais stigmaticus stigmaticus  ______  ARne  (K:277) (MM:90) (PE:32)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    HERMIT SKIPPER
    AR common name: Ermitano  (
    translates to "Hermit") 
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, periodic stray into North America - Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas)  


    Genus TIMOCHARES

  673. Timochares trifascita trifasciata  ______  ARne  (MM:91)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    MANY-BANDED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Tres Franjas  (
    translates to "Three Bands")


    Genus EBRIETAS

  674. Ebrietas infanda  ______  BRse

  675. Ebrietas anacreon anacreon  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:92)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Anacreonte


    Genus HELIAS

  676. Helias phalaenoides phalaenoides  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Helias phalaenoides palpalis  ______  ARne  (MM:93) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Falsa Polilla  ("False Moth")
    (the scientific name "phalaenoides" means "like a moth") 


    Genus CHIOMARA

  677. Chiomara asychis  ______  (K:295) (PE:32)
    WHITE-PATCHED
    (or Asychis) SKIPPER
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, also West Indies)

  678. Chiomara mithrax  ______  BRse


    Genus GESTA

  679. Gesta (previously Erynnis) gesta ______  BRse  (K:287) (PE:32)
    IMPOSTOR DUSKYWING
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, also West Indies)

     
    Genus ERYNNIS: TRUE DUSKYWINGS

  680. Erynnis funeralis  (ph)  ______  ARne  (K:281) (MM:94) (PE:32)
    FUNEREAL DUSKYWING
    AR common name: Saltarin Funebre
    (Range: southwest US to Argentina, wanders further north)



    A Funereal Duskywing photographed during a FONT tour
    (photo by Rosemary Lloyd)



    Genus PYRGUS: CHECKERED SKIPPERS

     
  681. Pyrgus orcynoides  ______  
    (Range: Argentina)

  682. Pyrgus orcas  (ph)  ______  ARse  BRse  (MM:96)   
    ORCAS CHECKERED-SKIPPER
    AR common name: Cuadriculada de Pluton  ("Pluto's Checkered Skipper")
    (Range: southern US to Argentina)

    The Orcas Checkered Skipper was a subspecies of the now more-northerly Tropical Checkered Skipper.



    Above & below: Orcas Checkered Skippers
    photographed during a FONT tour
    Above: a male; below: a female
    (photos by Rise Hill)





    Genera HELIOPYRGUS & HELIOPETES: LARGE WHITE SKIPPERS

  683. Heliopyrgus americanus bellatrix  ______  ARne  (MM:95)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Cuadriculada Belicosa  (translates to "Checkered Warrior")

  684. Heliopyrgus (formerly Heliopetes) domicella ______ (K:293) (PE:33)
    ERICHSON'S WHITE-SKIPPER
    (Range: northern Mexico to Argentina, strays into US) 

  685. Heliopetes laviana libra  ______  ARne  (K:293) (MM:98) (PE:33)
    LAVIANA WHITE-SKIPPER
    AR common name: Libra
    (Range: south Texas to Argentina, strays into Arizona & cent Texas)

  686. Heliopetes macaira ______ (K:293) (PE:33)
    TURK'S-CAP WHITE-SKIPPER 
    (or Macaira Skipper)
    (Range: south Texas to Paraguay)

  687. Heliopetes arsalte  (ph)  ______  BRse  (species described by Linnaeus in 1758)
    Heliopetes arsalte arsalte  ______  ARne  (MM:97) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    VEINED WHITE-SKIPPER 
    AR common name:  Arsalte  ("Arsalte Skipper") 



    The Veined White-Skipper, Heliopetes arsalte
    (photo by Jorge Bizarro)

  688. Heliopetes alana  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:99)
    ALANA WHITE-SKIPPER
    AR common name: Alano

  689. Heliopetes randa  ______  ARne  (MM:100)
    AR common name:  Randa  (
    translates to "Lace Trimming")  

  690. Heliopetes omrina  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:101)
    STAINED WHITE-SKIPPER
    AR common name: Omrina



    Subfamily HESPERIINAE: BRANDED SKIPPERS

    This group is comprised of more than 2,000 species worldwide. 


    Genus ARITA  (genus created in 1955)  

  691. Arita epictetus  ______  BRse


    Genus CALLIMORMUS

  692. Callimormus corades  ______  BRse


    Genus CARYSTOIDES

  693. Carystoides basoches  ______  BRse

  694. Carystoides noseda  ______  BRse


    Genus CARYSTUS

  695. Carystus phorcus claudianus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus COBALOPUS

  696. Cobalopus miaba  ______  BRse


    Genus COBALUS

  697. Cobalus virbius hersilia  ______  BRse


    Genus CYMAENES

     
  698. Cymaenes tripunctus theogenus  ______  BRse  (K:309) (PE:34)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    THREE-SPOTTED SKIPPER
    (Range: central Mexico to Paraguay, also south Florida & West Indies) 

  699. Cymaenes odilia ______ (K:309) (PE:34)
    FAWN-SPOTTED SKIPPER 
    (Range: north Mexico to Argentina, rarely strays to south Texas)

  700. Cymaenes uruba uruba  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  701. There is another yet unidentified species of Cymaenes in southeast Brazil. 


    Genus CYNEA 
    (genus created in 1955)

  702. Cynea bistrigula  ______  BRse

  703. Cynea diluta  ______  BRse

  704. Cynea trimaculata  ______  BRse   


    Genus SYNAPTE

  705. Synapte malitiosa ______ (K:309) (PE:33)
    MALICIOUS (SHADY) SKIPPER
    (Range: far-southern Texas to southern Brazil & Paraguay, also Cuba) 

  706. Synapte silius  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:102)
    RAIN-FOREST FACETED-SKIPPER
    AR common name: Silius


    Genus LENTO

  707. Lento krexoides krexoides  ______  ARne  (MM:103)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Saltarin Anaranjado  (translates to "Orange Skipper")


    Genus LEVINA 
    (genus created in 1955)

  708. Levina levina  ______  BRse  


    Genus ZARIASPES

  709. Zariaspes mys  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:104) 
    MYS SKIPPER 
    AR common name: Amarillita  (
    translates to "Small Yellow")


    Genus ANTHOPTUS

  710. Anthoptus epictetus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:105)
    TRAILSIDE SKIPPER

    AR common name: Epicteto



    Genus CORTICEA

  711. Corticea corticea  ______  BRse  (K:311) (PE:33) 
    Corticea corticea noctis  ______  ARne  (MM:106) 
    (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    REDUNDANT SKIPPER
    AR common name: Manchas Amarillas  (
    translates to "Yellow Spots")
    (Range: Mexico to southern Brazil)


    Genus VINIUS

  712. Vinius pulcherrimus  ______  ARne  (MM:107)  
    AR common name: Saltarin Bello  (
    translates to "Beautiful Skipper")


    Genus VIRGA

  713. Virga austrinus  ______  ARne  (MM:108)  
    AR common name: Orias Manchadas  (
    translates to "Spotted Fringes")


    Genus LUDENS

  714. Ludens ludens  ______  ARne  (MM:109)
    LUDENS SKIPPER
    AR common name: Aranada  (
    translates to "Clawed") (referring to the yellow lines on the hindwings)
    (referring to the yellow lines on the hindwings)


    Genus SODALIA

  715. Sodalia dimassa  ______  BRse

  716. Sodalia coler  ______  ARne  (MM:110)
    AR common name: Saltarin Pardo  (
    translates to "Brown Skipper")


    Genus PARPHORUS

  717. Parphorus decora  ______  ARne  (MM:111)
    AR common name: Elegante  (
    translates to "Elegant") 


    Genus VEHILIUS

  718. Vehilius clavicula  ______  BRse

  719. Vehilius inca  ______  BRse

  720. Vehilius stictomenes stictomenes  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:112)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    PASTURE SKIPPER
    AR common name: Nervaduras Amarillas  (
    translates to "Yellow Veins")

  721. Vehilius vetula  ______  BRse

  722. There is another yet unidentified species of Vehilius in southeast Brazil. 


    Genus VETTIUS

  723. Vettius fantasos ______ (PE:text)
    FANTASTIC SKIPPER
    (Range: north Mexico to Paraguay, strays to far-southern Texas)

  724. Vettius diversa lyrcea  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)  

  725. Vettius phyllus prona  ______  BRse  (subspecies described in 1955)

  726. Vettius triangularis  ______  BRse

  727. Vettius umbrata  ______  BRse

  728. Vettius marcus marcus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:113)
    MARCUS SKIPPER
    AR common name: Marcos

  729. Vettius artona  ______  ARne  (MM:114)
    WHITE-VEINED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Grisacea  (
    translates to "Grayish")


    Genus PARACARYSTUS

  730. Paracarystus hypargyra  ______  ARne  (MM:115)
    HYPARGYRA SKIPPER
    AR common name: Hombro Naranja  (
    translates to "Orange Shoulder")


    Genus JUSTINIA

  731. Justinia kora  ______  ARne  (MM:116)
    AR common name: Kora


    Genus ENOSIS

  732. Enosis schausi  ______  BRse  (species described in 2002)


    Genus EUTYCHIDE

  733. Eutychide physcella  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:117)  
    AR common name: Saltarin Punto Blanco  (
    translates to "White Dot Skipper")


    Genus EVANSIELLA 

  734. Evansiella cordela  ______  ARne  (MM:119)
    AR common name: Saltarin Ocre  (
    translates to "Ochre Skipper")  


    Genus ARGON

  735. Argon lota (or argus)  ______  ARne  (MM:120)
    ARGON SKIPPER
    AR common name: Argos


    Genus LYCHNUCHOIDES

  736. Lychnuchoides ozias ozias  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:121)
    AR common name: Franja Ambar  (
    translates to "Amber Bend") 


    Genus LYCHNUCHUS

  737. Lychnuchus celsus  ______  BRse


    Genus METHIONOPSIS

  738. Methionopsis ina  ______  BRse


    Genus MILTOMIGES

  739. Miltomiges cinnamomea  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:118)
    AR common name: Saltarin Bermejo  (
    translates to "Reddish Skipper")


    Genus MNASITHEUS

  740. Mnasitheus ritans  ______  BRse


    Genus MOERIS

  741. Moeris striga striga  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus NAEVOLUS

  742. Naevolus orius orius  ______  BRse   (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus ONOPHAS

  743. Onophas columbaria columbaria  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus ORSES

  744. Orses itea  ______  BRse


    Genus PAPIAS

  745. Papias phainis  ______  BRse 


    Genus PERICHARES

  746. Perichares philetes adela  ______  BRse  (K:357) (PE:text)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    Perichares philetes aurina  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil) 
    GREEN-BACKED RUBY-EYE

    (Range: north Mexico to Paraguay, also West Indies, and strays to far-southern Texas)

  747. Perichares seneca seneca  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:122)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    SENECA RUBY-EYE 
    AR common name: Seneca

  748. Perichares lotus  ______  ARne  (MM:123)
    LOTUS RUBY-EYE 
    AR common name: Ojos Rojos  (
    translates to "Red Eyes") 


    Genus PHANES

  749. Phanes aletes  ______  BRse


    Genus PHERAEUS

  750. Pheraeus unia  ______  BRse


    Genus LYCAS

  751. Lycas argentea  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:124)
    SILVERED RUBY-EYE
    AR common name: Saltarin Plateado  (
    translates to "Silvery Skipper")


    Genus DECINEA

  752. Decinea dama  ______  BRse

  753. Decinea mubevensis  ______  ARne  (MM:125)
    AR common name: Perforada  (
    translates to "Perforated") (referring to the hyaline spots on the forewing)


    Genus CONGA

  754. Conga chydaea  ______  (K:311) (PE:text)
    HIDDEN-RAY
    (or CHYDEA) SKIPPER
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, as a stray to far-southern Texas)


    Genus HYLEPHILA

  755. Hylephila phylaeus phylaeus  (ph)  ______  ARne  BRse  (K:303) (MM:126) (PE:35)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    FIERY SKIPPER
    AR common name: Saltarin Leonado
    (Range: southern US to Argentina, wanders north in US)



    Fiery Skipper
    (photo by Rise Hill)



    Genus POLITIES

  756. Polites vibex catilina  ______  ARne  BRse  (K:303) (MM:127) (PE:35)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina) 
    WHIRLABOUT
    AR common name: Saltarin Dorado
    (Range: southeast US to Argentina)


    Genus WALLENGRENIA

  757. Wallengrenia otho ______ (K:327) (PE:36)
    SOUTHERN BROKEN-DASH
    (Range: southeast US to Argentina, also West Indies)

  758. Wallengrenia premnas  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:128)
    AR common name: Saltarin Mancha Roja  (
    translates to "Red Spot Skipper")


    Genus VACERRA

  759. Vacerra evansi  ______  ARne  (MM:129)
    AR common name: Saltarin de Evans  ("Evans' Skipper")


    Genus PROPERTIUS

  760. Propertius propertius  ______  ARne  (MM:130)
    AR common name: Franjas Amarillas Grande  (
    translates to "Big Yellow Bands")


    Genus ZENIS

  761. Zenis jebus jebus  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:131)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Jebuseo


    Genus TIRYNTHIA

  762. Tirynthia conflua  ______  ARne  BRe  (MM:132)
    CONFLUA SKIPPER
    AR common name: Linea Blanca  (
    translates to "White Line")


    Genus ATALOPEDES

  763. Atalopedes campestris ______ (K:303) (PE:37)
    SACHEM
    (Range: southern US to Brazil)


    Genus QUASIMELLANUS

  764. Quasimellanus (formerly Mellana) eulogius ______ (PE:46)
    MEXICAN MELLANA
    (Range: north Mexico to Paraguay, periodically strays to far-south Texas)


    Genus LERODEA

  765. Lerodea eufala ______ (K:353) (PE:39)
    Lerodea eufala eufala  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    EUFALA SKIPPER
    (Range: southern US to southern Argentina, also Cuba)


    Genus CALPODES 

  766. Calpodes ethlius  ______ (K:357) (PE:39) (S:44)
    BRAZILIAN SKIPPER

    (Range: southern US to Argentina, also West Indies)

    Calpopes ethlius is also called the CANNA SKIPPER, as it is common in gardens where Cannas are grown, on which the larva feeds.   


    Genus PANOQUINA

  767. Panoquina ocola ______ (K:355) (PE:39)
    Panoquina ocola ocola  ______  BRse 
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil)
    OCOLA SKIPPER
    (Range: southern US to Paraguay, also West Indies)

  768. Panoquina hecebola ______ (K:355) (PE:39)
    HECEBOLUS SKIPPER
    (Range: north Mexico to Paraguay, regular stray to far-southern Texas) 

  769. Panoquina sylvicola ______ (K:357) (PE:39)
    PURPLE-WASHED
    (or Sylvicola) SKIPPER
    (Range: north Mexico to Argentina, also West Indies, and regular stray to south Texas)

  770. Panoquina fusina ______ (K:357) (PE:39)
    WHITE-BARRED SKIPPER 
    (another name has been Evan's Skipper
    (Range: central Mexico to Paraguay, also Jamaica; periodic stray to far-southern Texas)

  771. Panoquina lucas lucas  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus NYCTELIUS

  772. Nyctelius nyctelius  ______  (K:357) (PE:39)
    Nyctelius nyctelius nyctelius  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:133)  
    (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    VIOLET-BANDED
    (or Nyctelius) SKIPPER  
    AR common name: Nyctelios 
    (Range: Mexico to Argentina, also West Indies)


    Genus POMPEIUS  (genus created in 1955)

  773. Pompeius amblyspila  ______  BRse

  774. Pompeius pompeius  ______  BRse


    Genus PSORALIS

  775. Psoralis stacara  ______  BRse


    Genus REMELLA

  776. Remella remus  ______  BRse


    Genus SALIANA
      (genus created in 1955)

  777. Saliana esperi esperi  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil, described in 1955)

  778. Saliana longirostris  ______  BRse

  779. Saliana mamurra  ______  BRse

  780. Saliana salius  ______  BRse

  781. Saliana salona  ______  BRse  (species described in 1955)

  782. Saliana triangularis  ______  BRse


    Genus SANIBA 
    (genus created in 2003)

  783. Saniba sabina  ______  BRse


    Genus SATURNUS

  784. Saturnus reticulata conspicuus  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus TALIDES

  785. Talides sinois  ______  BRse 


    Genus  THESPIEUS

  786. Thespieus dalmon  ______  BRse

  787. Thespieus ethemides  ______  ARne  (MM:134)
    AR common name: Tespio Punta Oscura   (
    translates to "Dark-tipped Tespio")

  788. Thespieus aspernatus  ______  ARne  (MM:135)
    ASPERNATUS SKIPPER
    AR common name: Tespio Punta Clara  (
    translates to "Light-tipped Tespio")


    Genus TISIAS

  789. Tisias lesueur lesueur  ______  BRse


    Genus NICONIADES

  790. Niconiades cydia  ______  BRse

  791. Niconiades merenda  ______  ARne  (MM:136)
    AR common name: Cuatro  (
    translates to "Four") 


    Genus VENAS 
    (genus created in 1955)

  792. Venas caerulans  ______  BRse


    Genus VERTICA 
    (genus created in 1955)

  793. Vertica verticalis verticalis  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)


    Genus XENIADES

  794. Xeniades chalestra chalestra  ______  BRse  (subspecies in southeast Brazil)

  795. Xeniades orchamus orchamus  ______  ARne  (MM:137)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    SMEAR-SPOTTED SKIPPER
    AR common name: Orchamus


    Genus THRACIDES

  796. Thracides phidon  ______  BRse

  797. Thracides cleanthes cleanthes  ______  ARne  BRse  (MM:138)  (subspecies in southeast Brazil & northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Cleanto


    Genus PYRRHOPYGOPSIS

  798. Pyrrhopygopsis socrates socrates  ______  ARne  (MM:139)  (subspecies in northeast Argentina)
    AR common name: Socrates


     



    A Moth:




    This photograph of a large moth taken during the FONT tour in southeast Brazil in August 2009. 

     

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